Coronavirus Remedies - Chloroquine and Herbal Medicines

- by Peter Myers

Date: March 27, 2020

My comments are shown {thus}; write to me at contact.html.

You are at http://mailstar.net/coronavirus-remedies.html .

My other pages on the Coronavirus are:

Coronavirus was developed in a Wuhan lab as a BioWeapon: coronavirus.html .

Helicopter money: Central Banks should directly fund government deficits: coronavirus-finance.html .

(1) Prophylacytic Dosage of Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine, from the Government of India
(2) Two common drugs, Chloroquine and Kaletra, found to kill Coronavirus; but CDC & FDA bureaucrats want to delay
(3) Australian Coronavirus patients cured with Chloroquine (Malaria drug) or Kaletra (HIV drug); no unexpected side effects
(4) Drug companies prepare to deliver tens of millions of Chloroquine tablets (a cheap and a safe drug); FDA hesitant
(5) CNN Fact Check says 'Chloroquine has not been approved by the FDA to treat the coronavirus'
(6) Kaletra (HIV drug) and Chloroquine: Australian researchers claim two existing drugs could 'cure' COVID-19
(7) FDA statement: no, these drugs are not approved as treatments for COVID-19
(8) Is it ok to use a drug that's not yet certified? Bureaucrats Fiddle while Rome burns
(9) Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) less effective than Chloroquine (CQ) in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2; thanks to Zhengli Shi
(10) Hospitals are not waiting for FDA bureaucrats: Chloroquine in short supply as hospitals buy in bulk
(11) Military personnel given Flu vaccine were significantly more susceptible to Coronavirus
(12) French Peer-Reviewed Study: Didier Raoult announces Cure for Coronavirus: HCQ + Azithromycin
(13) Economist endorses CQ HCQ & Kaletra cures for COVID-19, because 'Medicines designed to treat COVID-19 won't be on pharmacy shelves for months or even years'
(14) NYT dismisses chloroquine cure for COVID-19
(15) Olive Leaf ingredient oleuropein acts as an antiviral agent
(16) Ole and HT may be useful against other viruses ... including severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus
(17) Urology site endorses natural treatment: How Viruses Work and How to Prevent and Eliminate Them
(18) CQ and HCQ are zinc ionophores, i.e., carriers of zinc ions into the lung cell's interior; Quercetin dies the same, and it can be purchased over-the-counter
(19) Dr. Vladimir Zelenko successfully treats Hasidic Jewish patients with HCQ, no need to go to Hospital
(20) CDC knew Chloroquine effective against Coronavirus since 2005; Class Action against CDC
(21) Vladimir Zelenko's success is a setback for CDC, MSM & Big Pharma which is developing a multibillion dollar vaccination program
(22) Peer-reviewed study of 2005 attests that Chloroquine inhibits SARS CoV
(23) Herbal remedies for Coronavirus: Quercetin, Coconut oil, Cinnamon, Ginger, Sage, Rosemary
(24) Philippines study of Virgin Coconut Oil as remedy for COVID-19
(25) Nevada prohibits prescribing CQ HCQ
(26) Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity
(27) Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry
(28) Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid) found in brightly-coloured fruits & veg
(29) Ministry of Truth (Globalist MSM) brand Didier Raoult's Chloroquine cure 'Fake News'

(1) Prophylacytic Dosage of Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine, from the Government of India

To protect yourself, take Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine, and Zinc. The standard dosage to prevent Malaria: for adults, 2 x 250 mg tablets of Chloroquine Phosphate, once a week after taking food; take them on the same day each week.

The dose of Hydroxychloroquine as Prophylaxis to prevent Covid-19, from the Government of India, is:

https://www.businesstoday.in/current/economy-politics/coronavirus-outbreak-icmr-recommends-use-hydroxy-chloroquine-critical-covid-19-cases/story/399005.html

[...] For healthcare workers, a dose of 400 mg twice a day on day 1, followed by 400 mg once weekly for next 7 weeks, has been prescribed. The medicine has to be taken with meals, as per the report.

The task force has recommended a dose of 400 mg twice a day on day 1, followed by 400 mg once weekly for next 3 weeks for household contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. This has to be taken with meals.
{endquote}

https://www.expresshealthcare.in/news/advisory-on-use-of-hydroxy-chloroquine-as-prophylaxis-for-sars-cov-2-infection/417793/

Coronavirus outbreak: ICMR recommends use of hydroxy-chloroquine for critical COVID-19 cases

Hydroxy-chloroquine is recommended only for preventive treatment of healthcare workers and individuals in close contact of coronavirus patients

Chitranjan Kumar New Delhi Last Updated: March 23, 2020 | 20:40 IST

The National Taskforce for COVID-19 recommends the use of hydroxy-chloroquine for prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection for selected individuals as follows:

Eligible individuals:

o Asymptomatic healthcare workers involved in the care of suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19

o Asymptomatic household contacts of laboratory confirmed cases

Dose:

o Asymptomatic healthcare workers involved in the care of suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19: 400 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 400 mg once weekly for next 7 weeks; to be taken with meals

o Asymptomatic household contacts of laboratory confirmed cases: 400 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 400 mg once weekly for next 3 weeks; to be taken with meals

Exclusion/contraindications:

o The drug is not recommended for prophylaxis in children under 15 years of age.

o The drug is contraindicated in persons with known case of retinopathy, known hypersensitivity to hydroxychloroquine, 4-aminoquinoline compounds
{endquote}

The next best remedy may be Olive Leaf Extract - take one tablet per day.

Bitter Melon, a vegetable which tastes like quinine and contains closely-related compounds, would probably protect you.

Other herbal products which boost the immune system should help, e.g. Noni juice or powder. ==

Dr. Vladimir Zelenko successfully treats Hasidic Jewish patients with HCQ, no need to go to Hospital

https://forward.com/news/national/442285/coronavirus-hydroxychloroquine-trump-doctor/

video: https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2020/03/stunning-ny-doctor-vladimir-zelenko-finds-100-success-rate-in-350-patients-using-hydroxychloroquine-with-z-paks-video/

(2) Two common drugs, Chloroquine and Kaletra, found to kill Coronavirus; but CDC & FDA bureaucrats want to delay

Chloroquine may offer a cheap cure from Coronavirus

- by Peter Myers, March 21, 2020; update March 22, 2020.

While the FDA fiddles and Rome burns, practical researchers in China, France and Australia seem to have found cures for COVID-19 that are cheap and readily available.

Thus depriving Big Pharma of windfall profits; perhaps that it why the FDA does not sound very happy.

Chinese patients in Australia informed sceptical Australian doctors about the methods found successful in China. That's what led to the current breakthrough.

Chinese medicine uses both tradition, and a "suck it and see" approach, whereas rationalist Western researchers eschew the common touch and stick to "known facts", i.e, "Science". They are forgetting that Science is primarily inductive, not deductive.

It seems incredible that CNN, and the MSM generally, would lecture Trump for announcing the Chloroquine cure, when the FDA had not certified it for this virus. Such certification would take months, during which time millions more lives would be lost, the hospital system would break down, and the economy would suffer trillions of $ damage.

Are we expected to forget that the CDC bureaucrats bungled the testing process, allowing the virus to become established in the USA?

I found a bottle of old Chloroquine tablets, left over from years ago, and took two today, as per the standard dosage to prevent Malaria. For adults, that dosage is 2 x 250 mg tablets of Chloroquine Phosphate, once a week after taking food; you take them on the same day each week.

I also found an unopened bottle of Quinoctal tablets; these were used for locations where resistance to Chloroquine had built up. But I'll take the Chloroquine for now.

It's important for me, because my blood type is A-; blood type A is the most vulnerable to Coronavirus, and most liable to have a serious case, whereas blood type O is much less likely.

My wife arrives from San Francisco in two days, and will be in isolation for 14 days. Basically, we'll be living apart for that time. I feel that the Chloroquine has given me a fighting chance of keeping the virus at bay, should she bring it. Of course, I'll be using a mask and disposable gloves when in proximity situations.

With two common and cheap drugs, Kaletra and Chloroquine, it looks as if the Olympics can go ahead.

If you do take Chloroquine, note that it lowers your blood sugar. This can be of use to diabetics. But stick to standard doses. I grow a vegetable vine called Bitter Melon, which produces fruits like a cucumber, except that they have bumpy 'warts' on the outside. You pick them young, before the seeds inside turn red. The fruits of this vine have a bitter taste like Chloroquine, and contain a closely-related chemical. They are commonly eaten in Asian cuisine, but are also medicinal, being a remedy for Diabetes. Unfortunately, my plants are not fruiting at present, because of the dry weather, but if they were I would try them as a medicine for Coronavirus.

Big Pharma tries to scare you from self-medicating with talk of side-effects that might kill you, etc. But we can look such details up on the internet, and take our own personal conditions into account. We don't need that Accountant-called-a-"Doctor" as a middleman.

One possible side-effect of CQ and HCQ is the 'loosening up' of the retina; this is of relevance for people with eye conditions. This effect is 'rare', but may be associated with long term use (5 years), body weight and poor renal functions (kidney). Yet CQ was widely and successfully used as an anti-malarial drug for decades. Any such effect would depend on dosage and duration; the dosage I took is very low; anyway, beating the virus is my #1 priority at present.

If people distrust the Medical Profession, they have only themselves to blame. To fix their reputation, they could start by admitting that vaccines are the cause of the explosion in autism. If you haven't seen Vaxxed, download it at https://ia601601.us.archive.org/8/items/Vaxxed_20170131/Vaxxed.mp4

But first, watch this Deleted Scene, which was left out of the main film. This youtube takes less than 2 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jb2x7tJ33ls

(3) Australian Coronavirus patients cured with Chloroquine (Malaria drug) or Kaletra (HIV drug); no unexpected side effects

https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/health/health-problems/coronavirus-australia-queensland-researchers-find-cure-want-drug-trial/news-story/93e7656da0cff4fc4d2c5e51706accb5

Coronavirus Australia: Queensland researchers find 'cure', want drug trial Some patients who tested positive for coronavirus in Australia have already been treated with one of the drugs and "all did very, very well," researchers say.

Sarah McPhee

MARCH 17, 20206:26AM

A team of Australian researchers say they've found a cure for the novel coronavirus and hope to have patients enrolled in a nationwide trial by the end of the month.

University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research director Professor David Paterson told news.com.au today they have seen two drugs used to treat other conditions wipe out the virus in test tubes.

He said one of the medications, given to some of the first people to test positive for COVID-19 in Australia, had already resulted in "disappearance of the virus" and complete recovery from the infection.

Prof Paterson, who is also an infectious disease physician at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, said it wasn't a stretch to label the drugs "a treatment or a cure".

"It's a potentially effective treatment," he said.

"Patients would end up with no viable coronavirus in their system at all after the end of therapy."

The drugs are both already registered and available in Australia.

"What we want to do at the moment is a large clinical trial across Australia, looking at 50 hospitals, and what we're going to compare is one drug, versus another drug, versus the combination of the two drugs," Prof Paterson said.

Given their history, researchers have a "long experience of them being very well tolerated" and there are no unexpected side effects.

"We're not on a flat foot, we can sort of move ahead very rapidly with enrolling Australians in this trial," Prof Paterson said.

"It's the question we all have ­ we know it's coming now, what is the best way to treat it?"

Prof Paterson said positive experiences in the fight against coronavirus have already been recorded overseas, citing China and Singapore. His research team are confident they can start getting the drugs to patients in a very safe way on home soil.

"We want to give Australians the absolute best treatment rather than just someone's guesses or someone's anecdotal experiences from a few people," Prof Paterson told news.com.au.

He said they hope to be enrolling patients by the end of March.

"And that way, if we can test it in this first wave of patients, we do fully expect that there are going to be ongoing infections for months and months ahead, and therefore we'll have the best possible information to treat subsequent patients," Prof Paterson said.

"That's really our aim, to get real world experience in Australia."

He said the trouble with the data coming from China was that it wasn't really gathered "in a very controlled way", given they were the epicentre of the coronavirus outbreak at the time.

"Things were just chaotic," Prof Paterson said.

"There were these emergency hospitals being built and the system really being very, very stretched."

One of the two medications is a HIV drug, which has been superseded by "newer generation" HIV drugs, and the other is an anti-malaria drug called chloroquine which is rarely used and "kept on the shelf now" due to resistance to malaria.

He said the researchers want to study them in a "very meaningful way" against the coronavirus to "try and alleviate that anxiety of Australians".

"There have already been patients treated with these in Australia and there's been successful outcomes but it hasn't been done in a controlled or a comparative way," Prof Paterson said.

The drugs would be given orally, as tablets.

Prof Paterson said patients would be asked to participate "as soon as they're admitted" to hospital with the aim of beginning treatment "very early on in their illness".

He said the research was sparked by Chinese patients, who were first given the drug in Australia, showing their doctors information on the internet about the treatment used overseas.

"Our doctors were very, very surprised that a HIV drug could actually work against the novel coronavirus and there was a bit of scepticism," he said.

"That first wave of Chinese patients we had (in Australia), they all did very, very well when they were treated with the HIV drug.

"That's reassuring ... that we're onto something really good here." ...

