No Holes? No Holocaust?, by Charles D. Provan

For an update on this topic see http://mailstar.net/Provan/Provan-Holes.html.

Peter Myers, February 9, 2009; update December 12, 2015

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No Holes? No Holocaust?, by Charles D. Provan

Provan mixed in Revisionist circles, but came to realize that they were wrong about the Gassings (in mobile vans and in fixed chambers). He presented this paper to a Revisionist forum (The IHR), but neither the IHR nor other Revisionists had any interest in publishing it, despite calling for "Free and Open Debate".

Provan still retained many Revisionist ideas, and for that reason the Afformer/Believer side did not want to publish it either.

Provan published his paper No Holes? No Holocaust?, with photos, at his website called Revising Revisionism <http://www.revisingrevisionism.com/>, but since his death it's been removed.

However the text is still online, thanks to the Internet Archive, at http://web.archive.org/web/20010302035524/http://www.revisingrevisionism.com/

Because the text has been unavailable for years, except for people who know how to look up the Internet Archive, this email bulletin will re-introduce it to the Holocaust Debate.

Provan numbered the various holes on the roof of Krema 2, and concluded that Holes 2, 6, and 8 were used for inserting Zyklon B.

Only one of his photos is still online, photo 16 (of hole 8), at the link below.

Photos of Holes 2, 6, and 8

His photo 16 is a photo of Hole 8; it's still online at the archive of his site: http://web.archive.org/web/20020505195640/http://revisingrevisionism.com/imgs/Auschwitz16.jpg

Provan's Hole 2 (Mazal's & Keren's hole 1) is at: http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/images/1998/Keren/hole-roof-1.jpg

Provan's Hole 6 (Mazal's & Keren's hole 2) is at: http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/images/1998/Keren/hole-roof-2.jpg

Here is Provan's Conclusion:

{quote} We are left with one other form of evidence: archaeological. This evidence shows that there are three locations on the roof which fit the evidence of the eyewitnesses regarding the presence of roof holes. The holes we have examined, and labeled as Holes 2, 6, and 8, are all holes on the side of the central roof column. All three line up immediately next to roof support pillars, namely Pillars 1, 3, and 5, making them located in a pattern which would enable the Germans to gas the victims more effectively and quickly, an obvious consideration. Meeting valid Revisionist criticism of Hole 7 [83], all three of our candidates have suffered significant damage from the explosion which destroyed the building towards the end of the war. Concerning the fourth Zyklon B hole (presumably next to Pillar 7, the roof is under the surface, so we couldn't observe anything. We cannot prove it is there. But based upon the collapse of the 20 year old Revisionist assertion that there "are no holes in the roof of Krema 2's gas chamber", we would be willing to place a large bet that one is there too.

The "No Holes, No 'Holocaust'" argument is no longer possible to make, since there are three suitable areas where there are holes in the roof, in accord with eyewitness testimony, with the fourth unobservable. Since the Revisionists are now deprived of their absolutist argument, and since the other forms of evidence cannot prove the case one way or another, we are again able to view the statements of the various eyewitnesses as possible, and therefore the dominant evidence in the case. According to the dominant evidence, the underground room, called Leichenkeller 1 on the German blueprints, was in fact a homicidal poison gas chamber, used to kill many thousands of Jews during the latter years of World War II. {endquote}

No Holes? No Holocaust?

A Study of the Holes in the Roof of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2 at Birkenau

By Charles D. Provan

Copyright ©2000-2001 by Charles D. Provan. All rights reserved under copyright law. It may not by copied or duplicated, in part or in whole, without express permission from the author.

{Provan since passed away. His widow Carol gave me permission to publish No Holes? No Holocaust?. Notes are at the end. The version below, dated 2001, is slightly different from the version delivered to the IHR in 2000. A complete image scan of the 2000 version, including colour plates, is at Provan-Holes.html - Peter Myers}

With the finish of the Irving Lawsuit vs. Deborah Lipstadt, the Holocaust Revisionists have emerged apparently victorious on several issues. One of the most important of these concerns the gas chamber of Krematorium 2 [1] at Auschwitz-Birkenau, which is credited with killing more people than any other at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp Complex. The Revisionists are now claiming total victory regarding the poison introduction holes in the roof of Krematorium 2's large underground gas chamber [2].

The Revisionist historians have been saying for some years that the biggest single proof that the gas chamber [3] of Krematorium 2 was in fact not used to murder Jews; is the fact that there are no holes in the roof. Hence their slogan "No Holes, No 'Holocaust' [4] ". As an example, let us now quote from Germar Rudolf.

"The result of my report, as I am summarizing them today is: When it was being operated, there were no holes in the roof of the alleged homicidal gas chamber of Krematorium II in Birkenau, allegedly the most frequently used gas chamber of all. And it is most likely that there were no holes in the twin Krematorium no. III as well. But without holes, no gassings according to the scenario as described by the eye witnesses, without such gassings, no reliable eye witnesses, and without reliable witnesses no evidence for the Holocaust. Or, as Robert [Faurisson] put it: "NO HOLES, NO 'HOLOCAUST' " [5]

As another Revisionist Publication states:

"Simply the fact that the vents used to insert Zyklon B crystals into subsurface "gas chambers" obviously did not exist at the time of the alleged killings, should have been enough to cause the whole Holocaust edifice to tremble. In fact, the whole chemical discussion regarding the interpretation of the analysis results can be dispensed with, until it is explained how the Zyklon B got into the "gas chambers" in Crematorium II and III - - the alleged principal extermination locations of the Third Reich - - at all. No Zyklon B insertion vents, no Zyklon B; no Zyklon B, no poison gas; no poison gas, no mass killings with poison gas; no mass killings with poison gas, no truthful eyewitness accounts; no truthful eyewitness accounts, no evidence; no evidence, no demonstrable crime." [6]

In the recently finished trial in England wherein David Irving sued Deborah Lipstadt for libel, David Irving stated that he would end his lawsuit if only he could be shown the holes supposed to be in the roof of the gas chamber of Krematorium 2:

MR. IRVING: ...[To the defense witness, Van Pelt; CDP] You have not seen any holes in the roof, have you, in the - - when you went there? You have not found any holes? VAN PELT: I have not seen the holes for the columns, no. IRVING: May I say that if the Auschwitz authorities were now to agree to clean off that rubble off the top of that concrete slab and find the holes I would tomorrow halt this case and abandon my action. [7]

To examine the problem of the gas chamber holes, which is of great importance to history, it is proper to examine the various forms of evidence pertinent to the subject. Beginning with eyewitness testimony, we shall proceed to other historical testimony, then onwards to the evidence provided by Allied aerial photography, German blueprints and German construction photos. After a synthesis of eyewitness and blueprint evidence with be new archaeological evidence, compiled in March of 2000.

Primary Eyewitness Testimony

We shall now list some of the eyewitness testimony of those who said they saw the underground gas chamber at Krematorium 2, and commented upon the holes in its roof. In addition, we will list some of the earlier post-war information. In this manner, we shall attempt to analyze the details to ascertain where the roof holes would be, if any trace remained of them on the roof of Leichenkeller 1.

1. Rudolf Höß, Kommandant of Auschwitz-Birkenau:

"Q And how did the gassing take place? "A It was all below ground. In the ceiling of the gas chambers, there were three or four openings that were fenced around with a grating that reached to the floor of the gas chamber, and through these openings the gas was poured into the gas chambers." [8]

2. Henryk Tauber, member of the Sonderkommando [9] at Auschwitz-Birkenau:

"The roof of the gas chamber was supported by concrete pillars running down the middle of its length. On either side of these pillars there were four others, two on each side. The sides of these pillars, which went up through the roof, were of heavy wire mesh. Inside this grid, there was another of finer mesh and inside that a third of very fine mesh. Inside this last mesh cage there was a removable can that was pulled out with a wire to recover the pellets from which the gas had evaporated." [10]

"Through the window of the 'Boiler room', I observed how the 'Cyklon' was poured into the gas chamber. Each transport was followed by a vehicle with Red Cross markings which entered the yard of the crematorium, carrying the camp doctor, Mengele, accompanied by Rottenführer Scheimetz. They took the cans of 'Cyklon' from the car and put them beside the small chimneys used to introduce the 'Cyklon' into the gas chamber. There, Scheimetz opened them with a special cold chisel and a hammer, then poured the contents into the gas chamber. Then he closed the orifice with a concrete cover. As there were four similar chimneys, Scheimetz poured into each the contents of one of the smallest cans of 'Cyklon', which had yellow labels pasted right round them." [11]

"The undressing room and the gas chamber were covered first with a concrete slab then with a layer of soil sown with grass. There were four small chimneys, the openings through which the gas was thrown in, that rose above the gas chamber. These openings were closed by concrete covers with two handles." [12]

3. Karl Schultze, employed by J. A. Topf and Sons at the gas chamber at Auschwitz-Birkenau to install the ventilation system:

"Question: Tell about the internal arrangement of a gas chamber.