(4) Drug companies prepare to deliver tens of millions of Chloroquine tablets (a cheap and a safe drug); FDA hesitant

https://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/new-commitments-mylan-and-teva-move-to-supply-tens-millions-hydroxychloroquine-tablets-to

Novartis, Mylan and Teva to supply tens of millions of chloroquine tablets to fight COVID-19

by Eric Sagonowsky | Mar 20, 2020 12:47pm

As efforts to discover new COVID-19 medicines roll on, President Donald Trump and others this week focused attention on the decades-old malaria drug chloroquine. Bayer got things rolling with an initial donation of the drug, and now Novartis, Mylan and Teva are taking steps to deliver tens of millions of tablets.

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, a more tolerable formulation, are not approved to treat COVID-19. Still, U.S. authorities and others are exploring their potential following encouraging preliminary results.

In response, Novartis has pledged a global donation of up to 130 million hydroxychloroquine tablets, pending regulatory approvals for COVID-19. Mylan is ramping up production at its West Virginia Facility with enough supplies to make 50 million tablets. Teva is donating 16 million tablets to hospitals around the U.S.

At a press conference Thursday, President Trump said the U.S. is planning to make the malaria drug available by prescription "almost immediately." Because chloroquine isn't FDA-approved to treat COVID-19, the president may have been referencing off-label use.

For his part, FDA chief Stephen Hahn stressed the need to learn more about the potential treatment. It's important to get the "right drug" to the "right patient" at the "right dosage" at the "right time," the commissioner said. The wrong dose could actually hurt a patient's condition, he added.

On Friday, NIAID director Anthony Fauci said there's no meaningful evidence to date on chloroquine and COVID-19. Any evidence so far is "anecdotal," he added. ...

The pledges from Novartis, Mylan and Teva follow Bayer's Thursday donation of 3 million tablets. Together, the commitments represent nearly 200 million chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine tablets for the global COVID-19 response.

Following preliminary reports of the drug's efficacy, shares for Indian drugmakers Cadila, Torrent and Ipca each jumped, the Economic Times reports. Those companies can also produce the medicine.

While drugmakers aim to boost availability of the med, hydroxychloroquine is already in short supply, according to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.

RELATED: Bayer donates millions of tablets of chloroquine to help in COVID-19 fight

Early studies of the medicine in COVID-19 patients have caught the attention of healthcare experts and market watchers. In France, a professor conducted a small study of the malaria drug in 24 patients with novel coronavirus infections. Of those who received the medicine, only 25% tested positive for the virus after six days, according to en24. Meanwhile, of those who didn't receive it, 90% tested positive after that timeframe. The French government now plans to run larger studies.

In a study published last month in Nature, authors wrote that "chloroquine is a cheap and a safe drug that has been used for more than 70 years and, therefore, it is potentially clinically applicable against the 2019-nCoV."

Aside from efforts to learn more about chloroquine, drugmakers and collaborators are working on new R&D programs and looking to repurpose existing medicines.

Follow these links to read more about drug and vaccine efforts underway.

(5) CNN Fact Check says 'Chloroquine has not been approved by the FDA to treat the coronavirus'

https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/19/politics/fact-check-chloroquine-trump-fda/index.html

Fact check: Trump wrongly claims FDA 'approved' drug chloroquine to treat the coronavirus

By Daniel Dale

Updated 0051 GMT (0851 HKT) March 20, 2020

Washington (CNN)

President Donald Trump claimed during a White House briefing on Thursday that the Food and Drug Administration had approved the "very powerful" drug chloroquine to treat coronavirus.

Chloroquine is used to treat malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. "It's shown very encouraging -- very, very encouraging early results. And we're going to be able to make that drug available almost immediately. And that's where the FDA has been so great. They -- they've gone through the approval process; it's been approved. And they did it -- they took it down from many, many months to immediate. So we're going to be able to make that drug available by prescription or states," Trump said.

He added: "Normally the FDA would take a long time to approve something like that, and it's -- it was approved very, very quickly and it's now approved, by prescription."

Facts First: Chloroquine has not been approved by the FDA to treat the coronavirus -- and nor has any other drug, the FDA made clear in a post-briefing statement that said "there are no FDA-approved therapeutics or drugs to treat, cure or prevent COVID-19." Because chloroquine has been approved for other purposes, doctors are legally allowed to prescribe it for the unapproved or "off-label" use of treating the coronavirus if they want. But its safety and effectiveness has not been proven with regard to the coronavirus. FDA Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn, speaking after Trump at the briefing, said that chloroquine would be tested through a "large, pragmatic clinical trial" with coronavirus patients.

The FDA said in the statement that it is working with government and academic entities that are investigating whether chloroquine can be used "to treat patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 to potentially reduce the duration of symptoms, as well as viral shedding, which can help prevent the spread of disease."

Studies are underway. Hahn emphasized that this study process is necessary even though the coronavirus situation is urgent.

"We also must ensure these products are effective; otherwise we risk treating patients with a product that might not work when they could have pursued other, more appropriate, treatments," Hahn said in the statement. ...

CNN's Jacqueline Howard, Michael Nedelman and Jamie Gumbrecht contributed to this story. ==

(6) Kaletra (HIV drug) and Chloroquine: Australian researchers claim two existing drugs could 'cure' COVID-19

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8115879/COVID-19-Australian-researchers-CURE-coronavirus.html

Have they found a cure for the coronavirus? Australian researchers claim two existing drugs could 'cure' COVID-19 after patients they tested responded 'very well' to treatment Researchers believe they've found a cure for the latest strain of coronavirus The disease has killed more than 6,500 people around the world since January Queensland researcher claims HIV and anti-malaria drugs may be the cure Currently patients cannot be cured and only supported while they recover Coronavirus symptoms: what are they and should you see a doctor?

By BRITTANY CHAIN FOR DAILY MAIL AUSTRALIA And SAM BLANCHARD SENIOR HEALTH REPORTER FOR MAILONLINE

PUBLISHED: 17:12 AEDT, 16 March 2020 | UPDATED: 18:15 AEDT, 17 March 2020

Drugs used to treat HIV and malaria could be used to tackle the coronavirus, according to scientists in Australia.

A team of infectious disease experts at the University of Queensland in Brisbane say they have seen two existing medications manage to wipe out COVID-19 infections.

Chloroquine, an anti-malarial drug, and HIV-suppressing combination lopinavir/ritonavir have both reportedly shown promising results in human tests and made the virus 'disappear' in infected patients.

The drugs are being tested as researchers and doctors around the world scramble to try and find a vaccine, cure or treatment for the deadly virus.

Around 170,000 people across the globe have now been infected with the coronavirus and over 6,500 have died.

After China managed to get a handle on its sudden outbreak other countries were blindsided by huge epidemics ­ almost 25,000 people have caught it in Italy, around 14,000 in Iran, 8,000 in Spain and more than 5,000 apiece in Germany and France.

Queensland researcher, Professor David Paterson, said he hopes to enrol people in larger scale pharmaceutical trials by the end of the month.

WHAT ARE THE DRUGS THAT COULD BE USED TO STOP THE CORONAVIRUS? CHLOROQUINE

Chloroquine is a drug which was once commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

As humans have developed an increased natural resistance to the mosquito-borne disease, the drug has been used less frequently.

Researchers now believe it may hold the key to treating COVID-19, the latest strain of coronavirus.

Common side affects include muscle problems, loss of appetite and diarrhoea.

In February 2020, Chinese medics determined the drug may be safe and effective in treating coronavirus induced pneumonia.

LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR (KALETRA)

The combined fixed dose drug has been used in the fight against HIV and AIDS since 2006.

Some of the negative side affects to the drug include diarrhoea, vomiting, feeling tired, headaches, and muscle aches.

Chinese medical researchers suggested the drug had successfully cured coronavirus patients after the December 2019 outbreak.

Requests have been submitted in China to start a clinical trial of the drug to accurately determine its effectiveness in fighting COVID-19.

Australian authorities are also hoping to test the drug on local patients.

Professor Paterson said it wouldn't be wrong to consider the drugs a possible 'treatment or cure' for the deadly respiratory infection.

He explained that when the HIV medication lopinavir/ritonavir was given to people infected with the coronavirus in Australia it led to the 'disappearance of the virus'.

He told Australian news site news.com.au: 'It's a potentially effective treatment.

'Patients would end up with no viable coronavirus in their system at all after the end of the therapy.'

Although the treatment had been effective in a smattering of cases, there hasn't been any controlled testing like what would be needed to test a new drug, Professor Paterson said.

'That first wave of Chinese patients we had (in Australia), they all did very, very well when they were treated with the HIV drug,' Professor Paterson said.

'What we want to do at the moment is a large clinical trial across Australia, looking at 50 hospitals, and what we're going to compare is one drug, versus another drug, versus the combination of the two drugs,' Professor Paterson said.

There have been around 300 confirmed cases of the coronavirus in Australia and three people have died.

Lopinavir/ritonavir, the anti-HIV drug being tested, is most commonly sold under the name Kaletra.

It is an antiviral medication which can be taken twice a day by people infected with HIV in order to reduce levels of the virus circulating in the body.

Regular use of the medication is intended to stop HIV progressing to AIDS, which is fatal, and may also reduce the risk of people transmitting the infection to others.

It is a type of drug called a protease inhibitor, which works by stopping viruses from using an enzyme called protease, which is vital for them to be able to spread.

Without protease viruses cannot make the fully-matured clones that they need to be able to infect other healthy cells, so the infection can't spread.

This ability to stop a virus from reproducing and infecting new cells is believed to be what apparently makes Kaletra an effective coronavirus treatment.

More than 170,000 people around the world have been infected with the coronavirus, and at least 6,512 have died. [...]

(7) FDA statement: no, these drugs are not approved as treatments for COVID-19

Livescience is a "Fact Checker' type website used by Rationalists to impose their viewpoint on the rest of us - Peter M.

https://www.livescience.com/chloroquine-coronavirus-treatment.html

Could the anti-malarial drug chloroquine treat COVID-19?

By Nicoletta Lanese - Staff Writer 20 March 2020

President Trump boasted the drug's promise, but it must still be put through rigorous clinical trials.

Yesterday (March 19), President Donald Trump boasted about the "very encouraging results" of two drugs called chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as treatments for the novel coronavirus, claiming that the medications have "gone through the approval process" and that "we're going to be able to make that drug available almost immediately."

But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) swiftly issued a statement to clarify that, no, these drugs are not approved as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Both drugs are approved to treat malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, but must still be assessed in clinical trials before being declared a safe and effective COVID-19 treatment. Doctors in the U.S. have wide latitude to prescribe drugs "off-label," meaning for conditions beyond their initial FDA approval.

"We understand and recognize the urgency with which we are all seeking prevention and treatment options for COVID-19. FDA staff are working expeditiously on that front," FDA commissioner Dr. Stephen M. Hahn said in the statement. "We also must ensure these products are effective; otherwise we risk treating patients with a product that might not work when they could have pursued other, more appropriate, treatments." [...]

The science behind chloroquine First developed in the 1940s, chloroquine earned FDA approval as a malaria treatment in 1949 and long stood as the go-to treatment for the disease, according to the DrugBank database.

A 2005 report published in the journal Virology first raised the possibility that chloroquine and its derivative hydroxychloroquine might be effective at treating COVID-19, Dr. Len Horovitz, an internist and pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, told Live Science. The study revealed that chloroquine could prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV virus, which caused severe acute respiratory syndrome nearly 20 years ago, in primate cells grown in culture.

Chloroquine interferes with the virus's ability to replicate in two ways. First, the drug enters compartments called endosomes within the cell membrane. Endosomes tend to be slightly acidic, but the chemical structure of the drug boosts their pH, making the compartments more basic. Many viruses, including SARS-CoV, acidify endosomes in order to breach the cell membrane, release their genetic material and begin replication; chloroquine blocks this critical step.

The drug also prevents SARS-CoV from plugging into a receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, or ACE2, on primate cells, according to the 2005 report. When the virus inserts its spike protein into the ACE2 receptor, it sets off a chemical process that alters the structure of the receptor and allows the virus to infect. An adequate dose of chloroquine appears to undermine this process, and in turn, viral replication in general, the authors noted.

"It was thought that whatever pertained to SAR-CoV-1 might apply to SARS-CoV-2," Horovitz said.

Related: 11 deadly diseases that hopped across species

Could it work? In February, a research group led by virologist Manli Wang of the Chinese Academy of Sciences put the idea to the test and found that chloroquine successfully stopped the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in cultured human cells. Preliminary reports from China, South Korea and France suggest that the treatment is at least somewhat effective in treating human patients, and some hospitals in the U.S. have begun administering the drug, according to The New York Times. In addition, the FDA is organizing a large clinical trial to formally assess the drug's effects, the Times reported.

However, due to a short supply of chloroquine in China, and the fact that an overdose can lead to acute poisoning or death in humans, Wang's team also investigated the closely related drug hydroxychloroquine. Though it shares a similar structure, hydroxychloroquine shows lower toxicity in animals than its chemical cousin and remains widely available as a treatment for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, the authors noted.

Wang's team tested hydroxychloroquine in primate cells and found that, like chloroquine, the drug prevented SARS-CoV-2 replication, according to a report published March 18 in the journal Cell Discovery. As of Feb. 23, seven clinical trials had been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry to test the drug's effectiveness against COVID-19 infection, the authors noted.

In the U.S., the University of Minnesota is studying whether taking hydroxychloroquine can protect people living with infected COVID-19 patients from catching the virus themselves, according to the Times.

Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been in short supply since earlier this month, according to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. But on March 19, the pharmaceutical company Bayer donated 3 million tablets to the federal government, and Novartis, Mylan and Teva are moving to follow suit, according to FiercePharma.