"Schultze: The building was eight meters wide and thirty meters long. Inside it was completely empty. The height came to 2.6 meters. In the ceiling were four square openings, 25 x 25 centimeters." [13]

4. Salmen Lewantal, Member of the Sonderkommando:

"When finally all were gathered, they were driven to the gas bunker. Ear-piercing cries of despair and loud weeping were heard [...] terrible [...] they expressed immense pain [...] various muffled voices merged together [...] and proceeded from under the ground until the car of the humanitarian Red cross arrived [...] and put an end to their pain and despair [...]. After throwing 4 tins of the gas through the small upper doors and after sealing them hermetically, silence soon reigned." [14]

5. Konrad Morgen, SS Judge and Criminal Investigator for the RKPA [15]

"Then they went into the shower room, which was locked. In this moment an SS man in a gas suit stepped above an external air shaft and poured a box of Blausaeure [hydrocyanic acid] into the room." [16]

"Yes, I'll tell you about it, Mr. Ponger. Just a moment, this establishment, in my opinion, was not very modern, at least not too complicated, but at least a very simple construction, because the so-called gas chambers were simple cellars which had been built with cement; the installations were rather primitive and the gas was inserted in a crystalline manner through a special shaft which went down from above down below. Therefore, they were installations which one could have built with their own means at their disposal with a few tools. It was something entirely different with the crematoria possibly...." [17]

6. Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, Autopsy Assistant to Dr. Josef Mengele

"...there was no furnishing whatsoever in this hall, not even any windows. This was the gas chamber. The heavy oak doors were closed behind them, lights were turned off and within a few minutes, a luxurious Red Cross car appeared, from which a physician in the rank of a Colonel and a medical officer took 4 (four) tin cans, each weighing roughly two pounds. The four concrete slabs, which at ground level covered the ventilation valves going down to the bunker were taken away. The men then put on gas masks, broke through the paper covers of the ends, and poured chlorine granules, the size of beans, and lilac or rather wine colored, through those four valves into the gas chamber, and then closed the valves again with the concrete slabs. ...The granules fell down and through contact with the air, a chlorine gas was produced which within five to ten minutes caused death through agonizing suffocation." [18]

"I can say the following about the gassing of prisoners with Cyclon B in the underground gas chambers of Birkenau: On the basis of my personal observations - - I often had to remove medicines and eyeglasses from the disrobing room near the gas chamber, after going through the handbags of those who had been gassed - - I know that the doors were closed and that the lights were turned out centrally when the mass of people were in the gas chamber. At this moment a black painted Red Cross vehicle arrived. An SS officer and a Security Service official climbed out of the car. They held four green enameled tins in their hands. They went to the low concrete chimneys, which were covered with concrete lids, and they put gas masks on. The tins were opened, and the contents of the tins - - Cyclon B in kernel form of a pink-lilac color - - were thrown into the opening. The kernels did not spread out in the gas chamber since they fell downward through perforated tubes and immediately gave off the gas through contact with the air." [20]

7. Paul Bendel, Doctor to the Sonderkommando

"The convoy of the condemned entered via a wide stone stairway into a big underground room that served as an undressing room. The order was given that everyone had to bathe and then go for disinfestation. Each person attached his things together and, supreme illusion, placed them on a numbered hanger. From there, completely naked, he went through a narrow corridor into the gas chambers proper (there were two) [20]. Built of reinforced concrete, they had such low ceilings that they gave the impression on entering that they were falling on you. In the middle of these chambers, descending from the ceiling, were two mesh tubes with external valves through which the gas was introduced." [21]

"Q. How was the gas inserted? A. There were two methods of infiltrating the gas. In Crematoria 1 and 2 [22], it came from the roof and it came straight down until it touched the floor." [23]

8. Josef Erber, Auschwitz Gestapo Officer

"In each of these gassing areas were two ducts [24]: in each duct, four iron pipes ran from the floor to the roof. These were encased with steel mesh wire and inside there was a tin canister with a low rim. Attached to this tin was a wire by which it could be pulled up to the roof. Each of the ducts was covered over with an iron lid on the roof. When the lids were lifted, one could pull up the tin cannister and shake the gas crystals into it. Then the canister was lowered, and the lid closed." [25]

9. Filip Muller, Member of the Sonderkommando at Auschwitz-Birkenau

"We were standing in a large oblong room measuring about 250 square meters. Its unusually low ceiling and walls were whitewashed. Down the length of the room concrete pillars supported the ceiling. However, not all the pillars served this purpose: for there were others, too. The zyclon B gas crystals were inserted through opening into hollow pillars made of sheet metal. They were perforated at regular intervals and inside them a spiral ran from top to bottom in order to ensure as even a distribution of the granular crystals as possible." [26]

Some Other Testimonies of Lesser Value

10. Testimony of Egon Ochshorn, inmate of Auschwitz-Birkenau

"I saw the lorries with the Jews marked for gassing arriving at the Gas chambers and crematorium. I saw how the Jews were bestially driven into the undressing-halls of the Gas chambers naked. I saw how there unfortunates were handed soap and towel as if they were going to bath. I also saw how, after the Gas chambers had been stuffed with human beings the doors were closed, a Gas bomb was taken out of a Red Cross lorry, how the Duty SS Officer handed the bomb to the SS man; how the latter put on his respirator, prepared the bomb and how he threw the lethal Gas bomb through a hole in the roof of the Gas chamber, which looked from a distance like a bee-hive, and how he immediately reported to the Officer." [27]

11. Dr. Filip Friedman, Director of the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland

"The victims had to strip naked here and go into the second section, which was the gas chamber proper. This chamber, 12 metres by 6 metres in size, could be divided into two halves. It depended on the number of people to be treated whether a half or the whole of the chamber was used. The chamber resembled a public baths in appearance. Everything was done to keep up this illusion. For this reason there were signs on the walls reading: "Cleanliness is Important," and "Don't Forget Your Soap and Towel!" There were hollow pillars in all four corners, and when the chamber was full, gas bombs were dropped into the pillars from above." [28]

12. Janda Weiss, Member of the Sonderkommando at Auschwitz-Birkenau

"In front of the gas chamber was a dressing room. On its walls was written in all languages: "Put shoes into the cubbyholes and tie them together so you will not lose them. After the showers you will receive hot coffee." Here the poor victims undressed themselves and went into the chamber. There were three columns for the ventilators, through which the gas poured in. A special work detail with truncheons drove the poeple into the chamber. When the room was full, small children were thrown in through a window." [29]

13. Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, escapees of Auschwitz-Birkenau

"From there a door and a few steps lead down into the very long and narrow gas chamber. The walls of this chamber are also camouflaged with simulated entries to show rooms in order to mislead the victims. The roof is fitted with three traps which can be hermetically closed from the outside." [30]

14. Ota Krauss and Erich Kulka, inmates of Auschwitz-Birkenau

"The gas chamber was somewhat shorter than the undressing-room and looked like a communal bathroom. The showers in the roof, of course, were not used for water. Water taps were placed along the walls. Between the concrete pillars were two iron pillars, 1 ft x 1 ft, covered in thickly plaited wire. These pillars passed through the concrete ceiling to the grassy terrace mentioned above; there they terminated in airtight trap-doors into which the SS men fed the cyclon gas. The purpose of the plaited wire was to prevent any interference with the cyclon crystals. These pillars were a later addition to the gas chambers and hence do not appear in the plan." [31]

15. Werner Krumme, inmate of Auschwitz-Birkenau

"Then the shower rooms were closed hermetically. Above the ground level the building had small windows, through which the SS guards then threw a substance developing into poisonous gas. It was here where the Nazis tried out all kings of new poisonous gasses which they needed for their war efforts." [32]

16. Alfred Franke-Gricksch, Officer in General von Herff's SS Personnel Main Office

"They then go through a small corridor and arrive in a big basement room that resembles a shower room. In this room, there are three big pillars. Into these it is possible from above, outside the basement, to lower certain products; After 300 to 400 people have gathered in this room, the doors are closed and from above the containers with the products are lowered into the pillars. When the containers reach the floor of the pillars,. They produce certain substances that put the people to sleep in one minute. A few minutes later, the door on the other side is opened, leading to a lift." [33]

Analysis of the "Testimony of Lesser Value"

We think that it is proper to list some reasons why we do not regard the accounts listed in the above category as being of the same importance as those in the prior section. We shall go in the order of presentation.

Egon Ochshorn (#10) Mr. Ochshorn describes things impossible to see, unless he was allowed inside the Krematorium. For example, he mentions how he saw the handing out of soap and towels and the "stuffing" of the gas chamber, when he was an observer only from the outside. Ochshorn could see the gas chambers in operation from Barracks 27 of Birkenau Camp B1, which allowed a good view, but only from some distance away, through a fence. This good view, however, did not allow him to view the inside operations.

Dr. Friedman (#11) His account is obviously hearsay, since it includes the information that the hollow gas introduction pillars were in all four corners of the gas chamber, which is not true. It neither accords with the accounts of the eyewitnesses, nor with the ruins of the gas chambers still extant at Birkenau. Neither does Dr. Friedmen explain how the Nazi's could divide the gas chambers into two when the stationary pillars were in the four corners. Such gassings would be "off-balance".

Janda Weiss (#12) We do not think that Weiss was really a Sonderkommando member. Since Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2 was already divided into two by the end of 1943 [34], and Weiss didn't arrive until 1944, it seems difficult to explain how only three columns could have functioned in two separated gas chambers. Note also Weiss's statement that Leichenkeller 1 had windows through which the Nazi's could toss in children. This is definitely contradictory to Dr. Nyiszli, who lived in the Krematorium, and the blueprints and eyewitnesses show that the entire cellar was covered with a layer of dirt, approximately half a meter thick.

Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler (#13) This witness was not an eyewitness, but rather gathered the information from various camp sources [35]. Hence the erroneous layout of the gas chamber facilities in the publication we cited.

Kraus and Kulka (#14) Many details of these two are in accord with the eyewitnesses and blueprints, but clearly in error about the number of gas induction pillars. By implication, since the blueprints show 7 concrete pillars, there would be 12 gas pillars (two between each pair of pillars). Making the account even more unlikely is the fact that aligning these gas pillars between the concrete pillars would mean that the gas pillars would pass through the central roof beam (about twice as thick as the ceiling), greatly increasing the difficulty of installation, and substantially weakening the roof structure.

Krumme (#15) Krumme makes the same mistake as Weiss and mentions windows, unless he is not being too precise and just means openings. In any case, nothing in detail is added, except his dubious idea of the Nazi's experimenting with various poison gasses for war. In reality, the Germans never used the advanced poison combat gasses they already had.

Franke-Gricksch (#16) This account exists only in a transcription made by a U.S. Army war crimes investigator. We cannot validate this account, since: there is no original; it is almost "too good to be true", containing a reference to the long sought but never found "Führer Order To Kill The Jews"; it has no history as a document; d) it has many errors contained therein. The very worst of the errors is the "eyewitness" observation of a door with an elevator nearby on the other side of the gas chamber at Krematorium 2. As anyone can observe from the ruins or the blueprints, there is nothing but a thick brick wall on the far side of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2.

Even worse is the fact that Frank-Gricksch's report on gassing the Jews at Auschwitz supposedly was for his superior, SS General Maximilian von Herff. After the war, an adjutant of General von Herff named Siegfried Rothemund testified that when rumors of the extermination of the Jews began to circulate, von Herff ordered Rothemund to investigate by sending official inquiries to the State Police and the concentration camp authorities. Both agencies denied that the Jews were being killed, and asserted that this was just enemy propaganda like that of the First World War. According to another von Herff staff member (Rudolf Schneider), when General von Herff found out the truth at Himmler's famous October 4, 1943 speech, he protested the decision to murder the Jews, along with two other SS Generals, Phleps and Steiner. [36]

Aerial Photographic Evidence of the Gas Chamber Roof Holes

This consists of Air Force photographs of Auschwitz-Birkenau made during the war. In the The Holocaust Revisited [37], the 1979 Booklet published by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, there are aerial photographs of Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp, some of which include the two large Krematoria, and especially the one we have been investigating; Krema 2, with its Leichenkeller 1, the underground cellar. The underground cellar was according to eyewitnesses used as a gas chamber. Indeed, it is supposed to have been the gas chamber in which the most victims were put to death.

In any case, the CIA photos are in some cases marked with explanatory remarks. In the August 25, 1944 photo shown on pg. 11, the underground Leichenkeller is labelled "gas chamber" and has an additional arrow pointing to one of four "smudgey" spots on the roof, with the label "vent". The four spots on the gas chamber are roughly in line, while 4 spots on the large underground Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 3 (across the road, to the north) are zigzagged.. The text reads, "On the roof of the sub-surface gas chambers, we can see the vents used to insert the Zyklon B gas crystals." [38]

It is this author's studied opinion that the CIA labeling of the smudgey marks on the roof of the Leichenkeller under discussion is somewhat simplistic at best. Shortly after the CIA book was published, the Revisionists began to criticize various aspects. Dittlieb Felderer remarked in 1979: "Sufficient is to say at this moment that, if the photograph of the Birkenau camp on page 12 is genuine, then, another explanation must be sought for the air vents at Crematories 2 and 3 as these photographs are supposed to indicate. Besides, they do not look like air vents to us. Rather they look like lines which someone has put in. The length of some of them are 2mm which would indeed be lengthy air vents. However we have carefully examined the roofs of both buildings and no such air vents could be found." [39]

Since then the major criticism of the CIA booklet has been by John Clive Ball, a geologist with years of experience in examining aerial photographs for mineral exploration. His book was entitled Air Photo Evidence, Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Sobibor, Bergen Belsen, Belzec, Babi Yar, Katyn Forest [40] Ball concluded in his study of the aerial photographs that the CIA took the liberty of adding things to the photographs, including some of the smudgey marks.

No matter what one thinks of the authenticity of the smudgey marks, it is impossible to view them, whether authentic or not, as "vents". The eyewitness testimony mentions that the Zyklon B vents extended only a short distance above the earth covering of the gas chamber. For example, Dr. Nyiszli spoke about "low concrete chimneys", and "the four concrete slabs, which at ground level covered the ventilation valves going down to the bunker". (See above testimony.) At such a low height, the chimneys would not be very high, and hence would cast only a very small shadow, if any at all, on aerial photographs. But if the smudgey marks are shadows, the height has been calculated as about 3 meters in height, using the known height of the Krematorium chimney, and the length of its shadow as a reference. [41]

Several years ago, this author wrote a letter to Mr. Dino A. Brugioni (one of the authors of the CIA report) and mentioned the problem of labeling the smudgey marks as "vents". He wrote me back and said that he viewed the marks as including the shadows of the vents, but also including roof discoloration marks perhaps from people walking around the area of the vents, causing discoloration of the roof, which showed up as the marks visible in the photos of the roof of the gas chamber. [42] This interpretation would be in accord with the eyewitness testimony and seems reasonable to me. The marks would then have little or no height (agreeing with Ball's observations [43]) and would not represent enormous holes or have a shadow degree different than that of the chimney, various conundrums posed by Revisionists such as Rudolf. [44]

As a personal observation, this author agrees with Ball that some of the marks which show up on the CIA photographs are in fact drawn in. I do not attach any sinister meaning to it, but rather view it as the CIA helping people to "see how the holocaust happened". However, having said that, I must also say that it would have been better to have explained the photo touch-ups at the beginning, rather than have people question the extermination of the Jews itself because of the discovery of "faked" (in a sense) photographs. I remember a parallel case which involved a printing job I worked on years ago. A minister (a convert from Judaism to Christianity) I know edited an authentic 1800's speech of a Hungarian Rabbi who converted to Christianity, removing passages and adding others, to make it easier to understand for his audience . I have no doubt that his intentions were good, but wondered what the reaction on the part of Jewish readers (his intended audience) might be if they found out the editing had been done with no mention of it on the printed piece.

Having examined the problem of the roof vent labeling in the CIA publication, it should be stated that some of the photographs of Auschwitz-Birkenau show roof marks where no Zyklon B vents are supposed to be, while others show some 6 marks. [45] So we are hesitant to use the aerial photographs as proof that there were roof vents for Zyklon B. But neither can they be used to disprove Zyklon B roof vents, either.