Although we won't know the results of these trials for some time, the advantage of trying out chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as COVID-19 treatments is that the drugs' safety profiles are well understood, Horovitz said. Both drugs are generally well tolerated at prescribed doses but can cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, headache and more rarely, itchiness, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). When taken in high doses over many years, the drugs can cause a rare eye condition known as retinopathy.

Both medications can interact with other drugs and doses should be adjusted to account for drug interactions. Those with psoriasis should not take either drug, the CDC notes. In their current form, the drugs are also not safe for those with heart arrhythmia, or those with impaired kidneys or liver, the Times reported.

Assuming the drugs are well tolerated in clinical trials and seem effective at treating COVID-19, the FDA will take measures to increase the nation's supply, according to Hahn.

"If clinical data suggests this product may be promising in treating COVID-19, we know there will be increased demand for it," Hahn said in the FDA statement. "We will take all steps to ensure chloroquine remains available for patients who take it to treat severe and life-threatening illnesses such as lupus."

(8) Is it ok to use a drug that's not yet certified? Bureaucrats Fiddle while Rome burns

https://techcrunch.com/2020/03/20/hydroxychloroquine-chloroquine-and-other-potential-covid-19-treatments-explained/

Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and other potential COVID-19 treatments explained

Darrell Etherington@etherington / 5:37 am AEST o March 21, 2020

During two of this week's White House briefings, President Trump referred specifically to two potential treatments that have been identified by medical researchers and clinicians, and that have undergone various degrees of investigation and testing in the ongoing fight against the global coronavirus pandemic. It's important to note upfront that regardless of what you may have heard, from Trump or any other sources, no drugs or treatments have been proven as effective for either the prevention of contracting COVID-19 or for its treatment.

That said, a number of different clinical studies are currently in progress all over the world, and in the U.S., the National Institutes of Health is looking to fill a 400-volunteer study that will provide clinical results related to use of remdesivir, an antiviral drug developed by Gilead originally as a treatment for Ebola, but it's still only in clinical trials even for treatment of that disease. This study could also add other drug candidates as additional test therapies. Meanwhile, studies in China and France have examined the effectiveness of anti-malarial drugs, including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine - including one small-scale study that suggests the positive effects of hydroxycholoroquine in reducing both the duration and symptoms of COVID-19 in combination with an antibiotic called azithromycin.

The important thing to keep in mind when considering these or any other potential treatments for the novel coronavirus, which is still relatively young, is that a lot of what we know about them so far is effectively anecdotal, and based not on the kind of scientifically rigorous controlled clinical studies that are normally used in the years-long development and certification of drugs. Instead, treatments like remdesivir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine are being deployed in the field by healthcare practitioners based on their approved use in similar (but crucially not the same) situations, like the Ebola and SARS outbreaks.

Often, they're being used under what's called "compassionate" grounds in the U.S. This effectively amounts to employing a drug that's not yet certified for general use in treatment of a patient whose condition is so severe that a doctor is willing to go to desperate lengths to try to alleviate their symptoms. This has the advantage of sidestepping typical testing and approval procedures, and requiring that the results of its use are documented, which contributes to the overall body of clinical knowledge in terms of its effects and interactions with patients and with COVID-19.

It's not a clinical study, however, and that means there are still a lot of unknowns when it comes to its use that just can't be learned or asserted based on scattered, individual instances of compassionate care treatment.

"As the Commissioner of FDA and the president mentioned yesterday, we're trying to strike a balance between making something with the potential of an effect available to the American people, at the same time that we do it under the auspices of a protocol that would give us information to determine if it's truly safe and truly effective," explained National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Dr. Anthony Fauci during a press conference on Friday. "But the information that you're referring to specifically is anecdotal, it was not done in a controlled clinical trial. So you really can't make any definitive statement about it."

During Thursday's White House coronavirus pandemic task force briefing, Trump made false claims that chloroquine was already approved by the FDA as a treatment for COVID-19 under an emergency authorization. FDA Director Dr. Stephen Hahn clarified that this and remdesivir were being considered and studied by the FDA, as was an approach that would use plasma extracted from patients who'd recovered from COVID-19, as a potential source of antibodies for others. Still, all of these are still quite far away from clinical deployment in any generally approved way.

Meanwhile, Fauci's cautions should be taken for what they are: Warnings that are primarily meant to emphasize that the reason the FDA requires clinical studies, even for drugs already tentatively approved for use in other cases, is because it has patient health and safety in mind. While chloroquine has been used for decades to treat malaria, and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, it can have dangerous side effects, including death, if taken incorrectly. Even when taken correctly, it can cause things like stomach distress, and even permanent damage to a person's vision.

Fauci's comments Friday explain the risks of putting too much stock in any potential treatment at this stage, even if they are showing promising results among small or even medium-sized deployments.

"You've got to be careful when you say 'fairly effective,' it was never done in a clinical trial that compared it to anything," he said in answer to a reporter's question about chloroquine's efficacy in treating SARS. "It was given to individuals and felt that maybe it worked [É] Whenever you do a clinical trial, you do standard of care, versus standard of care plus the agent you're evaluating. That's the reason why we showed back in Ebola why particular interventions worked."

A summary survey of various prospective treatments and their current status was published today In Medscape, and this includes the current state of remdesivir and chloroquine investigations, as well as a number of other drugs being studied by researchers. As has been reported here and elsewhere, there are promising signs that they could prove effective in either treatment, or treatment and even preventative use (in the case of remedesivir), but these are, as Dr. Fauci puts it, only the first step that should lead to more sophisticated clinical studies, which themselves will then need competing peer studies to eventually prove out.

(9) Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) less effective than Chloroquine (CQ) in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2; thanks to Zhengli Shi

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-020-0156-0

Published: 18 March 2020

Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro

Jia Liu, Ruiyuan Cao, Mingyue Xu, Xi Wang, Huanyu Zhang, Hengrui Hu, Yufeng Li, Zhihong Hu, Wu Zhong & Manli Wang

Cell Discovery volume 6, Article number: 16 (2020) Cite this article

Dear Editor,

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV) poses a serious threat to global public health and local economies. As of March 3, 2020, over 80,000 cases have been confirmed in China, including 2946 deaths as well as over 10,566 confirmed cases in 72 other countries. Such huge numbers of infected and dead people call for an urgent demand of effective, available, and affordable drugs to control and diminish the epidemic.

We have recently reported that two drugs, remdesivir (GS-5734) and chloroquine (CQ) phosphate, efficiently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro1. Remdesivir is a nucleoside analog prodrug developed by Gilead Sciences (USA). A recent case report showed that treatment with remdesivir improved the clinical condition of the first patient infected by SARS-CoV-2 in the United States2, and a phase III clinical trial of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 was launched in Wuhan on February 4, 2020. However, as an experimental drug, remdesivir is not expected to be largely available for treating a very large number of patients in a timely manner. Therefore, of the two potential drugs, CQ appears to be the drug of choice for large-scale use due to its availability, proven safety record, and a relatively low cost. In light of the preliminary clinical data, CQ has been added to the list of trial drugs in the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 (sixth edition) published by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. [...]

Whether HCQ is as efficacious as CQ in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection still lacks the experimental evidence.

To this end, we evaluated the antiviral effect of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to CQ in vitro. [...] Taken together, the data suggest that the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of HCQ seems to be less potent compared to CQ, at least at certain MOIs. [...]

It has been reported that oral absorption of CQ and HCQ in humans is very efficient. In animals, both drugs share similar tissue distribution patterns, with high concentrations in the liver, spleen, kidney, and lung reaching levels of 200­700 times higher than those in the plasma10. It was reported that safe dosage (6­6.5 mg/kg per day) of HCQ sulfate could generate serum levels of 1.4­1.5 mM in humans11. Therefore, with a safe dosage, HCQ concentration in the above tissues is likely to be achieved to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Clinical investigation found that high concentration of cytokines were detected in the plasma of critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that cytokine storm was associated with disease severity12. Other than its direct antiviral activity, HCQ is a safe and successful anti-inflammatory agent that has been used extensively in autoimmune diseases and can significantly decrease the production of cytokines and, in particular, pro-inflammatory factors. Therefore, in COVID-19 patients, HCQ may also contribute to attenuating the inflammatory response. In conclusion, our results show that HCQ can efficiently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. In combination with its anti-inflammatory function, we predict that the drug has a good potential to combat the disease. This possibility awaits confirmation by clinical trials. We need to point out, although HCQ is less toxic than CQ, prolonged and overdose usage can still cause poisoning. And the relatively low SI of HCQ requires careful designing and conducting of clinical trials to achieve efficient and safe control of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

References [...]

Acknowledgements

We thank Professor Zhengli Shi and Dr. Xinglou Yang from Wuhan Institute of Virology and Professor Fei Deng from National Virus Resource Center for providing SARS-CoV-2 strain (nCoV-2019BetaCoV/Wuhan/WIV04/2019); Professor Xiulian Sun for kind help in statistical analysis; Professor Zhenhua Zheng for kindly providing the anti-LAMP1 rabbit polyclonal antibody; Prof. Zhengli Shi for kindly providing the anti-NP polyclonal antibody; Beijing Savant Biotechnology Co., ltd for kindly providing the anti-NP monoclonal antibody; Min Zhou and Xijia Liu for their assistance with this study; Jia Wu, Jun Liu, Hao Tang, and Tao Du from BSL-3 Laboratory and Dr. Ding Gao from the core faculty of Wuhan Institute of Virology for their critical support; Professor Gengfu Xiao, Professor Yanyi Wang and other colleagues of Wuhan Institute of Virology and Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory for their excellent coordination; and Dr. Basil Arif for scientific editing of the manuscript. This work was supported in part by grants from the National Science and Technology Major Projects for "Major New Drugs Innovation and Development" (2018ZX09711003 to W.Z.), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31621061 to Z.H.), and the Hubei Science and Technology Project (2020FCA003 to Z.H.). [...]

(10) Hospitals are not waiting for FDA bureaucrats: Chloroquine in short supply as hospitals buy in bulk

https://www.modernhealthcare.com/supply-chain/chloroquine-short-supply-hospitals-buy-bulk

March 20, 2020 05:05 PM

Chloroquine in short supply as hospitals buy in bulk

While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is still investigating whether the inexpensive, old anti-malaria drugs can tame symptoms and limit the spread of the highly contagious virus, hospitals have responded to clinical trials in other countries that have shown promising results.

Orders of chloroquine spiked 3,000% in March, according to data from Premier, the group purchasing and consulting organization. From January 2019 through February 2020, hospitals ordered an average of 149 units a month. More than 2,300 units were ordered through March thus far.

Its variant hydroxychloroquine experienced a 260% surge in demand, Premier data show. Hospitals typically used about 8,800 units a month, jumping to 16,110 units ordered in March.

Chloroquine phosphate tables and hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets went into shortage on March 9 and March 19, respectively, according to the American Society of Health System Pharmacists.

All major wholesale distributors put hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on allocation this week, which limits ordering to prevent hoarding, Premier said.

"As additional reports come forth from countries suggesting treatment protocols for COVID-19, a single source of truth in the U.S. is needed to mitigate panic-buying," Premier said in the report. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should study the international data and make recommendations for treatment protocols domestically, Premier offered.

Chloroquine, which is also used to treat lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, isn't typically well stocked by hospitals, if at all, said Erin Fox, a drug shortage expert and senior director of drug information and support services at University of Utah Health.

"It's more of a travel medicine to be used for malaria treatment," said Fox, adding that University of Utah Health bought a small amount at the end of February to have on hand just in case when it saw some preliminary data from China. "We don't have a lot of malaria in the U.S. - probably why it was fine for just one company to supply the entire U.S."

While a single manufacturer produces chloroquine, four additional manufacturers are approved by the FDA to make it, Premier noted. There are 10 suppliers with FDA approval to produce hydroxychloroquine, but not all of them are currently manufacturing.

Some of the manufacturers of chloroquine and related products have lowered prices and donated millions of doses to the U.S. government.

Last month, the National Institutes of Health began a randomized controlled trial for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with Gilead Sciences' antiviral drug remdesivir. It is one of several drugs that are being tested for COVID-19 treatment, but quality and pricing questions remain.

"We understand and recognize the urgency with which we are all seeking prevention and treatment options for COVID-19. FDA staff are working expeditiously on that front," FDA Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn, said in prepared remarks. "We also must ensure these products are effective; otherwise we risk treating patients with a product that might not work when they could have pursued other, more appropriate, treatments."

The drug supply chain is already working around restricted access to pharmaceutical ingredients. The Indian government is limiting the export of 26 ingredients, some of which are used in widely used antibiotics, to protect its domestic supply amid the pandemic.

Much of the world's supply of generic drugs comes from India, which relies heavily on China for their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

(11) Military personnel given Flu vaccine were significantly more susceptible to Coronavirus

This most important result is buried amidst platitudes. I have cut away the platitudes so that you can see the important bits - Peter M.

https://christiansfortruth.com/2020-study-shows-common-flu-shots-make-people-more-susceptible-to-coronavirus-lung-infections/

2020 Study Shows Common Flu Shots Make Recipients More Susceptible To Coronavirus Lung Infections

MARCH 20, 2020

By CFT TEAM

A 2020 study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense entitled, Influenza vaccination and respiratory virus interference among Department of Defense personnel during the 2017­2018 influenza season by Greg G. Wolff, published in Vaccine, Volume 38, Issue 2, 10 January 2020, Pages 350-354, found that military personnel who had received seasonal flu shots were significantly more susceptible to coronavirus-associated respiratory infections:

Purpose

Receiving influenza vaccination may increase the risk of other respiratory viruses, a phenomenon known as virus interference. Test-negative study designs are often utilized to calculate influenza vaccine effectiveness. The virus interference phenomenon goes against the basic assumption of the test-negative vaccine effectiveness study that vaccination does not change the risk of infection with other respiratory illness, thus potentially biasing vaccine effectiveness results in the positive direction. This study aimed to investigate virus interference by comparing respiratory virus status among Department of Defense personnel based on their influenza vaccination status. Furthermore, individual respiratory viruses and their association with influenza vaccination were examined.

Results

We compared vaccination status of 2880 people with non-influenza respiratory viruses to 3240 people with pan-negative results. Comparing vaccinated to non-vaccinated patients, the adjusted odds ratio for non-flu viruses was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 1.09; p?=?0.60). Additionally, the vaccination status of 3349 cases of influenza were compared to three different control groups: all controls (N?=?6120), non-influenza positive controls (N?=?2880), and pan-negative controls (N?=?3240). The adjusted ORs for the comparisons among the three control groups did not vary much (range: 0.46­0.51).

Conclusions

Receipt of influenza vaccination was not associated with virus interference among our population. Examining virus interference by specific respiratory viruses showed mixed results. Vaccine derived virus interference was significantly associated with coronavirus and human metapneumovirus; however, significant protection with vaccination was associated not only with most influenza viruses, but also parainfluenza, RSV, and non-influenza virus coinfections. [...]

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X19313647?via%3Dihub

Volume 38, Issue 2, 10 January 2020, Pages 350-354

Influenza vaccination and respiratory virus interference among Department of Defense personnel during the 2017­2018 influenza season

Greg G.Wolff

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.005Get rights and content

Highlights o We examined virus interference in a Department of Defense dependent population.

o Vaccinated personnel did not have significant odds of respiratory illnesses.

o Vaccinated personnel were protected against influenza.

o Odds of virus interference by vaccination varied for individual respiratory viruses.

[...] 4. Discussion

[...] Additionally, the laboratory data in our study showed increased odds of coronavirus and human metapneumovirus in individuals receiving influenza vaccination. The study finding similar results to our study found no association between influenza vaccination and RSV, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus or coronavirus [12]. The same study did find a significant association between parainfluenza and influenza vaccination, but the association was in opposite directions when comparing children and adults [12]. In our disease specific investigation, virus interference trends were noticed for coronavirus and human metapneumovirus [...]

(12) French Peer-Reviewed Study: Didier Raoult announces Cure for Coronavirus: HCQ + Azithromycin

French Peer-Reviewed Study: Our Treatment Cured 100% Of Coronavirus Patients

https://www.dailywire.com/news/french-peer-reviewed-study-our-treatment-cured-100-of-coronavirus-patients

By Hank Berrien

DailyWire.com

{photo} Didier Raoult, Professor at the Faculty of Medicine of Marseille, poses on November 6, 2014 in his office at the Facutly of Medicine in Marseille, southern France.Photo by Anne-Christine Poujoulat/AFP via Getty Images

On Wednesday, Gregory Rigano, an advisor to the Stanford University School of Medicine, claimed that a world-renowned French researcher had tested a promising cure for coronavirus.

He tweeted: "Full peer-reviewed study has been released by Didier Raoult MD, PhD. After 6 days 100% of patients treated with HCQ + Azithromycin were virologically cured."

UPDATE:

Full peer reviewed study has been released by Didier Raoult MD, PhD https://t.co/DzFTv13wYn.

After 6 days 100% of patients treated with HCQ + Azithromycin were virologically cured

p-value <.0001https://t.co/vttAIWbPwJ

- Gregory Rigano (@RiganoESQ) March 18, 2020

Appearing on Fox News Wednesday night, Rigano followed up by stating:

And I'm here to report that as of this morning, about 5:00 this morning, a well-controlled peer-reviewed study carried out by the most eminent infectious disease specialist in the world - Didier Raoult, MD, PhD - out of the south of France, in which he enrolled 40 patients, again, a well-controlled peer review study, that showed a 100 percent cure rate against coronavirus. The study was released this morning on my Twitter account, @Riganoesq as well as our most recent website, @covidtrial.io. The study was recently accepted to the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents by Elsevier.

Rigano continued, "In fact to be able to cure a virus was said to be mathematically impossible, and the first company that did it was a small biotech called Pharmacet that was acquired by Gilead Sciences in a cure for hepatitis C. What we're here to announce is a second cure to a virus of all time." ...

According to covidtrial.io, here are the backgrounds for Didier Raoult and another doctor involved in the study:

Didier Raoult created the Rickettsia Unit at Aix-Marseille University. Since 2008, Dr. Raoult has served as the director of URMITE (Research Unit in Infectious and Tropical Emergent Diseases), collaborating with CNRS (National Center for the Scientific Research), IRD (Research for the Development Institute), INSERM (National Institute of Health and Medical Research) and Aix Marseille University. His laboratory employs more than 200 people, including nearly 100 active researchers who publish between 250 and 350 papers per year and have produced over 50 patents.

Dr. Chandra Duggirala has a bio that states:

He founded Novobionics, a medical device company to treat diabetes and obesity non-invasively and invented itÕs double sleeve technology. He lead the company through preclinical trials and several US and international patents. He is also the Principal Investigator of the Reset-Youth trial, one of the largest clinical trials for investigating the reversibility of epigenetic markers of aging. He also founded a software company at the intersection of nutritional biology and A.I.

(13) Economist endorses CQ HCQ & Kaletra cures for COVID-19, because 'Medicines designed to treat COVID-19 won't be on pharmacy shelves for months or even years'

Economist endorses CQ HCQ & Kaletra cures for COVID-19, because 'Medicines designed to treat COVID-19 won't be on pharmacy shelves for months or even years'

https://www.economist.com/briefing/2020/03/12/understanding-sars-cov-2-and-the-drugs-that-might-lessen-its-power

Coronavirus drugs: Where we are and what we know

Chloroquine and HydroxyChloroquine tablets

By AMINA KHANSTAFF WRITER

MARCH 21, 2020 11:30 AM

Medicines designed to treat COVID-19 won't be on pharmacy shelves for months or even years, but thousands of patients are in hospitals and health clinics now. So doctors are looking to drugs that are already approved for treating other diseases.

Malaria, HIV and arthritis wouldn't seem to have much in common with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that has upended the world in just a few short months. But medicines developed for those ailments are showing some promise against the respiratory illness at the center of the pandemic.

Here's a closer look at some of the medicines being tested to see if they're effective against COVID-2.

Chloroquine

This drug has been used to treat patients with malaria for nearly a century. It is a synthetic version of quinine, a natural compound that people have been extracting from the bark of cinchona trees since the early 1600s.

Chloroquine works by essentially slowing down how efficient the virus is at entering cells, which can slow the rate of replication, said Karla Satchell, a microbiologist at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. To fight malaria, it essentially helps poison the digestive system of some blood parasites in the genus Plasmodium that are spread to humans through infected mosquitoes.

COVID-19 is caused by a coronavirus, not a parasite. Still, researchers hypothesized that Chloroquine could help patients with the new disease by slowing the virus' spread. It basically works by curtailing the virus' ability to use certain compartments in a cell (called vacuoles) to get itself inside its target. It's like having an extra bolt on your front door, but it doesn't keep the pathogen from kicking the door down. Think of it as "flattening the curve" inside the body, giving the immune system time to catch up.

About two dozen clinical trials are already underway in China to test Chloroquine's efficacy against the novel coronavirus. Early results show that it seemed to cut down the virus' rate of replication. Some researchers have suggested that its ability to modulate the immune system's behavior may allow it to mitigate so-called cytokine storms, a potentially deadly overreaction to the disease that can result in organ failure.

Chloroquine has several built-in advantages. It's already known to be safe in humans (though it can result in poisoning at overdose levels). It's cheap. It has a backer in President Trump, who on Thursday asked the Food and Drug Administration to examine its feasibility as a COVID-19 treatment. And in preclinical research, it's been shown to be effective against viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and HIV.

HydroxyChloroquine

As you may guess, this drug is closely related to Chloroquine. It's a potentially less toxic metabolite of the malaria drug that's used to treat certain autoimmune diseases like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Scientists think it works by disrupting communications between cells in the immune system. Like Chloroquine, scientists suspect it might help to mitigate cytokine storms.

Doctors are testing it in COVID-19 patients on the theory that if Chloroquine is helpful, HydroxyChloroquine might be too, and recent lab results seem to back that up. At least seven clinical trials have begun in China to test HydroxyChloroquine in patients with COVID-19, and the University of Minnesota also launched one of its own this week.

"After 90 days we will have some indication of whether this is effective or not," and how effective it could be, said Dr. Jakub Tolar, dean of the University of Minnesota Medical School.

Early results in China are promising, showing that it inhibited SARS-COV-2 infections in the lab.

Like Chloroquine, HydroxyChloroquine has already been established as safe for use in humans Ñ it's been on the market since the 1950s. Trump's request that the FDA investigate Chloroquine included HydroxyChloroquine as well. On Saturday, he tweeted out an endorsement of a preliminary report from France in which six patients received HydroxyChloroquine along with the antibiotic azithromycin.

Kaletra

This combination of two antiviral drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, is used to combat HIV. It's widely available, and several clinical trials around the world are underway.

The two drugs, both protease inhibitors, have different but complementary roles when used in combination. Lopinavir prevents viral enzymes from cutting up important proteins that are key to HIV's reproduction. Ritonavir helps boost lopinavir's concentrations in cells.

Scientists wondered whether the pair might be able to disrupt SARS-COV-2's life cycle in similar ways.

But a study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine reported no benefit for patients with severe COVID-19. While that's not great news for the drug's prospects, an editorial accompanying the paper called the work a "heroic effort." And, to be clear, it was just one study; other trials could eventually provide further insight.

Remdesivir

This drug was developed by Gilead Sciences to fight Ebola but failed to prove effective. Still, remdesivir has since been shown to have some effect against both MERS and SARS in cell lines and limited animal testing, and since those diseases are caused by coronaviruses, it may have some effect against the one that causes COVID-19.

Exactly how remdesivir works has been unclear, though a new study shows that it appears to block RNA replication during the reproductive cycle of a coronavirus.

It was given to the first COVID-19 patient in the United States for compassionate use after his condition took a turn for the worse, and he began to recover the next day, according to a case study published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Whether the drug was actually responsible for any of that improvement is unknown.

Several clinical trials in the works should provide some answers. A clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, has already launched at several locations in the U.S., including the University of Nebraska, the University of Minnesota and UC Irvine.

"Although remdesivir has been administered to some patients with COVID-19, we do not have solid data to indicate it can improve clinical outcomes," Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the NIAID, said in a statement.

These clinical trials would offer some solid data as to whether it really works.

Losartan

This hypertension drug reduces blood pressure by preventing a hormone called angiotensin from binding to receptors on blood vessels, allowing them to stay relaxed.

Scientists hypothesized that losartan might help patients with COVID-19 because, as an angiotensin receptor blocker, it obstructs the site through which the virus gets into the cells, Tolar said.

This drug rounds out the trifecta of treatments that University of Minnesota researchers are putting through clinical trials; they have not yet started recruiting subjects, according to the NIH.

Other approaches

Repurposing drugs that are already on the market (or at least, proven safe) makes for a good first step in fighting a novel virus, but it's something of a blunt instrument, scientists pointed out.

That's why researchers are also studying the virus in depth to try to develop more tailored treatments from the bottom up Ñ or at least, from a little closer to ground level.

Satchell's center is taking this route, studying the virus' proteins and other structures in depth and designing drugs to combat it. Currently, they're targeting the molecular factories that viruses set up to manufacture more copies of themselves.

"If you just walked up to a machine and stuck a screwdriver in it somewhere, it would stop working," she said. The trick is to figure out where to stick the screwdriver, and what it should look like. "And that's what we're trying to find."

The advantage here is that you get a drug that does essentially exactly what you want it to do. The drawback is that scientists have to start from the ground up, so getting a drug to the public may take a little longer Ñ perhaps two years, Satchell estimated.

Luckily, scientists can also draw on research into other coronaviruses, such as those that caused the SARS outbreak in 2003 and the MERS outbreak in 2012. Those events came and went so quickly that promising research was largely dropped before drugs could be developed and made available.

Since all three coronaviruses are genetically very similar, that preliminary work could give scientists a leg up in developing weapons against COVID-19 and shorten the process to around 12 to 18 months, Satchell said.

Continuing this research even after the current pandemic ends will be key to help prevent future outbreaks, she said.

After all, consider the discontinued research into SARS and MERS. If that work had resulted in effective drugs, we might have a treatment for COVID-19 today, she pointed out. Similarly, the work being done on SARS-CoV-2 could prove useful when future outbreaks hit, even if the pathogens causing them are slightly different.

"I hope one of the lessons that we have from this is that research should keep going even if the crisis goes away," she said.

(14) NYT dismisses chloroquine cure for COVID-19

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/19/health/coronavirus-drugs-chloroquine.html

With Minimal Evidence, Trump Asks F.D.A. to Study Malaria Drugs for Coronavirus

The use of the existing drugs against the new virus is unproven, and some shortages have already been reported.