The Blueprints of Leichenkeller 1, Krematorium 2

One of the most well-known Revisionists of today, Professor Robert Faurisson, made a discovery (apparently by August of 1979) while doing research at the Auschwitz Museum in Poland. We will let him narrate: "I have not yet even touched upon the subject of the superabundance of technical and physical impossibilities which become apparent upon an actual examination of the site and the dimensions of the supposed 'gas chambers' at Auschwitz and Auschwitz-Birkenau. Moreover, just as an inquisitive fact-finder of the Polish museum may discover, these chambers were in reality nothing more than 'cold storage rooms' (mortuaries) and were typical of such rooms both in lay-out as well as size. The supposed 'gas chamber' of Krema II at Birkenau, of which there remains only a ruin, was in fact a morgue, located below ground in order to protect it from heat and measuring 30 meters in length and 7 meters down the center to allow for the movement of wagons." [46]

What Faurisson had found were German plans for Krema 2's gas chamber, and the plans labeled the underground gas chamber a "Leichenkeller", that is, a corpse cellar. So to Dr. Faurisson, this was a discovery showing that "in reality" there was no gas chamber there; it was a mortuary. And, though he does not mention it in the quote above, one may observe that on the various German blueprints of the underground room called "Leichenkeller 1" [47], there are no holes marked on the roof. Though these two discoveries are important, let us observe that they are in agreement with an interrogation which took place over 50 years ago. While Rudolf Höß (the Kommandant of Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a witness at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal in 1946, here is what he said:

"Q Let's return to Auschwitz - no, to Berlin where you just had discussed with Himmler the extermination of Jews in Auschwitz. A Yes. Q You told us that he gave you detailed oral orders, didn't you? A Yes. Q Who else did you discuss the details of extermination of Jews in Auschwitz with? A I was not allowed to discuss this with anybody; it was a top secret matter. Q Did Himmler give you orders about the construction of gas chambers? A No, he told me the following: that I was supposed to look at an extermination camp in Poland and eliminate in the construction of my camp the mistakes and inefficiency existing in the Polish camp. I was supposed to show him plans of how I intended to construct my camp in a period of about four weeks." [48]

On the next page...

"A ...the fact that I was supposed to treat this as a top secret matter and not discuss it with anybody was explained. All the instructions such as procedure and orders I was to receive from the RSHA through Eichmann. Q And then before you went on your tour of inspection you returned to Auschwitz? A Yes. Q What did you do in Auschwitz? A I immediately got in touch with the chief of a construction unit and told him that I needed a large crematorium. I told him that we were going to receive a large number of sick people, but I did not give him my real reason. Q And after we had completed our plans, I sent them to the Reichsführer [Himmler; CDP]. After I had changed them in accordance with the real purpose of his instructions, they were approved."

Note that Höß mentioned several times that he was forbidden to discuss the execution of the Jews with anyone. Upon his return to Auschwitz he began working on the plans for extermination facilities by instructing his construction chief (whose name was Bischoff). He ordered Bischoff to begin work on a large crematorium, the plans of which were sent to Himmler. Subsequently, Höß figured out the changes needed to convert the crematorium into a homicidal gassing facility, and sent them to Himmler. The changes were then approved.

If the above scenario is correct, then we may observe that the blueprint plans for the crematorium by definition would only include details for a crematorium, not a homicidal gassing facility. And the obvious reason for this was that Höß was forbidden to discuss the real purpose of the facility with the man who was in charge of designing it. So then, what would Bischoff, who was designing what he thought was an ordinary but large crematorium, label the underground mortuary? Answer: a "leichenkeller", or mortuary. He would not label the blueprint, "underground homicidal gassing facility for killing Jews", because he was not told its purpose. [49]

So then, Dr. Faurisson's valuable discovery validates what Rudolf Höß said in 1946. There is no contradiction at all. However, similar to the above case of the aerial photographs, the available evidence from the blueprints of "leichenkeller 1" provide no direct proof of holes being in the roof, since the man in charge of it was not permitted to know of its real purpose, and therefore did not draw them on the plans. [50]

German Wartime Photographs of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2

There are three photographs (to our knowledge) showing the underground gas chamber of Krematorium 2., and one showing the underground gas chamber of Krematorium 3, identical to that of Krematorium 2.

1. PMO neg. no. 20995 / 507 Kamann series [51]

This photograph is printed in several books about Auschwitz. In two other books by Jean-Claude Pressac, an arrow points to the roof of the underground gas chamber of Krematorium 3, and identifies "openings for the pouring in Zyklon B". Try as we might, we cannot see any of these openings on the photograph. Another comment by Pressac is illuminating. Concerning the same photograph, published in Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, he comments, "The four Zyclon-B introduction chimneys, located on alternate sides of the roof (unlike Krematorium II, where they are in a straight line down the centre), are almost impossible to distinguish, despite the excellent quality of the print." We are going to have to order our own prints to double check the identification, but in the meantime, this photo neither proves nor disproves that there were Zyklon B openings in the roof.

Further difficulty with Pressac's view is encountered by the comments of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. In a book published only a few years ago entitled Auschwitz; Nazi Death Camp [52], this photo appears with the following description, "The photograph shows the last stage of work before the installation of gas chamber and ovens at Crematorium Nr. III.". If this is the case, we would not expect the holes to be visible on the photograph, since they wouldn't have been installed at the time.

We would like to point out what we regard as another mistake by the invaluable historian Pressac. As stated above in the section on the aerial photographs of Auschwitz-Birkenau, the smudgey marks showing on the photographs cannot be the Zyklon B holes, though the spots may include them. It is an error on the part of Pressac to negate the eyewitness testimony of Henryk Tauber because of the tenuous interpretation of aerial photographs. Tauber clearly stated that the holes in the roof of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2 were staggered, with two Zyklon holes on the eastern side of the pillars, and 2 others on the western side.

2. PMO neg. no. 20995 / 494 Kamann series [53]

The southern side of the main building of Krema 2, along with underground Leichenkeller 1 is viewed in this picture. Sitting on the top of the leichenkeller from left to right are what looks like 3 vents and a square object. Jean-Claude Pressac describes the 3 vent-like objects as openings for Zyklon B. There are problems with this identification, the most serious one being that the view of the leichenkeller is from the southwest. This would mean that, if the Zyklon B holes on the roof were equally spaced [54] the distance between the vents furthest away from the camera (1 and 2) would appear less than the distance between the vents closest to the viewer (2 and 3). But the photo shows the opposite; whatever the objects are, they are not equally spaced, indicating that they are not equally spaced Zyklon B openings.

But what makes Pressac's interpretation impossible is that when one lays out the plan of the leichenkeller from the point of view of the photographer who took this picture, and then makes a geometric overlay to determine where the vent objects were located, the following appears: all three vent-like objects, if located close to the central roof beam, are all on the southern half of the roof. This does not makes much sense in effective distribution of the poison gas. It is our conclusion therefore, that whatever they are, they are not the Zyklon B insertion chimneys spoken of by the eyewitnesses.

3. PMO neg. no. 20995 / 460 Kamann series [55]

This photograph was taken to show the sewage facility to the south of Krematorium 2, and thus shows the Krematorium and its leichenkeller in the photo background, from a southwest viewpoint. One may see the roof of Leichenkeller 1, and Pressac writes, "Just below the 7th double window of the furnace room is the gas chamber with its Zyclon-B introduction chimneys scarcely visible." This writer cannot see anything on the roof except one vague object on the left side (thus, north side of the roof), and it is so blurry can make no determination of what it is. So unless a better copy of this photo is produced, it doesn't make much of a proof, or a disproof, in common with the other photos examined.

4. PMO neg. no. 20995 / 506 Kamann series [56]

Number 506 shows the southern end of Krematorium 2, viewed from much the same angle, the southwest. It also shows the clearest view of the gas chamber in any of the three, before the roof was covered with earth. The brick construction of the walls is clearly visible, and so is the roof from an oblique angle. The roof is covered with snow, and no vents for Zyklon B are visible. Since the picture is dated from January 20 - 22, 1943, we can deduce that any holes for Zyklon B insertion must have been put in after that date. The Pressac date for the beginning of gassings at Krematorium 2 is about the middle of March, 1943 [57], so this would be the latest date for the "installation"of introduction holes.