By Denise Grady and Katie Thomas

Published March 19, 2020 Updated March 20, 2020

President Trump on Thursday exaggerated the potential of drugs available to treat the new coronavirus, including an experimental antiviral treatment and decades-old malaria remedies that hint of promise but so far show limited evidence of healing the sick.

No drug has been approved to treat the new coronavirus, and doctors around the world have been desperately administering an array of medicines in search of something to help patients, especially those who are severely ill.

The malaria drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are among the remedies that have been tried in several countries as the virus has spread around the world, killing at least 9,800.

Both drugs have gone into short supply in the United States this month, as word has spread of their potential benefit to coronavirus patients. Manufacturers of the generic products have said they are ramping up production. One company, Teva, said it would donate millions of pills of hydroxychloroquine to hospitals, and another company, Mylan, said it would restart production of the drug. Doctors in China, South Korea and France have reported that the treatments seem to help. But those efforts have not involved the kind of large, carefully controlled studies that would provide the global medical community the proof that these drugs work on a significant scale.

In a White House briefing Thursday, Mr. Trump said the anti-malaria drugs had shown "tremendous promise."

"I think it's going to be very exciting," he said. "I think it could be a game changer, and maybe not."

The drugs' potential has been highlighted during broadcasts on one of Mr. Trump's favorite news channels, Fox News, where hosts like Laura Ingraham, Tucker Carlson and Jeanine Pirro have trumpeted the possibility of a real treatment.

"They've gone through the approval process," Mr. Trump said of the drugs. "It's been approved, and they did." But the F.D.A. has not approved any drugs for use in the treatment of coronavirus, and the drugs were already available, to treat malaria as well as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. To date, the F.D.A. has not added the coronavirus to the list of illnesses for which the drugs are specifically approved. Then again, doctors have been free to use both old malaria drugs for any purpose deemed appropriate.

At the briefing on Thursday, Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, who has been the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration for only three months, tended to walk back some of the president's more inflated predictions that these drugs might vanquish the virus altogether.

He said Mr. Trump had asked the agency to look into chloroquine to fight the coronavirus, and that it was setting up a large clinical trial to evaluate the drug.

Some hospitals in the United States have already begun using the drugs for coronavirus patients, apparently reasoning that they may help and are unlikely to do harm. They are cheap and relatively safe. Laboratory studies have found that they prevent the coronavirus from invading cells, suggesting that the drugs could help prevent or limit the infection.

Not everyone can take the drugs: They are not safe for people who suffer from heart arrhythmia, or those with impaired kidneys or liver.

The University of Minnesota is conducting a study in which people who live with a coronavirus patient are being given hydroxychloroquine to find out if it can prevent the infection.

Dr. Hahn also said that the agency was allowing sick patients to use remdesivir, the not-yet-approved antiviral drug made by Gilead. Such so-called "compassionate use" programs allow patients to take unapproved, experimental drugs if they have no other options. Remdesivir has already been given to patients on a compassionate-use basis, including the first coronavirus patient in the United States, who was treated in Washington State in late January.

Remdesivir is being studied in clinical trials, but the results are not available yet. It was studied to treat Ebola, but did not work well enough to be useful for that disease.

Dr. Hahn noted that the agency's job was to prove that drugs were safe and effective. "What's also important is not to provide false hope, but to provide hope," he said.

As word has spread about chloroquine's potential, demand in the United States has overwhelmed the country's only supplier of the drug, the New Jersey generic manufacturer Rising Pharmaceuticals.

Chloroquine has been in short supply since March 9, according to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, which tracks drug shortages. Hydroxychloroquine, which is made by more companies, has been in shortage since Thursday.

Ira Baeringer, chief operating officer of Rising Pharmaceuticals, said his company had been tracking the use of the drug in China and elsewhere. They increased production about three weeks ago, he said, and are meeting all of their orders. But he acknowledged that pharmacies may currently have low stocks.

(15) Olive Leaf ingredient oleuropein acts as an antiviral agent

https://www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=38381

Dynamic Chiropractic ­ July 14, 1997, Vol. 15, Issue 15

Herbal Health Report: Olive Leaf Extract Regains Interest as a Superb Anti-microbial Agent

BY PAUL S. NASH, DC, CCN, LIC. ACU.

Headlines warning of antibiotic resistant bacteria, rare strains of flesh eating strep, rising HIV rates, and deadly outbreaks of viruses such as Ebola and Hanta are on the rise, prompting growing concerns amid the medical community and the population at large. Endeavors to slow the tide of increasingly virulent microorganisms has researchers clambering for new and more potent drugs. But while we may be winning some battles, the odds favor our much smaller opponents, which use shear numbers and genetic variance to outwit our efforts, and which may ultimately be winning the war.

Interestingly, we are finding powerful allies in the plant world. From an evolutionary perspective, our bodies have relied on plants for maintenance and repair. Botanicals, which are the foundation of many pharmaceuticals, are now gaining new respect among researchers and practitioners of traditional medicine. Modern botanicals are produced by advanced extraction processes; they are highly concentrated substances yielding powerful weapons in the battle against disease, while promoting dynamic balance in the organism as a whole. Many herbal products possess a high degree of safety and efficacy without the toxic side effects seen in most pharmaceuticals.

The Mediterranean olive or olea europa has recently rekindled the interest of scientists and clinicians alike because of its potent medicinal value. The olive is a hardy tree that manufactures its own potent antibiotic substances to fend off disease causing bacteria, fungi, parasites and insects. In 1908, Bourquelot and Vintilesco isolated a bitter glucoside (structurally classified as an iridoid) from olive leaves and named it oleuropein. In 1960, scientists from Holland further isolated elenolic acid (a monoterpene), which was eventually determined to be the chemical constituent with the greatest activity against infectious microbes. Later in that same decade, viral researchers at a U.S. pharmaceutical company (Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI) demonstrated that elenolic acid evidenced remarkable inhibition of viruses and bacteria without damaging the host cells in vitro.

Although it is not known exactly how oleuropein acts as an antiviral agent, there are several proposed mechanisms:

interference with specific amino acid production processes vital to the life cycle of the virus;

interference with viral infection and/or spread by inactivating the virus or by prohibiting shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane;

immune activation of host defense through direct stimulation of phagocytosis;

neutralization of the production of reverse transcriptase and protease (relates to retroviral ability to alter the host cell RNA);

penetration of infected host cells while achieving an irreversible inhibition of viral replication.

The antiviral activity of elenolic acid was shown to be greatest in an alkaline environment (pH 7.5), which is very close to the normal human pH range of 7.35-7.45. Virucidal activity was diminished by incubation with amino acids lysine, glycine, cysteine and histidine, and to a lesser extent with phenylalanine, tryptophan, serine and threonine. Because the elenolic acid could be inactivated by free amino acids circulating in the bloodstream, research was apparently discontinued. Then in 1994, an independent research team achieved a breakthrough that apparently overcame this hurdle, allowing sufficient levels of elenolic acid to be delivered to the body. Today, preparations of olive leaf extract are standardized to contain approximately 5% elenolic acid content, and researchers are presently working to increase that percentage to 15%.

Viruses that have shown susceptibility to elenolic acid in vitro include:

herpes (MRS); vaccinia; pseudorabies; influenza A & B; Newcastle disease; parainfluenza 1, 2, & 3; coxsackie A21; encephlomyocarditis; polio 1, 2, & 3; vesicular stomatitis; sindbis; reovirus; Moloney murine leukemia; Rauscher murine leukemia; Moloney sarcoma. In vivo activity has been demonstrated in hamsters with reduced viral yields from animals infected with parainfluenza 3 virus.

Reportedly, some clinicians have been testing oleuropein with HIV patients. Interestingly, protease inhibitors have gained a great deal of press for their potential in the fight against AIDs. These are believed to actively block the site of HIV protease. When combined with other classes of drugs researchers have reported remission in infected patients. We anxiously await their reports on effectiveness.

Oleuropein has also been shown effective against many bacteria. The proposed mechanisms of antibacterial activity are as follows:

slows the growth rate and inhibits a number of enzymes;

induces damage to the cell membrane thus affecting its permeability and resulting in a leakage of cytoplasmic constituents;

inhibition of micrococcal nuclease and lysozyme;

inhibits enzymes by reacting with the e-amino group of exposed lysine residues and the exposed n-terminal amino group of polypeptide chains;

irreversible inhibition of DNA polymerase II and inhibition of DNA polymerase III holoenzymes;

immune activation of host defense through direct stimulation of phagocytic activity.

Bacteria that have shown susceptibility include: lactobacillus plantarum; l. brevis; pediococcus cerevisiae; leuconostoc mesenteroides; bacillus cereus; staphylococcus aureus; bacillus subtilis; enterobacter aerogenes; e. cloacae; escherichia coli; salmonella typhinurium; pseudomonas fluorescens; p. solanacearum; p. lachrymans; erwinia carotovora; e. tracheiphila; xanthomonas vesicatoria; and corynebacterium michiganese.

Oleuropein has also been found effective against strains of malaria, including plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae. Malaria is a protozoan infection characterized by fever, chills and profuse sweating, and occurs primarily in tropical regions. Malarial infection can occur by transmission of the protozoa parasite following the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. First the sporozoites multiply in cells of the liver, then after a period usually lasting 2-4 weeks, the parasite may invade the red blood cells. Next, the merozoites may multiply before being released into the bloodstream. Antimalarial activity was reported by clinicians in the 1850s who administered decoctions of olive leaf to infected patients. In 1906, scientists claimed that olive leaf extracts were superior to quinine, the primary treatment of malaria at the time. Since malaria has developed resistance to many of our present day drugs, clinicians may want to consider olive leaf extract as an addition to the treatment of malaria once again.

Fungal and yeast infections have been the focus of a great deal of attention from many health care providers. A major contributing factor to this increase is theorized to result from the overuse and overprescription of bacterial antibiotics. These substances, once believed to be a panacea or cure-all, are now realized to have resulted in superstrains of antibiotic resistant bacteria that are increasingly more difficult to treat.

Furthermore, the natural bacteria living on our skin and mucous membranes (such as the lungs and intestinal tract) provide a blanket of protection from other harmful organisms. These microbes secrete substances that may be toxic to other invading organisms and either benefit or have a neutral effect on our bodies and cells.

Because antibiotics kill both the friendly and unfriendly organisms, they can upset the delicate balance of our body's natural defenses. The result has been a paradise for yeast and fungi not harmed by the antibiotics, which may flourish without competition from our natural bacterial allies. Since yeast prefer a diet high in sugars, our overindulgence in sweets has further benefited yeast populations and contributed to illness and disease. Fungi and yeast species that have shown sensitivity to oleuropein include geotrichum candidum, rhizopus sp. and rhizoctonia solani.

Oleuropein and other structurally related iridoids have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties when administered either orally or topically. Although oleuropein's activity as an anti-inflammatory may be moderate in comparison to other naturally occurring iridoids, it could still be considered noteworthy. And since virtually all disease results in an inflammatory response, oleuropein might offer some benefits in any health condition.

In the United States, as in most Western countries, atherosclerotic heart disease and stroke remain the number one killer despite all the advancements in medicine. A major risk factor for atherosclerosis is the elevation of serum lipids (specifically low density lipoproteins or LDLs). Oxidized low density lipoproteins can be taken up by endothelial cells and monocytes by way of their scavenger receptor. This can lead to the formation of cholesterol ester-loaded foam cells and atherosclerotic plaques. In the advanced stages, this can lead to the death of the endothelial cell (which is the cell at the innermost layer of the blood vessel). Oleuropein is a polyphenolic compound; these naturally-occurring phytochemicals are considered to be very potent antioxidants. Oleuropein has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of LDLs.

This may be the reason oleuropein has shown antiatherogenic activity. Oleuropein content in the diet of the Mediterranean population has been proposed among other postulates for the decreased incidence of coronary heart disease when compared to its Western counterpart.

Hypertension is a common disorder encountered and diagnosed by many physicians. Because there is usually no pain associated with its occurrence, many patients are unaware of problems until they visit their doctors or until it is too late, as in the case of a stroke. An important component of olive leaf extract is oleuropeside. This compound has been shown to act as a hypotensive by activating the vasodilation of blood vessels. Decreased arterial blood pressure, decreased atrial rate, decreased cardiac contractility and anti-arrhythmic effects have all been attributed to oleuropeside. It appears that other olive leaf ingredients act synergistically to potentiate the relaxant effect of oleuropeside; thus, the whole is greater than the individual parts.

Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by increased blood sugar resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or effectiveness. Numerous complications include retinopathy, atherosclerotic disease, nephropathy and neuropathies. Olive leaves have long been touted as an antidiabetic agent in herbal folklore. Scientists have demonstrated that the oleuropeside content of the plant is responsible for its hypoglycemic activity. The potentiation of glucose-induced release of insulin and an increased peripheral uptake of glucose are two proposed methods of antihyperglycemic activity.

The oleuropeside content is highest in the winter months and samples collected in these months evidenced the greatest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity. Olive leaves collected in the summer months may contain little or no oleuropeside. Individuals with insulin dependent diabetes should be cautioned against using oleuropein or other plant extracts to control diabetes as this could be extremely dangerous. However, individuals with non-insulin dependent and insulin dependent diabetics may want to closely monitor their glucose levels when taking oleuropeside rich oleuropein.

Hyperuricemia is a finding that is commonly associated with gout. Because of the high uric acid content in the bloodstream, crystals may deposit in the joints. Swelling, warmth, redness and exquisite tenderness most often affects the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe, but the instep, ankle, knee, wrist and elbow are also common sites. Uric acid may also precipitate in organs, such as the kidney, where aggregates of gravel or stones may lead to obstructive uropathy. A report in the Belgian Pharmacology Journal (March-April 1994) recorded hypouricemic activity in aqueous olive leaf extracts. This may lead to a promising method of managing hyperuricemia and its complications.

Although the following accounts are anecdotal, I have seen numerous benefits in practice using oleuropein. Perhaps the most common is patients reporting tremendous increases in energy, even patients with chronic fatigue. Patients have also reported toenail fungus that disappeared in cases that had been unresponsive to medical care, decreased severity and length of herpes outbreaks, and hasty recovery from colds and flus.

Oleuropein is best taken with water, one hour or more away from food, as the activity of elenolic acid in the oleuropein may be decreased by certain amino acids found in protein- containing foods and supplements. Therefore, if one wishes to take amino acids such as lysine they may wish to take the oleuropein at a different time of the day. Some individuals may experience symptoms of detoxification resulting from toxins released into the bloodstream following the death of a virus, bacteria, fungus or parasite. Symptoms of detoxification are natural and may include headaches, muscle and joint aches, skin rash or sensitivity, irritability, nervousness, fatigue and mental dullness. Individuals with hypoglycemic tendencies may likewise experience similar symptoms. In either case, proceed slowly by taking only one or two pills and gradually increase the dosage when symptoms subside. A reasonable therapeutic dose would be 6-9 pills in divided doses per day (some practitioners have reportedly used doses double this amount).

The olive has long been a symbol of hope, victory and friendship since biblical days. Perhaps the time has come for us to reconsider the powerful role this tree can play in contemporary health care.

References: [...]

(16) Ole and HT may be useful against other viruses ... including severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790717/

Journal ListHHS Author ManuscriptsPMC2790717

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Mar 23; 354(4): 872­878.

Published online 2007 Jan 24. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.071

PMCID: PMC2790717

NIHMSID: NIHMS18537

PMID: 17275783

Discovery of Small-Molecule HIV-1 Fusion and Integrase Inhibitors

Oleuropein and Hydroxytyrosol: I. Fusion Inhibition

Sylvia Lee-Huang,1,Ý* Philip Lin Huang,2,§* Dawei Zhang,1,§ Jae Wook Lee,3 Ju Bao,3 Yongtao Sun,1 Young-Tae Chang,3 John Zhang,3 and Paul Lee Huang4,*

Abstract

We have identified oleuropein (Ole) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) as a unique class of HIV-1 inhibitors from olive leaf extracts effective against viral fusion and integration. We used molecular docking simulation to study the interactions of Ole and HT with viral targets. [...]

We previously reported that olive leaf extract is potent against HIV-1 [3]. We investigated its anti-HIV properties and discovered that oleuropein (Ole) and its main metabolite, hydroxytyrosol (HT) are the key anti-HIV components. They are active against multiple stages of the HIV-1 life cycle, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission and viral core antigen p24 production. [...]

DISCUSSION

Ole and HT are small molecules with molecular weights of 539 and 153 respectively. Their inhibition of the fusion-promoting refolding of gp41 is an excellent example of how small molecules can block formation of protein­protein complexes. We narrowed down the target of binding to a hydrophobic pocket on the gp41 inner core. This pocket is highly conserved among the different HIV clades. Consistent with this, we found that Ole and HT are active against a panel of HIV-1 primary isolates that includes both M and T tropic strains from different clades. Our results suggest that Ole and HT may be useful against other viruses with type I transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, including severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus [23, 27], respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus [28], measles virus [29], and avian flu [30, 31]. [...]

References: [...]

(17) Urology site endorses natural treatment: How Viruses Work and How to Prevent and Eliminate Them

https://www.urologyofva.net/articles/category/healthy-living/4126629/how-viruses-work-and-how-to-prevent-and-eliminate-them-naturally

How Viruses Work and How to Prevent and Eliminate Them Naturally

Urology of Virginia

Last updated: 03-13-2020

Read original article here

How Viruses Work and How to Prevent and Eliminate Them Naturally ...

https://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/how-viruses-work-and-how-to-prevent-and-eliminate-them-naturally

How Viruses Work and How to Prevent and Eliminate Them Naturally

October 27, 2014

by Michael Edwards

Last updated on: March 10, 2020

NatureÕs Zombies

We have identified more than 2,000 viruses, though only 10% infect humans. Scientists used to think human viruses do not affect animals and animal viruses do not affect humans, but we now know that viruses not only jump species, sometimes they combine to create new strains. New strains can present a clear threat to human survival.

In 1918 the Spanish flu pandemic was a global killer. Estimates of the dead range from 20-100 million, up to 5% of the population­all within one year. Unlike previous flu pandemics and epidemics, this flu strain killed healthy adults, whereas most flu strains targeted children, the elderly, and the infirmed. More people died in this one-year pandemic than the four years of the bubonic plague.

We often hear that many dangerous strains of influenza begin in China. This belief is based on the dense population of humans living in close proximity to high populations of animals. Many dangerous viral strains have been found to originate in China jumping from birds or pigs to the human population. Birds alone have been found to carry as many as 15 viral strains.

Contents

A virus is a pathogenic, parasitic organism that isnÕt classified as being alive, since a cell is an essential to our definition of life. A virus has no cell membrane, no metabolism, no respiration and cannot replicate outside of a living cell. A virus is a creepy half-live, single strand or double strand of DNA or RNA or both, looking for a cell to invade. Once inside, it reprograms the cell with its DNA or RNA and multiplies on mass, bursting through the cell with a thousand or more new virus strands seeking new cells to invade. RNA viruses mutate more easily than DNA viruses. (SARS, bird flu, West Nile virus, swine flu, hepatitis, measles, polio, yellow fever, and Ebola are among the many RNA viruses).

If two viruses invade the same cell (a bird virus and a human virus, for instance) their DNA can combine to form a new virus, a potentially virulent one. The same is true if two animal viruses combine and jump species to humans.

Viruses have two life cycles: the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle.

Lytic Cycle

In the lytic cycle, the virus focuses on reproduction. It invades a cell, inserts its DNA and creates thousands of copies of itself, bursts through the cell membrane, killing the cell, and each new viral strand invades new cells replicating the process.

Lysogenic Cycle In the lysogenic cycle, viruses remain dormant within its host cells. The virus may remain dormant for years. Herpes and chickenpox are good examples. (Chicken pox can cause shingles in later life when the dormant virus reactivates.)

How Does the Body Fight a Virus?

Our bodies fight off invading organisms, including viruses, all the time. Our first line of defense is the skin, mucous, and stomach acid. If we inhale a virus, mucous traps it and tries to expel it. If it is swallowed, stomach acid may kill it. If the virus gets past the first line of defense, the innate immune system comes into play. The phagocytes wage war and release interferon to protect surrounding cells. If they cannot destroy the invading force, the phagocytes call the lymphocytes into play.

Our lymphocytes, T cells and B cells, retain a memory of any previous infection that was serious enough to bring them into the battle. Antibodies were formed and the body knows how to fight any infection it recognizes. (This is how vaccinations work. The body has fought a similar infection). But viruses can mutate, sometimes so much that they body cannot recognize them as a similar infection they fought in the past. They can also be so fast acting, they can kill before the lymphocytes are brought into play.

How Does Conventional Medicine Treat a Virus?

Antiviral medications do not directly kill the virus; they trap it within the cell, keeping it from reproducing. The only catch is that the anti-viral has to be taken with 48 hours of symptom onset or it doesnÕt work.

Antibiotics donÕt kill viruses. They kill bacteria, not viruses. And they kill good bacteria that we need to keep our gut in balance. Taking antibiotics when you have a viral infection can cause an immediate overgrowth of Candida, giving the immune system an additional system-wide infection to deal with when it needs all of its resources to fight a viral infection. ...

Echinacea

Echinacea not only supports the immune system, it also has been proven to reduce the severity and duration of viral infections. ...

Elderberry

A double-blind trail showed elderberry extractÕs ability to reduce symptoms of influenza and speed recovery. It also showed elderberryÕs ability to enhance immune response with higher levels of antibodies in the blood. It is believed to inhibit a virusÕs ability to penetrate healthy cells and protect cells with powerful antioxidant S. Elderberry has also been shown to inhibit replication in four strains of herpes viruses and reduce infectivity of HIV strains.

Green Tea

The flavonoids in green tea are believed to fight viral infections by preventing the virus from entering host cells and by inhibiting replication.

Olive Leaf Extract

Though double-blind clinical trials are needed, olive leaf extract has been shown to inhibit replication of viruses. In one study, 115 of 119 patients had a full and rapid recovery from respiratory tract infections while 120 of 172 had a full and rapid recovery from viral skin infections such as herpes. ...

(18) CQ and HCQ are zinc ionophores, i.e., carriers of zinc ions into the lung cell's interior; Quercetin dies the same, and it can be purchased over-the-counter

From: John Powell <jjjohnpowelll@gmail.com>

My understanding is that Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine are nothing more than zinc ionophores, i.e., carriers of zinc ions into the lung cell's interior.

The medical reading I've been doing tells me that it is the zinc which does the clearance/termination of the corona virus. The clearance/termination of the virus is not done by the Chloroquine or the Hydroxychloroquine. They merely transport the zinc ions into the cell.

There are other zinc ionophores which do the same, the most potent of which is a naturally-occurring substance call Quercetin, and it can be purchased over-the-counter. I buy it from an online company called Bulk Supplements (<https://bitli.pro/IPVm_3638b00a> bulksupplements.com), and I've been consuming it along with a zinc supplement, for approximately twenty-five years.

Note (Peter M.): take a Zinc supplement too.

(19) Dr. Vladimir Zelenko successfully treats Hasidic Jewish patients with HCQ, no need to go to Hospital

https://forward.com/news/national/442285/coronavirus-hydroxychloroquine-trump-doctor/

March 24, 2020

This doctor was already treating patients with Trump's 'gift from God' drug - before FDA approval

Ari Feldman

March 24, 2020

On Tuesday morning, the controversial and experimental coronavirus treatment program being run by a Hasidic doctor who claimed he had kept more than 500 symptomatic patients out of the hospital was shut down. By afternoon, after intervention from the White House, it was up and running again.

The doctor, Vladimir Zelenko, has been in isolation because he is immunocompromised. But he is directing perhaps the world's most extensive, unsanctioned medical experiment related to coronavirus Ñ the use of the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine to treat Covid-19, a something President Donald Trump has been touting for days as a "game changer" in the fight against the virus.

The experiment is controversial: Trump's top medical adviser, Dr. Anthony Fauci, has cautioned against use of the drug to treat the virus, calling evidence of its effectiveness "anecdotal." On Monday evening, New York banned off-label use of the drug, which is also used to treat lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, outside state-approved clinical trials.

But on Tuesday afternoon Vice President Mike Pence announced on Fox News that the Food and Drug Administration was approving off-label use of the drug "right now."

"Doctors can now prescribe chloroquine for that off-label purpose of dealing with the symptoms of coronavirus," Pence said.

Zelenko, 46, a Russian immigrant who became Hasidic as a young adult. and runs a medical practice in Orange County, N.Y., has been doing that for more than a week. His self-reported success Ñ no deaths among any of his clients, who are almost all Hasidic Jews Ñ has given him an audience on Fox News and across conservative news sites, as supporters of the president look to bolster Trump's attempts to curtail coronavirus Ñ and the economic repercussions Ñ as soon as possible.

Though he has been operating in uncharted medical territory, backed up by only a small number of studies, Zelenko has attracted interest from other doctors looking for ways to stem the growing wave of Covid-19 hospitalizations.

"I'm not claiming any miracle cures," Zelenko said in a telephone interview Tuesday morning. "I'm creative, and I think out of the box. We have an unprecedented health crisis Ñ it requires unique thinking."

Zelenko has been urging people in the ultra-Orthodox world to stay calm, even as he has sounded the alarm about potentially high rates of infection in Hasidic villages and neighborhoods. In a video message shared on WhatsApp, he said that the majority of people infected with the virus will require no treatment.

"You gotta relax," he said, speaking from the driver's seat of his car. "There is no room for young people to get nervous or cause hysteria, you will all be fine."

Zelenko has been directing his medical staff from quarantine in his home in Englewood, N.J., because he had his right lung removed last year during treatment for lung cancer. He said he is taking a low dose of hydroxychloroquine himself, prophylactically.

Zelenko said that he has been using a cocktail of drugs on his patients:

hydroxychloroquine, in combination with azithromycin Ñ an antibiotic to treat secondary infections Ñ and zinc sulfate, which studies have suggested slows down virus replication in the body. He said he had been administering the cocktail to patients with shortness of breath of any age, and those over 60 years old or who are immunocompromised and exhibiting milder symptoms. He said he is not treating asymptomatic people under 60 who are healthy or low risk.

He acknowledged that his regimen was new and untested, and that it was too soon to assess its long-term effectiveness. But he said he thinks the rewards of implementing his treatment method are much greater than the risks of waiting to verify its efficacy, and he insisted that he is seeing only positive results from using hydroxychloroquine, in combination with two other drugs, on an outpatient basis for patients at higher risk of dying from the virus.

His patients in Kiryas Joel are facing a potentially high rate of infection, due to their density and to the village's slowness to shut down all of its institutions in the wake of government-ordered school closures and restrictions on social gatherings. Their spiritual leader, Rabbi Aharon Teitelbaum, has been diagnosed with the virus.