Another problem is posed by this photo, which we shall now discuss. According to the Revisionists, the installation of Zyklon B holes after the roof was completed "would imply an inconceivably stupid error in planning". [58] We do not see why this would be so. We have already seen that Höß could not even tell his SS architect about the building's real purpose, and we can observe that all of the blueprints call the gas chamber "leichenkeller 1". Further, the last-minute "installation" of Zyklon B holes in the roof of Leichenkeller 1 would be in agreement with the conversion of the main camp's Krematorium 1 into a gas chamber, Höß style. Here is Höß's own account:

"The killing of the above-mentioned Russian POWs using Cyclon B was continued, but no longer in Block 11 because it took at least two days to air out the building. We therefore used the morgue of the crematory as the gassing facility. The doors were made airtight, and we knocked some holes in the ceiling through which we could throw in the gas crystals." [59]

"I remember well and was much more impressed by the gassing of nine hundred Russians which occurred soon afterwards in the old crematory because the use of Block 11 caused too many problems. While the unloading took place, several holes were simply punched from above through the earth and concrete ceiling of the mortuary. The Russians had to undress in the antechamber, then everyone calmly walked into the mortuary because they were told they were to be deloused in there. The entire transport fit exactly in the room. The doors were closed and the gas poured in through the openings in the roof." [60]

It will be observed that the above technique of installing holes has not much to recommend it in the way of architecture or design, but it is nevertheless the method Höß said he used. No planning or blueprints were necessary. Does one need a poison gas hole? The Höß solution: punch or knock some holes in the earth and concrete ceiling! This is plainly primitive, but it was effective. So we see no problem with this method being the method of creating Zyklon B holes in the roof of Leichenkeller 1. In fact, this method of hole installation fits well with the statement of Konrad Morgen above. When the U.S. prosecuting attorney (Ponger) said that German industry united with the Nazi's to support the horrendous killing Jews by ultra-scientific methods at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Morgen replied:

"Yes, I'll tell you about it, Mr. Ponger. Just a moment, this establishment, in my opinion, was not very modern, at least not too complicated, but at least a very simple construction, because the so-called gas chambers were simple cellars which had been built with cement; the installations were rather primitive and the gas was inserted in a crystalline manner through a special shaft which went down from above down below. Therefore, they were installations which one could have built with their own means at their disposal with a few tools. It was something entirely different with the crematoria possibly...." [61]

Note carefully that the gas chambers were not ultra-scientific, as the Americans sometimes portrayed them in their propaganda. According to Morgen, who was an outside observer taken on a tour by the German personnel of the gas chamber of Krematorium 2 [62], the underground gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau were "rather primitive" and could easily have been converted into a gas chamber "with a few tools". Morgen's account reconciles easily with "knocking" some holes through the concrete roof in order to insert Zyklon B, thus converting a simple cellar into a "so-called gas chamber". Morgen says "so-called" because the hygienic installations of the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp (as well as many other German Concentration Camps) included other "gas chambers", which were used to exterminate lice from clothes, and these were truly scientific and up-to-date. [63]

One other criticism of our view (that the holes were knocked in sometime from January to March of 1943) is worth examining. Some Revisionists adopt the view that if the holes were installed after the steel-reinforced roof was poured, this would greatly weaken the roof and ruin its integrity. This Revisionist view is disposed of merely by quoting from the Revisionists themselves. As an example, "The ceiling of Mortuary I ('gas chamber') of Crematorium II is still more or less intact and still rests partially on the concrete supporting pillars." [64] Germar Rudolf, who made this statement, is correct. This author has walked on this ceiling myself with two others, and observed it to be quite sturdy even in areas where the holes are. For example, in the area of Pillar 1 are two large holes in close relationship to each other. One hole measures about 45 cm squared [65]; while the other, diagonally northwest across the central roof beam from the first, measures about 89 cm. long and 52 cm. wide. Yet this roof supported three researchers in the immediate area with no problems at all. So the steel reinforced concrete roof is still strong after 55 years, even though it had holes some 25 cm. square during the war [66], and even though at present it has holes some four to six times larger than those. In spite of the fact that the roof in the area we walked had been blown off the supporting pillars in 1945, and had crashed back to earth after the explosion. In conclusion, then, knocking some holes 25 cm. square would not have damaged the integrity of the ceiling in any appreciable manner at all.

In conclusion, the extant photographs of the identical underground corpse-cellars of Krematoriums 2 and 3 cannot prove or disprove the installation of Zyklon B holes, at least at present. There are three photos where Pressac comments that there are Zyklon B holes visible, but on two of them, we can't see anything, and Mr. Pressac mentions that they are "almost impossible to distinguish" on one, and "scarcely visible" on the other. On the third photo, geometry demonstrates that the vent-like marks cannot be the poison vents described by the eyewitnesses. The fourth photo is the most valuable, because it proves that the roof was completed before installation of Zyklon B holes. Since the photo is datable, it also demonstrates that the holes were put in after about the 20th of January, 1943.

Synthesis of the Blueprints and the Eyewitness Testimony

The blueprints we worked from are mainly those printed in Jean-Claude Pressac's book, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers. Here is a simple analysis of the description of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2. On the inside, the room is 30 meters long (from south to north), 7 meters wide (from west to east), and 2.41 meters high. The walls are made of several layers of bricks, with a plaster coating on the inside wall surfaces. [67] Down the center of the room were seven pillars made of steel reinforced concrete [68], each measuring .40 meters square, and 2.05 meters tall. [69] Each pillar is numbered from 1 to 7, starting at the southernmost pillar, Pillar 1. The pillars are spaced so that there is an equal distance (along a north-south axis) between surfaces. For example, starting at the southern wall and moving north, the blueprints show a distance of 3.40 meters till the south surface of Pillar 1 is reached. Another .40 meters elapses for the thickness of Pillar 1, after which there is another distance of 3.40 meters until the southern surface of Pillar 2 is reached. And so on till the northern wall, at which point Leichenkeller 1 ends. (Total length is: 8 lengths of 3.40 meters, and 7 pillars .40 meters thick, totaling 30 meters.)

The roof is also made of concrete with steel reinforced rods [70], and is approximately .20 meters thick, about half the thickness of the pillars. The roof differs in size from the room it sheltered because on its west, south and east sides, it overlaps the brick wall to an extent of .51 meters, which means that the ceiling is 30.51 meters long (overlap on the south wall) and 8.02 meters wide (overlap on the west and east walls). Running down the center of the roof, along its bottom side, is a central roof beam, .36 meters in height and .40 meters in width, thus making it almost the same dimensions as each of the pillars, but much longer, as it runs the length of the room, and seems to have been inserted into the southern wall, making a total length of 30.51 meters long, along a north-south axis.

Several of the eyewitnesses mention special insertion columns made of metal with perforations. This was to make the columns durable, and to allow the gas to diffuse quickly to kill the victims. So strength and quickness of killing are seen to be reasonable goals in regard to the placement of the columns.

If therefore we were to be given the task of locating the holes for Zyklon B, we would operate with the following suppositions:

1. The holes would provide for the balanced administration of poison gas. (Quickness) 2. They would not be placed through the center roof beam, as this would cause the roof to be greatly weakened. (Strength) 3. It is reasonable that the columns would be located close to existing concrete pillars. (Strength)

The eyewitnesses, when specific, speak mostly of "4" roof openings for insertion of Zyklon B into the underground gas chamber (witnesses Tauber, Schultze, Levantal, Nyiszli, Bendel, and Erber). Two eyewitnesses mention no number (Morgen and Muller), and one says 3 or 4 (Höß). Examining the probability of three insertion holes, we would come up with the location of the central of the three being in the center of the room, located at Pillar 4. This view, according to our suppositions, would be unlikely because it would provide unequal distribution if the other two columns were located near another pillar. Further, since the room was divided in the center to split the gas chamber in half and allow economic gassings of smaller transports of Jews, this would cause further problems because Pillar 4 is right in the middle, again resulting in unbalanced gas distribution.

Four holes is not only the vast majority report of the eyewitnesses who mention the number, but it also is the easiest to make sense of. For equal distribution of poison gas, the location of the insertion columns could easily be lined up next to Pillars 1, 3, 5, and 7. The gas effectiveness would not be affected by the building of a brick wall in the middle of the room, as each half would be serviced by two poison insertion holes, each with an equal area of killing.

The position of the insertion columns is the one item not exactly determinable from the eyewitness testimony. The most specific witness, Henryk Tauber, says that two of the poison columns were on the east side of the central roof column next to the support pillars, with two more on the west side, but he does not identify which columns. Based upon our synthesis of the eyewitnesses and the architecture , the most reasonable locations for the Zyklon B insertion holes would be: four holes in the roof, two on the east side of the central roof column, two on the west, one each next to Pillars 1, 3, 5, and 7.