Zelenko declined to say whether he was treating Teitelbaum with the regimen, but said that he could confirm that there was a "high" number of infections among the religious and spiritual leadership of the town.

Zelenko said that about 350 of the roughly 500 patients he has treated for coronavirus symptoms are from Kiryas Joel, while the other 150 live in the Monsey area, where his second clinic is located. He said he has largely not had his patients tested for coronavirus, because he worried that waiting for test results to begin treatment would compromise the treatment's effectiveness.

Shlomo Polachek, the patient representative for Hatzalah, the Orthodox paramedic service, in Monroe, N.Y., which borders Kiryas Joel, said that the Hasidic community there has seen three hospital admissions: two on Monday afternoon and one on Saturday who was released within 24 hours.

"Here in Monroe, it seems to be an indication that it works for the people," Polachek said of Zelenko's experimental treatment. "It's hard to say for sure."

Trump has been pushing for broader use of hydroxychloroquine since last week. On Sunday he said the drug "would be a gift from heaven, this would be a gift from God if it works."

But the experimental use of the drug goes against public-health officials' more cautious approach. Fauci, a top doctor at the National Institutes of Health, suggested that he would only make the drug available under the auspices of a controlled clinical trial.

On Monday evening, New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo released an executive order that effectively ended pharmacists' ability to prescribe hydroxychloroquine for use in treating Covid-19, and prohibited any experimental use of the drug outside of state-approved clinical trials. On Tuesday morning, at a press conference, he said that New York hospitals would begin using the drug that day, after Trump had encouraged him to try hydroxychloroquine on patients already admitted to hospitals.

"He sent it to me, I'm using it, today," Cuomo said. "If it works, great."

Zelenko said the idea behind his approach is to treat the spread of the virus in the body before it damages the lungs beyond repair. Once the lungs of a Covid-19 patient exhibit what's called acute respiratory distress syndrome, according to WHO, the patient's likelihood of death is about 50%, according to early estimates.

His method is based on very rough data presented in recent studies. One, from China, found that hydroxychloroquine was effective at stopping the spread of the novel coronavirus in petri dishes. A study from France released last week, based on a sample size of 20 patients, suggested the combination of the drug with azithromycin, a common antibiotic, appeared to be helpful in lowering the amount of coronavirus the body, and therefore buying time to treat the disease.

{WRONG: The French study announced that its treatment CURED the disease - Peter M.}

However neither study was comprehensive or done in a controlled setting, which is why health officials have pushed back against the use of the drug. But Zelenko said that his method, despite being untested, is necessary, as health officials predict more than 1 million deaths across the United States. He said he believes it is safe, because so far he has recorded minimal side effects.

"It's a no brainer Ñ in the right subset of patients," he said.

Already, public health officials in India and Jordan have authorized use of hydroxychlorquine for treating Covid-19. Some doctors in the U.S. are using the drug to treat the disease as well, as well as using it themselves to stave off infection as they treat coronavirus patients.

Trump has latched onto it as a "game changer" in fighting coronavirus as he pushes to reopen the American economy sooner than many health experts are advising. He wrongly stated last week that the FDA had approved the drug for treating the coronavirus. FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn said the drug would only be available "in the setting of a clinical trial Ñ a large, pragmatic clinical trial."

Zelenko said that he felt that hydroxychloroquine was not being taken seriously as a treatment due a combination of factors, including conservativeness on the part of the government's medical establishment in requiring a controlled clinical trial, as well as the fact that Trump himself has been pushing for the use of the drug.

"And this is a political year, with a presidential election, and there are forces at play that would prefer to see the economy collapse rather than President Trump to look good, in my opinion," Zelenko said.

Zelenko has already taken his message to Fox News commentator Sean Hannity's news program. On Monday evening, on his cable TV program, Hannity also read from a letter that Zelenko said he sent to Mark Meadows, Trump's chief of staff, and praised Zelenko's methods.

"I'm just blown away by all this," Hannity said in the radio interview.

Zelenko said that his regimen is also being studied by medical officials in Israel and Brazil.

He said that he has also been contacted by dozens of doctors interested in his regimen. One doctor who called him, Dr. Avery Knapp, a neuroradiologist with a practice in Florida, said that he realizes Zelenko's method is untested, but wants the government to investigate to see if his results are real.

"It seems to me to be a very interesting approach," said Knapp, who said he is not involved in treating coronavirus patients. "There's not a lot of US studies, but he's taking basically what a lot of hospitals are doing for inpatient, and he's taking it one step further, which is taking it to higher risk outpatients." ...

https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2020/03/stunning-ny-doctor-vladimir-zelenko-finds-100-success-rate-in-350-patients-using-hydroxychloroquine-with-z-paks-video/

{video} STUNNING! NY Doctor Vladimir Zelenko Finds 100% Success Rate in 350 Patients Using Hydroxychloroquine with Zinc (VIDEO)

by Jim Hoft March 23, 2020

Over the weekend Dr. Vladimir Zelenko from New York state announced he has found a treatment against the coronavirus with a 100% success rate on 350 patients.

Dr. Zelenko joined Sean Hannity earlier today on his radio program to discuss the results from his test.

{see video}

The New York doctor also posted a video explaining his success with hydroxychloroquine and Zinc . His treatment resulted in the shortness of breath issue being resolved in 4 to 6 hours. Dr. Zelenko in his study had zero deaths, zero hospitalizations and zero intubations!

Later on Monday evening Sean Hannity invited two more medical experts on to discuss Dr. Zelenko's coronavirus results. The two doctors were cautiously optimistic.

Via Hannity:

We updated this post to note Dr. Zelenko used Zinc supplement and not Z-Paks in his treatement.

(20) CDC knew Chloroquine effective against Coronavirus since 2005; Class Action against CDC

https://www.breitbart.com/politics/2020/03/19/chloroquine-known-as-effective-against-coronavirus-since-2005/

Delingpole: Chloroquine Known as Effective Against Coronavirus Since 2005

James Delingpole

19 Mar 2020

The world economy is collapsing because of the terror and mounting death toll caused by the Coronavirus pandemic. But the anti-malarial drug chloroquine is effective both as a prophylactic and treatment for the virus ­ and the medical establishment has known about this since at least the SARS coronavirus outbreak in 2005. What the hell is going on?

Yesterday, I reported the existence of three studies, all claiming that chloroquine phosphate had proved effective in treating the COVID-19.

This has since been confirmed by a more recent open-label non-randomised clinical trial in France by Didier RTaolt M.D. / Ph.D et al, completed just days ago. The sample was small but the results were convincing.

As the summary reports:

100% of patients that received a combination of HCQ and Azithromycin tested negative and were virologically cured within 6 days of treatment.

In addition, recent guidelines from South Korea and China report that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are effective antiviral therapeutic treatments for novel coronavirus.

But the story gets more extraordinary still. It turns out that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has known since at least 2005 that chloroquine is effective against coronaviruses.

In 2005, Martin J Vincent et al published a study in Virology Journal titled 'Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread.'

<https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-2-69>

Here are its findings:

Background

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (SARS-CoV). No effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapy is currently available. Results

We report, however, that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells. These inhibitory effects are observed when the cells are treated with the drug either before or after exposure to the virus, suggesting both prophylactic and therapeutic advantage. In addition to the well-known functions of chloroquine such as elevations of endosomal pH, the drug appears to interfere with terminal glycosylation of the cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This may negatively influence the virus-receptor binding and abrogate the infection, with further ramifications by the elevation of vesicular pH, resulting in the inhibition of infection and spread of SARS CoV at clinically admissible concentrations.

Conclusion

Chloroquine is effective in preventing the spread of SARS CoV in cell culture. Favorable inhibition of virus spread was observed when the cells were either treated with chloroquine prior to or after SARS CoV infection. In addition, the indirect immunofluorescence assay described herein represents a simple and rapid method for screening SARS-CoV antiviral compounds.

It ought to be no surprise that chloroquine is effective against both SARS and COVID-19. After all, they are both coronaviruses and COVID-19 has often been described in medical and research sources as SARS-2.

Chloroquine works by enabling the body's cells better to absorb zinc, which is key in preventing viral RNA transcription ­ and disrupting the often fatal cytokine storm.

As at least one person has noticed, the implications of this are enormous. If the medical establishment ­ including CDC ­ has been aware of the efficacy of chloroquine in treating coronavirus for at least 14 years, why has it not been mass produced and made available sooner?

Given that CDC knows that Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine is an effective treatment for COVID-19 and a prophylactic against infection.

There are grounds for everyone that has suffered and the families of those who have died for a Class Action Law suit against the CDC

Ñ Ian Wilson (@Le_Nautonnier) March 19, 2020

Here, you might have imagined, is the dream solution: a stop gap treatment for coronavirus which could save many lives and obviate the need for this global lockdown which is destroying our economies.

Why isn't the solution being shouted from the rooftops?

One possibility, as I suggested yesterday, is that there is no money in it for Big Pharma. Chloroquine is a generic drug. That's why Big Pharma's lobbyists have worked hard to persuade governments that there can be no acceptable solution till a patented vaccine is brought on to the market. Even if this happens it won't be till long after the pandemic is over ­ probably not till at least next year.

I don't think our businesses, our livelihoods, our sanity can wait that long. Do you?

(21) Vladimir Zelenko's success is a setback for CDC, MSM & Big Pharma which is developing a multibillion dollar vaccination program

https://www.globalresearch.ca/video-ny-doctor-vladimir-zelenko-finds-100-success-rate-350-patients-using-hydroxychloroquine-zinc/5707381

GR Editor's Note

This is a "potential" slap in the face to the CDC, the US media and Big Pharma which is developing a multibillion dollar vaccination program.

Big Pharma's intent -with the support of the Western media - is to suppress relevant information on the features of the virus and how it can be cured. Treatment is currently the object (in several countries including the US) of debate by virologists and physicians. Dr. Zelenko's treatment on the use of hydroxychloroquine is in this regard of utmost importance.

Michel Chossudovsky, Global Research, March 24, 2020

***

Over the weekend Dr. Vladimir Zelenko from New York state announced he has found a treatment against the coronavirus with a 100% success rate on 350 patients.

Dr. Zelenko joined Sean Hannity earlier today on his radio program to discuss the results from his test.

The New York doctor also posted a video explaining his success with hydroxychloroquine and Zinc. His treatment resulted in the shortness of breath issue being resolved in 4 to 6 hours. Dr. Zelenko in his study had zero deaths, zero hospitalizations and zero intubations!

Later on Monday evening Sean Hannity invited two more medical experts on to discuss Dr. Zelenko's coronavirus results.

The two doctors were cautiously optimistic.

END

(22) Peer-reviewed study of 2005 attests that Chloroquine inhibits SARS CoV

From: leo schmit <leoschmit@yahoo.com> Subject: Re: French Peer-Reviewed Study announces Cure for Coronavirus: HCQ + Azithromycin

Peter,

Here is another peer-reviewed study on HCQ of 2005! Apparently it has been on the shelf for 15 years. (I received this link through Tw)

https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-2-69

Conclusion

Chloroquine, a relatively safe, effective and cheap drug used for treating many human diseases including malaria, amoebiosis and human immunodeficiency virus is effective in inhibiting the infection and spread of SARS CoV in cell culture. The fact that the drug has significant inhibitory antiviral effect when the susceptible cells were treated either prior to or after infection suggests a possible prophylactic and therapeutic use.

Comment (Peter M.): That article from Virology is the basis for a possible Class Action against the CDC, for not preparing stocks of Chloroquine.

(23) Herbal remedies for Coronavirus: Quercetin, Coconut oil, Cinnamon, Ginger, Sage, Rosemary

From: Darren Cawley <d4rr3n_c@btinternet.com> Subject: Re: Prophylactic dose of Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine

Thanks Peter for all the excellent info.

I am taking Coconut oil as a preventative, I stir it into my coffee and drink it .

I addition I have brewed up an antiviral cocktail of herbs:

Cinnamon powder, Ginger Powder, Dried Sage, Dried Rosemary; Sweeten with molasses

Many of these herbs will actually destroy the HIV virus and we know this virus is similar

I also have 1000mg Quercetin tablets, its mode of functioning is the same as chloroquine, it causes inter cellular zinc levels to rise which makes virus replication difficult. The advantage is that Quercetin is cheap and you dont need a prescription to get it.

In addition I was looking for something that one could inhale to destroy the virus directly in the lungs so I have mixed Rosemary, lemon balm and cinnamon essential oil.

Fennel oil was found to reduce lung inflammation by over 80%, we know that lung inflammation is the major cause of death with this virus.

Coconut and COVID-19: Philippines studying antiviral properties of coconut oil as potential treatment

https://www.nutraingredients-asia.com/Article/2020/03/11/Coconut-and-COVID-19-Philippines-studying-antiviral-properties-of-coconut-oil-as-potential-treatment

The Philippines is looking to study virgin coconut oil (VCO) as a potential treatment for the novel coronavirus ...

Fennel Reduced Lung Inflammation by 86 Percent - Green Valley Natural Solutions

https://greenvalleynaturalsolutions.com/fennel-reduced-lung-inflammation-by-86-percent/

Volume 1: Issue #99 Fennel is a popular, tasty herb that chefs all over the world use to improve their entrees. ...