The Archaeological Evidence for Roof Holes

On Thursday, March 23, 2000, this author, his two sons, and another friend, journeyed to the Birkenau Concentration Camp. At the entrance, we were given permission to examine the gas chambers of Kremas 2 and 3. Museum personnel graciously unlocked the big gate to the left of the main entrance, and we drove back to examine the ruins. We made measurements with a metric tape measure, and photographed our efforts with some still photos, but mainly with a movie camera. Our work was interrupted for a time by a Christian TV film crew recording a minister's sermon at the north end of the gas chamber area, after which we resumed our studies. While mainly focusing our efforts along the central roof column, we also examined the inside of the gas chamber.

The Roof Surface

Starting at the southern end, we observed that the roof in its present position is off-center, shifted to the north. This would have been because when the Germans detonated the charges to blow off the roof [71], the roof exploded upwards, but shifted to the north. When it crashed back down, the sides were upheld somewhat by the west and east brick walls, but the center, having missed the southern roof, crashed to basement level. Locating the center, we made our first measurement along the center roof column, from the southern edge of the roof to the next important object, Pillar 1. (The distance was 295 cm.) The roof had crashed downwards with such force that Pillar 1 pierced it on the eastern side of the central roof column, which lies flush to it on the west. (Pillar 1 was 40 cm. in thickness, from south to north.)

The next interesting item is the quite large hole to the northwest of pillar 1. This large hole, measuring 89 cm. from west to east, and 52 cm from north to south, narrows at about the middle to 35 cm. It lies on the western side of the central roof column at a distance of c. 50 cm. to the north along a south-north axis. It can be visually observed that the hole was originally located to the west of Pillar 1.

Moving along the central roof column from Pillar 1, the roof slants upwards to the top of Pillar 2. It slants upwards because the central roof column hit the top of Pillar 2 while coming back down, and the crash broke the back of the roof at this point. Pillar 1 pierced the roof because the roof is only about 20 cm. thick. The roof is almost three times thicker where the central roof column is located, hence Pillar 2 was hit with enough force to crack the roof, but not to pierce it. (From the northern side of Pillar 1 to the southern side of Pillar 2 is 378 cm. Pillar 2 also measures 40 cm. from south to north.) Right in the vicinity of Pillar 2 are found two holes. One hole is quite long, and exposes Pillar 2 to a good view from the western side. Another hole, to the northwest, is smaller, but Pillar 2 can still be seen below.

Measuring further (and back down the slope created by Pillar 2), along the west side of the central roof column another hole is apparent, through which one can see Pillar 3 laying on its side. The curved metal rebars which hooked into the central roof column at the top of Pillar 3 are in pretty good (original) shape, indicating that the point at which Pillar 3 penetrated the central roof column had not been exploded, but was chiseled or sledge-hammered before the explosion. (This hole measures 295 cm. from Pillar 2's north side.)

Along the eastern side of the central roof column, 390 cm. from the north side of Pillar 2, is another hole, featuring what looks like a straight edge on the south side. The central roof column is incomplete at this point, and the gap is present as rebars, bowed upward. This was where Pillar 3 originally joined the central roof column. To the east of the rebars is a hole, which extends to the east for several meters. This is where the roof cracked again when it hit back down after the explosion took place. The roof north of this point lies much more horizontal.

Further to the north along the central roof column, we found another section where the central roof column has only rebar steel reinforcement rods. The rebar section was measured to be 750 cm. from the rebar section where Pillar 3 was joined to the central roof column. Thus, this section is seen to be where Pillar 5 joined the central roof column. To the east side of this rebar section is another hole.

We measured further north to ascertain what was present in the vicinity of Pillar 7, but our efforts to find any holes were made of no effect, since in the area of 750 cm. north, the roof pieces are standing vertically, not horizontally, and the immediate area is mostly rubble, chunks of bricks and brickwork. We did not see the central roof column, or identify much, and the roof section at 750 cm. was under the surface. Evidently when the Germans blew up the structure, the roof pulled towards the north, causing the north end to "accordion", and the south end to fall short of its southern brick support

There was one more hole readily apparent, 190 cm. to the northwest of where Pillar 3 joined the roof. This hole measures 61 cm. from south to north, and 46 cm. from west to east. There is only one long rebar extending from the east side, bending up and then to the east. (We have seen photographs of this hole from several years ago, and there were more rebars then, so evidently someone has cut most of them off in the meantime.) The tips of the rebars can be seen on the western side of the hole, with several exposed reinforcement rods along the edges of the hole.

In summary, here is a list of the various holes in the roof we were able to locate. Bear in mind that this list is not exhaustive. We surveyed and measured mainly along the central roof column, since we had previously determined that the most reasonable locations for any remains of the Zyklon B holes would be close to the sides of the central roof column. From north to south, here are the holes we noticed.

1. The hole made when Pillar 1 pierced the roof (on the east side the central roof column) This section of the roof was not next to a Pillar, before the explosion. 2. The large hole to the northwest of Pillar 1 (on the west side of the central roof column) This hole was immediately to the west of Pillar 1 before the explosion. 3. A large crack running west to east where the roof broke its back on Pillar 2. 4. A small hole to the west of Pillar 2, also made when the roof broke on Pillar 2. Both of these roof holes were not next to a pillar when the roof was intact. 5. A broken up area 295 cm. north of Pillar 2, through which one may see the central roof column laying on top of Pillar 3, which has fallen towards the south. This area is quite narrow, and was not next to a pillar before the room was destroyed. 6. A large hole to the east of the base of Pillar 3. The central roof column has been chiseled out at this point, leaving only rebars. This hole is located at a position immediately to the east of where the top of Pillar 3 was, before the roof was blown up. 7. A hole 190 cm. to the northwest of hole #6. This hole and hole #2 has received a lot of attention from the Revisionists. It is not located along the central roof column. 8. A hole on the east side of the central column, located 7.5 meters to the north of hole #6. Again the cement of the central roof column has been removed, leaving only the rebars. The hole at this location was positioned right next to Pillar 5, before the Germans destroyed it.

The Revisionist Position: There are only 2 Holes in the Roof at Krema 2

Revisionist publications usually acknowledge the presence of only two holes in the roof [72]: the 61 cm. by 46 cm. hole previously mentioned (# 7), and the larger hole to the northwest of Pillar 1, which measures 89 cm. by 52 cm. (#2) .

The Smaller Hole (#7); why it is not a Zyklon B introduction hole:

The Revisionists usually state their negative position [73] as follows: the smaller of the two holes in the roof (#7) cannot be a Zyklon B insertion hole, for the simple reason that up until a few years ago, the rebars originally running west to east were merely cut at the western end and pulled up and over to the east. (This was true, though now only one of these rebars remains intact; the rest, as we have observed, have been removed.) The Germans would have never constructed a poison gas aperture like this, since it could not be airtight. Secondly, according to a rule in architecture, when violent stress is put on a concrete structure, cracks show up passing through holes made previous to the violent force, since the holes make the structure weaker in that location. Applying this rule to Krema 2, one can easily observe that though there are quite a few cracks in the roof, none pass through the hole #7. Thus it can be seen that this hole is a post-war construction, and cannot have been made by the Germans. We agree with this assessment, and would add some other points. Should a Zyklon B column have been at this point, it would not meet either the description of some of the eyewitnesses (notably Tauber), nor would it be at an advantageous location for durability or balanced gassings.

The Larger Hole (#2):

{this is Keren's hole #1; a photo of it is at http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/images/1998/Keren/hole-roof-1.jpg}

Dealing with the only other hole mentioned by the Revisionists, which is the large one (#2) near Pillar 1, the Revisionists have used much the same arguments as they have used successfully concerning the smaller hole (#7). They are mistaken in the case of the large hole, as we shall demonstrate.

Germar Rudolf has been quoted (in 1993) as affirming that "...blowing up a building is an act of extraordinary violence in itself; cracks will therefore form and spread much more easily through any weak spots (such as, for example, any already existing holes). But the alleged 'Zyklon B vents' in the roof of the morgue 1 ('gas chambers') in crematorium II [#2 and #7; CDP] are remarkably damage-free." [74] The editors of this English publication enthusiastically remark: "This much is clear: the alleged 'Zyklon B insertion holes' were chiseled through the roof after the building was blown up, that is: after the German retreat. They were faked by the Soviets or Poles." [75]

Germar Rudolf has also stated: "Remnants of the reinforcement bars are also still visible at the edge of the hole in Illustration 6 [the larger hole, #2; CDP]. No devices for the introduction of gas could ever have been securely installed, much less sealed to the outside, in such crudely cut and unfinished holes from which not even the reinforcement bars had been removed." [76] Rudolf also mentions that the size of the hole is too large to be a Zyklon B introduction hole, since the poison gas would have escaped. Not only that, but the victims below could have pushed out the gas introduction column and even escaped. [77] After this thought, Rudolf says, "One can therefore conclude with absolute certainty that the alleged input hatches [Holes #2 and #7; CDP] were not added until after the buildings had been blown up, ie. after the German retreat."

So, here are the main reasons for the Revionists do not think Hole #2 could ever have been a Zyklon B introduction hole:

1. The hole has no cracks proceeding from its borders, which would only be the case if it was made after the explosion of the roof. 2. The hole is too big to be for inserting Zyklon B into the gas chamber. 3. The hole has remnants of the reinforcement bars visible, preventing secure installation and sealing.

Our reply is this: Point one is not true. Examination of the larger hole reveals that the entire distance from the eastern edge of the hole, all the way over to the hole pierced in the roof by Pillar 1, is composed of one large crack, some 50 cm. long, and quite wide. There is another long crack visible extending from the northwest corner of the hole.

Insofar as the hole being too big now, this proves nothing. According to the testimony of the witness Schultze, the Zyklon B holes were only some 25 cm. square when he saw them (in 1943). We do not see why a small hole couldn't be made much larger after suffering a violent shock of a massive explosion, so violent as to lift the entire southern end of the roof into the air high enough to smash a hole in the roof at Pillar 1 on the way down. If some of the holes in the nearby oven room were entirely destroyed in the explosion [78], we think it reasonable to suppose the reason for Hole #2 being so large now, is the same demolition work. Bear in mind that the explosions which occurred were strong enough to open holes in the ceiling where none had been before, and one will recognize the power to make a smaller hole bigger. So we posit a smaller hole originally, made larger by the explosives.

This is made even more reasonable when one examines the third Revisionist assertion, which is the fact that there are rebars visible on the eastern edge of the larger hole. This statement is true, but these rebars are in fact the reinforcement bars of the central roof column formerly at the intersection of the top of Pillar 1. The cement of the central roof column is gone at this point (but not the roof, which lies on top), leaving only the rebars of the roof column (plus one chunk of cement in the center). The cement of the roof column was removed either by sledge hammering or chiseling the central column (prior to exploding the structure), or was removed directly by the explosives. In fact, when one goes under the roof into the room below, large chunks of the central column are gone about every 1.9 meters, which shows that the Germans devoted some effort to prepare the gas chamber for demolition. So the appearance of central roof column rebars is no proof that the hole (originally much smaller) near Pillar 1 couldn't have been sealed, since the exposure of the rebars occurred after the underground room had ceased to be used as a gas chamber, during the German destruction of the same.

By the way, Germar Rudolf evidently realized that his earlier statements on the post-war creation of the large hole (#2) were incorrect, as he himself modified his position. From a blanket statement in 1993 that since the larger hole showed no cracks, this was proof of its post-war nature; he said in 1998 that, "Finally it can be proved at least for one of the two holes existing today that it was chiseled in after the war and that it was never finished. This photo in illustration 9 shows the left hand one [#7; CDP] of the two holes. The reinforcement bars of the concrete are still visible, they were just once cut and bent, but never removed. This hole has no cracks in its corners which definitely proves that it was chiseled in after this morgue was blown up, since otherwise many cracks must start right from the corners as they are the weak points of such a structure." [79] He had previously said the same thing about the larger hole. [80]

Hole #1 was not originally located against a pillar, though it is now, after the roof shifted. (This writer originally thought it was a missing Zyklon B hole, before figuring out where the hole made by Pillar 1 was located on the original plans.) So we do not consider it a likely candidate.

Holes 3, 4, and 5 are clearly the product of the explosive destruction of the roof, so we do not consider them to be candidates for having been Zyklon B introduction vents.

We consider it quite significant that Holes #6 and #8 were located immediately to the east of the central roof column, each of them right next to a supporting pillar ( in these cases, Pillars 3 and 5). It should be noted that the central column to the west of both holes is destroyed, with only the rebars remaining. The roof above the reinforcement bars is also destroyed in both locations. Further, an enormously long crack extends to the east of Hole #6, which would have been located at Pillar 3. We think that the crack developed when the roof slammed downwards after hitting Pillar 2. The crack went right through the Zyklon B hole at Pillar 3.

As far as the Zyklon B hole at Pillar 7, we could not observe anything, since the roof pieces at the location just shy of the proper location are vertical, and thus the section we wanted to examine is under the present surface.

Our Conclusion on the Zyklon B holes of the gas chamber of Krematorium 2

The Revisionists have now proclaimed victory over their opponents, the so-called "exterminationists" [81], especially with regard to the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau. The most deadly gas chamber of this massive camp, that of Krematorium 2, has been decriminalized because of the repeated assertion that "there are no Zyklon B holes in the roof of the 'gas chamber' ". If this statement is true, then all of the witnesses who said they saw the poison gas holes are untrustworthy ­ if there were no holes, there were no gassings, and the entire postwar story of the gassing of thousands of Jews at Auschwitz-Birkenau is seen to be just a propaganda tale on the level of the manufactured British atrocity reports of the First World War.

The eyewitness testimony concerning the underground gas chamber of Krema 2 is the main basis for historians of the Judenausrotttung (extermination of the Jews) [82]. The other forms of evidence used to support the eyewitness accounts of holes in the roof of the gas chamber are unable to supply proof that these Zyklon B introduction holes existed.

The German blueprints show the gas chamber marked as a "corpse cellar", Leichenkeller 1, with no holes marked on the plans. As we have seen, this is actually in accord with the statements of Höß, the administrator of the gas chambers at Auschwitz-Birkenau. But it neither proves nor disproves the presence of the roof holes, contrary to the Revisionists.

Contemporary German photos of the construction of the building show that the holes (if they were present) could not have been an original part of the gas chamber roof. Where Pressac and others have seen photos of objects interpreted as vents for Zyklon B, others have viewed them differently, and with good reasons. Other pictures are supposed to show the vents, but even their advocates use words like "almost impossible to distinguish" and "scarcely visible". Others (on Pressac's side of the historical debate) deny his viewpoint, and say that there aren't any at all visible, regarding the very same picture. The photos cannot be used to prove that there were no holes. But on the other hand, they don't prove there were holes.

The Allied wartime aerial photographs of the underground gas chamber roofs, having smudgey marks which the CIA has labeled "vents", is seen to be an overstatement. The marks may include vents, but if so, they are indistinguishable from the rest of the dark patch. It is impossible to view the each smudgey mark as a vent, because of its large size. Viewing the CIA labeling as incorrect is actually in accord with the eyewitness testimony, which mentions the lowness of the gas vents (nearly ground level) and their small size (25 cm. square). This view has now received support from one of the two CIA writers (Mr. Bruggioni) who authored the book containing the photographs. Furthermore, all the wartime photos do not show the smudgey marks shown on the CIA photos. Some show only two marks, while others show six, making it possible that the various marks on the roof are various temporary discolorations of the grass or dirt. Again, the photos cannot be used to prove or disprove that the underground rooms were gassing facilities.

We are left with one other form of evidence: archaeological. This evidence shows that there are three locations on the roof which fit the evidence of the eyewitnesses regarding the presence of roof holes. The holes we have examined, and labeled as Holes 2, 6, and 8, are all holes on the side of the central roof column. All three line up immediately next to roof support pillars, namely Pillars 1, 3, and 5, making them located in a pattern which would enable the Germans to gas the victims more effectively and quickly, an obvious consideration. Meeting valid Revisionist criticism of Hole 7 [83], all three of our candidates have suffered significant damage from the explosion which destroyed the building towards the end of the war. Concerning the fourth Zyklon B hole (presumably next to Pillar 7, the roof is under the surface, so we couldn't observe anything. We cannot prove it is there. But based upon the collapse of the 20 year old Revisionist assertion that there "are no holes in the roof of Krema 2's gas chamber", we would be willing to place a large bet that one is there too.

The "No Holes, No 'Holocaust'" argument is no longer possible to make, since there are three suitable areas where there are holes in the roof, in accord with eyewitness testimony, with the fourth unobservable. Since the Revisionists are now deprived of their absolutist argument, and since the other forms of evidence cannot prove the case one way or another, we are again able to view the statements of the various eyewitnesses as possible, and therefore the dominant evidence in the case. According to the dominant evidence, the underground room, called Leichenkeller 1 on the German blueprints, was in fact a homicidal poison gas chamber, used to kill many thousands of Jews during the latter years of World War II.