5 CoronaVirus Medication / Supplements for Treatment!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vs0KPr-Ok0g

5 Medication / Supplements for Treatment! Summary No Randomized control trial to prove these medications / metho...

(24) Philippines study of Virgin Coconut Oil as remedy for COVID-19

https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/02/24/20/ph-looks-into-efficacy-of-coconut-oil-against-covid-19

PH looks into efficacy of coconut oil against COVID-19

Arianne Merez, ABS-CBN News

Posted at Feb 24 2020 03:57 PM

MANILA- The Philippines is looking into the efficacy of using virgin coconut oil (VCO) to treat the 2019 new coronavirus (COVID-19), a new strain that has affected thousands worldwide.

Cabinet Secretary Karlo Nograles said Monday the Philippines has tapped the National University of Singapore to test the oil's effectivity to combat the virus.

"We are now preparing sending samples of VCO {Virgin Coconut Oil} for testing within the week," he told reporters in Malacañang.

Over 78,000 have been infected with the COVID-19 which causes flu-like symptoms.

China, the global epicenter of the virus, has the most number of cases at 77,000 followed by South Korea which has over 600 cases.

Using coconut oil as a possible antiviral agent against COVID-19 was first studied by Dr. Fabian Dayrit of the Ateneo de Manila University, and Dr. Mary Newport of Spring Hill Neonatolody, Inc. in their research titled "The Potential of Coconut Oil and its Derivatives as Effective and Safe Antiviral Agents Against the Novel Coronavirus (nCoV-2019)" published on Jan. 31, 2020.

The study proposes an extensive research on the potential of coconut oil as a safe agent against COVID-19 given that it has significant amount of lauric acid which contains elements that have shown to have "potent antiviral properties."

It added that coconut oil and its derivatives have been shown to be "safe and effective antiviral compounds in both humans and animals."

"Given the considerable scientific evidence for the antiviral activity of coconut oil, lauric acid and its derivatives and their general safety, and the absence of a cure for nCoV-2019, we urge that clinical studies be conducted among patients who have been infected with nCoV-2019," the study stated.

"This treatment is affordable and virtually risk-free, and the potential benefits are enormous," it added.

The Philippines at present has no confirmed cases of COVID-19. It earlier confirmed 3 cases, all foreign nationals who came from the Chinese City of Wuhan. One of the patients died but the 2 others have since recovered.

(25) Nevada prohibits prescribing CQ HCQ

From: "Liliana_Dumitrescu" <marquisdeart@embarqmail.com> Subject: Re: Prophylactic dose of Chloroquine or Hydroxychloroquine

Gov. Sisolak signs emergency regulation restricting drug distribution during COVID-19 Posted: 3:48 PM, Mar 24, 2020 Updated: 3:59 PM, Mar 24, 2020

LAS VEGAS (KTNV) Ñ Gov. Steve Sisolak signed an emergency regulation today related to the prescription of two drugs that some are saying may help patients with COVID-19.

While the drugs serve necessary medical purposes, there is no consensus among COVID-19 experts or NevadaÕs own medical health advisory team that the two drugs provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. The emergency regulation is aimed at preventing hoarding of the drugs.

"This emergency regulation protects Nevadans who needs these drugs for legitimate medical purposes. At this point in time, there is no known cure for COVID-19 and we must not withhold these drugs from those who need them," said Gov. Steve Sisolak.

"The best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is to stay home for Nevada, not to stockpile these drugs."

The regulation prohibits the prescribing and dispensing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for a COVID-19 diagnosis, requires an ICD-10 code on prescriptions for the drugs and limits the prescription amount to a 30-day supply for the drugs.

The emergency regulation will ensure access for Nevada patients to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for legitimate medical purposes.

"This emergency regulation is a strong step in protecting patients. While studies are underway on the usefulness of these drugs in treating COVID-19, we must deal with facts, not fiction," said Dr. Ishan Azzam, the chief medical officer for the state Division of Public and Behavioral Health. "Preserving these drugs for those who need it is the right decision."

(26) Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

From: Stanley Young <stanjyoung@sbcglobal.net> Subject: Re: Herbal remedies for Coronavirus: Quercetin, Coconut oil, Cinnamon, Ginger, Sage, Rosemary

Peter, Thanks so much for all your work and for relaying what all you find. Re Quercetin, I found this from a gov't. site which is very favorable but of course no in-depth studies have been done since it's not funded by Big Pharma:

Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808895/

Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

See this in the Abstract: "In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities ... ". [emphasis added]

Stan Y.

P.S. I should add that I'm apparently not a good candidate for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine since I read that people with "retinopathy" shouldn't use them and in reading abt. that condition one of the symptoms is if you have "floaters" in the visual field, which I have had since childhood; thus the interest in alternative natural remedies. Apparently, if I were to use a lot of the above 2, it could lead to blindness. Doubt that would occur with quercetin, though.

Reply (Peter M.): Stan, I have had "floaters" for the last few years (I'm getting old); but I'm taking Chloroquine. My tablets are 40 years old; I'm one of those people who does not throw out old medicines. I don't pay much attention to "use by" dates.

I'm taking 2x 250mg tablets once a week. But on day 2 I took an extra 2, because there's a delayed effect. This dose is similar to that recommended by the Government of India for HCQ to prevent Covid-19. Knowing this dosage allows me to self-medicate with confidence; otherwise I might have taken too much. The dosage to fight Covid-19 after you get it is much higher.

In 1980, after a visit to Papua New Guinea, I began getting big boils on my legs. A government lab could find nothing. Antibiotics would get rid of them for a while, but they kept coming back. Finally, a GP in my home town (Sheffield, Tasmania), sent a specimen to a different lab, a private one, and the result came back - Bubonic Plague. A rat had bitten me on the toe, one night, in the Highlands.

The lab found that only one antibiotic would kill it - Gentomycin. But there were possible adverse side-effects - to my hearing or sight, can't remember which. Anyway, I took the Gentomycin, the boils went away, and those side-effects have not yet happened. I still have a hollow on one leg, where the biggest boil was.

I was told that my blood would be worth bottling - because it had antibodies to the plague.

I'm not suggesting that you try the CQ or HCQ. But I eat plenty of Bitter Melon (in stir-fries) when it's bearing, without noticeable side-effects, and it contains quinine compounds.

I take herbal medicines for my Prostate: Stinging Nettle Root powder (1/2 tsp a day), and Prosta Response, from Source Naturals, one tablet a day. It's an expensive tablet, but it contains lots of ingredients, including Quercetin. The recommended dose is 2 tablets, but I take only one, on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning.

(27) Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728566/

Wenjiao Wu,1 Richan Li,1 Xianglian Li,1 Jian He,1 Shibo Jiang,2,3 Shuwen Liu,1,* and Jie Yang1,2,*

Wenjiao Wu

1 State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China

2 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; nc.ude.naduf@gnaijobihs

3 Key Lab of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministries of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China

Here we found that quercetin inhibited influenza infection with a wide spectrum of strains ... Mechanism studies identified that quercetin showed interaction with the HA2 subunit. Moreover, quercetin could inhibit the entry of the H5N1 virus using the pseudovirus-based drug screening system. This study indicates that quercetin showing inhibitory activity in the early stage of influenza infection provides a future therapeutic option to develop effective, safe and affordable natural products for the treatment and prophylaxis of IAV infections. ==

(28) Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid) found in brightly-coloured fruits & veg

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-294/quercetin

Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid). It is found in many plants and foods, such as red wine, onions, green tea, apples, berries, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort, American elder, and others. Buckwheat tea has a large amount of quercetin. People use quercetin as a medicine.

Quercetin is most commonly taken by mouth to treat conditions of the heart and blood vessels and prevent cancer. It is also used for arthritis, bladder infections, and diabetes. But there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

Quercetin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which might help reduce inflammation, kill cancer cells, control blood sugar, and help prevent heart disease.

Comment (Peter M.): When it says, "Quercetin is a plant pigment", this means that it found in brightly coloured (eg red or purple or yellow) fruits & vegetables. "Red wine" means Black Grapes; "onions" means Red / Purple Onions. "Apples" means Red Apples. Red Capsicum and Yellow Capsicum would also contain Quercetin. Also bright red or yellow tomatoes, and Blackberry, Cranberry and Blueberry fruits.

However, you might need to eat a lot of fruits to get enough Quercetin. It may be easier to buy a supplement.

(29) Ministry of Truth (Globalist MSM) brand Didier Raoult's Chloroquine cure 'Fake News'

https://www.rt.com/op-ed/484102-raoult-chloroquine-coronavirus-treatment/

This scientist suggested a drug to treat Covid-19. 'Fact checkers' branded him fake news

Nebojsa Malic is a Serbian-American journalist, blogger and translator, who wrote a regular column for Antiwar.com from 2000 to 2015, and is now senior writer at RT. Follow him on Twitter @NebojsaMalic

Mar 26, 2020

Amid a pandemic panic over the coronavirus, evidence for a possibly effective treatment has been denounced as 'fake news' ­ even when offered by a renowned scientist with decades of experience.

Take Didier Raoult, a French microbiologist with undeniable expertise, even if some of his views are about as eccentric as his appearance. Though he may look like he just stepped out of an Alexandre Dumas novel, the director of the Mediterranean University Hospital Institute in Marseille cited not one but three different studies from China showing that the anti-malaria drug called chloroquine has been effective in treating Covid-19 patients.

#chloroquine Pr Didier Raoult : «C'est quand les patients ont des formes modérées, moyennes, ou qui commencent à s'aggraver, qu'il faut les traiter. A ce moment là on contrôle les virus qui se multiplient. Quand ils sont rentrés en réanimation, le problème ce n'est plus le virus» pic.twitter.com/WolGe2o05z Ñ Alex (@AlexLeroy90) March 25, 2020

That did not stop Le Monde, France's biggest newspaper, of declaring his February 25 video as "partially false." Raoult's 'sin' was to argue that the common anti-malaria drug used widely for decades resulted in "dramatic improvements" among those afflicted by the virus.

As a result of Le Monde's fact-check, anyone attempting to share Dr. Raoult's videos on Facebook gets a banner saying the information therein was "partially false" as "determined by independent fact-checkers."

The main argument put forward by those critical of the drug is that more testing is required before it can be officially approved as treatment for the coronavirus. As the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) puts it, "There are no currently available data from Randomized Clinical TrialsÉto inform clinical guidance on the use, dosing, or duration of hydroxychloroquine" treatments for Covid-19.

Which is fair enough, but last time I checked, there was a pandemic going on, with billions of people locked in their homes and all business grinding to a halt across the globe, over apocalyptic predictions of hospitals brimming with corpses due to this coronavirus.

Should any kind of treatment ­ especially a drug that has been used safely for decades to treat something else, with side effects meticulously documented ­ be so cavalierly rejected, under the circumstances? Do "experts" really think the world has the luxury of waiting for months or even years for their controlled lab studies?

As for the fact-checkers, shouldn't they have applied the same rigor to the models used to scare everyone into hoarding toilet paper and setting off a depression orders of magnitude worse than anything the world has ever seen?

To ask these questions is to answer them, yet no one seems to bother. Nor is this sort of selective blindness endemic to France; across the Atlantic, the mainstream media raised their voices in unison against chloroquine after US President Donald Trump brought it up as a possible treatment ­ apparently referring to Dr. Raoult's work.

They went so far as to widely circulate a deliberately misleading story about an Arizona couple that ate fish tank cleaner ­ chloroquine phosphate, clearly labeled not for human consumption ­ as somehow Trump's fault. Some of them quietly amended it to specify the difference, but long after the original story ­ implying they took the actual medication praised by the president ­ literally went viral and poisoned the minds of millions.

Worse yet, as a result of this media blitz, the governor of Nevada actually banned using chloroquine to treat Covid-19 patients this week, saying there was "no consensus among experts or Nevada doctors" that the anti-malaria drug can treat coronavirus sufferers. There were no angry editorials denouncing Steve Sisolak, a Democrat, for letting people die or the coronavirus rather than have them treated with a drug endorsed by the Republican president and the media's favorite hate object.

One would think the world paralyzed with fear of the invisible death would pounce on every possible solution, no matter how unlikely it seems. That's what we're shown in Hollywood disaster movies, after all. Yet when such a solution presents itself, it is dismissed and denounced as "not proven"!

We're supposed to blindly trust apocalyptic models produced by panic-mongering political hacks, but ignore the man who says the drug brought him back from the brink of death, even though his story can be easily verified and theirs cannot.

"Preferring opinions to facts is a disease," Dr. Raoult told the French magazine Marianne last week. Just so.

I don't know if hydroxychloroquine works on Covid-19. Dr. Raoult seems to believe so, and he's not alone. In the absence of better solutions ­ and locking billions of people in their homes indefinitely is not one ­ don't we owe humanity to at least try? What do we have to lose?

In the three months or so since the coronavirus first appeared in China, there has been a lot of conflicting, confusing and outright false information about it. One thing that has consistently proven true, however, is that the biggest obstacle in effectively battling its spread and treating the afflicted has been the obtuse insistence of the political and medical establishment on blindly following their rules. If the virus is truly threatening to kill millions, as they say, they would not value procedures over saving lives. Nevertheless, they persist. It makes one wonder why.

END

My other pages on the Coronavirus are:

Coronavirus was developed in a Wuhan lab as a BioWeapon: coronavirus.html .

Helicopter money: Central Banks should directly fund government deficits: coronavirus-finance.html .

Copyright: Peter Myers asserts the right to be identified as the author of the material written by him on this website, being material that is not otherwise attributed to another author.

END

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