Photographic Reference

(Click on a thumbnail to expand to a new window)

{Photos of Holes 2, 6, and 8: Hole 2: (Keren's hole 1): http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/images/1998/Keren/hole-roof-1.jpg

Hole 6 (Keren's hole 2): http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/images/1998/Keren/hole-roof-2.jpg

Hole 8: http://web.archive.org/web/20020505195640/http://revisingrevisionism.com/imgs/Auschwitz16.jpg}

Footnotes:

[1] In traditional historical studies, there were five cremation facilities at the Auschwitz Complex equipped with poisonous gas chambers. Krematorium 1 was at the Auschwitz Stammlager (Main Camp), and was discontinued at about the time Krematoria 2 through 5 were made operational. These four Krematoria were located at the immense sub-camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, sometimes referred to simply as Birkenau. Krematoria 2 and 3 were the largest, being mirror images of each other, while Krematoria 4 and 5 were basically identical to each other, and smaller than 2 and 3. This author shall use "Krema" as an abbreviated form of Krematorium in this paper. Continue reading

[2] See for example the following Revisionist publications Adelaide Institute, No 107, April 2000, pg. 1, which shows Dr. Fredrick Töben entering the ruins of Krema 2's underground gas chamber through the largest hole in the roof. The newsletter proclaims, "The four alleged gas-introduction holes do not exist!" Also, see the latest issue of The Journal for Historical Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, January/February 2000, pg. 5, which features a cartoon by the French artist CHARD. Taking its cue from the fairy tale of the Emperor's Clothes, it features a large crowd of people lamenting the evil of the underground gas chambers of Birkenau, and has a little boy on the side, who says, "There're no openings". The commentary under the cartoon says that, "In this drawing French cartoonist 'Chard' (François Pichard) underscores the remarkable fact that the most notorious 'gas chamber' at Auschwitz-Birkenau has no openings through which deadly Zyklon could have been introduced. For decades it has been claimed that Zyklon B pellets were poured into Birkenau's Krema II 'gas chamber' through four holes in the roof. ...However, and as any observant visitor at the site can readily determine for himself, there are no holes or openings in the roof (which is now largely in ruins). On the basis of this fact alone, a central pillar of the Holocaust extermination story is discredited. As revisionist scholar Robert Faurisson has succinctly put it on numerous occasions, 'No Holes, No "Holocaust" '". In the accompanying article, Dr. Faurisson states, "But as anyone at the site can observe for himself, none of those four openings ever existed." (Pg. 7) Continue reading

[3] Called "Leichenkeller 1" (Corpse Cellar One, or Morgue 1) on the German wartime blueprints. The author uses these terms interchangeably. Continue reading

[4] The use of quotes around the word "Holocaust" is followed by one wing of the Revisionist historians, to indicate that using the word to designate the Jewish troubles under the Hitlerian regime of National Socialist Germany is too vague to be of use in discussions, since it is a modern term which can be used to describe anything from anti-Jewish legislation to the mass execution of Jews by gas chambers. For this Revisionist viewpoint, see, for example, "The Psychology and Epistemology of 'Holocaust' Newspeak" by Michael Hoffman, found in The Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 6, Number 4, Winter 1985-86, pgs. 467-478 Continue reading

[5] Some Considerations about the "Gas Chambers" of Auschwitz and Birkenau, by Dipl. -Chem. Germar Rudolf. 1998, pg. 14 Continue reading

[6] The Rudolf Report, edited by Ruediger Kammerer and Armin Solms, 1993, Cromwell Press, P.O Box 62, Uckfield, Sussex, TN22 1ZY, Great Britain,, pg. 11. Continue reading

[7] Irving/Lipstadt Trial Transcript, Trial Day 11 Continue reading

[8] Testimony of Rudolf Hoess, taken at Nurnberg, Germany, 2 April 1946, 1000 to 1230, by Mr. S. Jaari, Interrogator, pg. 16 Continue reading

[9] The term "Sonderkomando" means "Special Unit", and refers to the mostly Jewish crew who did most of the work at the gas chamber, i.e. hauling the bodies to the cremation ovens, searching for valuables, cutting the hair, etc. Continue reading

[10] "Deposition of 24th May 1945 by Henryk Tauber, former member of the Sonderkommando of Krematorien I, II, IV and V", found in Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers by Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 515 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10022, 1989, pgs. 483-484 Continue reading

[11] Ibid., pg. 494 Continue reading

[12] Ibid., pg. 484 Continue reading

[13] Protokolle des Todes [Transcript of Death], Der Spiegel, 40/1993, pg. 162 Continue reading

[14] "The Manuscript of Salmen Lewantal", found in Amidst A Nightmare of Crime, State Museum at Oswiecim, 1973, pg. 146. This manuscript was discovered buried in the ground at Birkenau after the war. Continue reading

[15] Abbreviation for the Reichs Kriminal Polizei Amt, Germany's criminal police, in contrast to the Gestapo, who were the state "secret" police. Continue reading

[16] SS Defense Affadavit 65, by Konrad Morgen, July 13, 1946 Continue reading

[17] AMT Trial IV, U.S. vs. Oswald Pohl, English Trial Text, pgs. 6736-6737. By the way, the "Mr. Ponger" mentioned was a U.S. prosecuting attorney at the trial of Oswald Pohl, mentioned in some literature as being a zealous communist. Continue reading

[18] Deposition of Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, July 28, 1945, State Committee for the Welfare for Deported Hungarian Jews. The English text actually has "values", which I have typed as "valves", and "ganuales", which I have typed as "granules". Continue reading

[19] Sworn statement of Dr. Nyiszli Nikolae, October 8, 1947 at Nuremberg Continue reading

[20] See also what Tauber says concerning two gas chambers within the area of Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2 at Birkenau: "At the end of 1943, the gas chamber was divided into two by a brick wall to make it possible to gas smaller transports." Henryk Tauber Deposition, cited above, pg. 484. Continue reading

[21] Account of Dr. Paul Bendel (in French), from "Temoignages sur Auschwitz", editions de l'Amicale des deprotes d'Auschwitz, 10 rue Leroux, Paris 16, 1946, extracts from pgs. 159-164. English translation found in Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers by Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 515 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10022, 1989, pg. 469. Continue reading

[22] Dr. Bendel, in company with many others, follows a numbering system based upon the Kremas at Birkenau only, of which there were four. Thus, the Birkenau Kremas, instead of being numbered 2 through 5 (according to German nomenclature), are numbered 1 through 4. Continue reading

[23] Document NI-11953, pg. 3. Questioning of Dr. Charles Sigismund Bendel on Saturday March 2, 1946, during the trial of Bruno Tesch, Joachim Drosihn and Karl Weinbacher. Continue reading

[24] In the opinion of this writer, the English word "ducts" would be more appropriate as "rooms", or some like meaning. Continue reading

[25] Hitler and the Final Solution, by Professor Gerald Fleming, University of California Press, copyright 1984, pgs. 187-188 Continue reading

[26] Eyewitness Auschwitz, Three Years In the Gas Chambers, by Filip Müller, Stein and Day, Publishers, New York, copyright 1979, pg. 60. Continue reading

[27] Document NO-1934, Statement of Egon Ochshorn, inmate of Auschwitz-Birkenau, dated Sept. 14, 1945. Continue reading

[28] This Was Oswiecim, The Story Of A Murder Camp, by Dr. Filip Friedman, United Jewish Relief Appeal, 1946, pgs. 52-53. Continue reading

[29] "Chapter 159. Experiences Of A Fifteen-Year-Old In Birkenau", found in The Birkenau Report, Translated by David A. Hackett, Westview Press, 1995, pg. 350. Continue reading

[30] Document L-22, War Refugee Board Report, pg. 16 of English Version. Continue reading

[31] The Death Factory, by Ota Krauss and Erich Kulka, Pergamon Press, 1966, pg.129 Continue reading

[32] Document NO-1933, Statement of Werner Krumme, inmate and camp functionary of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sept. 23, 1945, pg. 3 Continue reading

[33] "Part of a report rendered by SS Sturmbannfuhrer Franke-Gricksch on a trip through the General Governement on 4 to 16 May, 1943", contained in Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers by Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 515 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10022, 1989, pg. 238. Continue reading

[34] According to Tauber's account; remember also that Bendel, who saw the chambers in the summer of 1944, said that Leichenkeller 1 of Krematorium 2 was still divided into two sections, each capable of gassing operations. Continue reading

[35] See the highly unfavorable description of the Sonderkommando in Document L-22, pg. 13. Filip Müller, in his book (pg. 121) says that he handed plans of the crematoria and gas chambers to Alfred Wetzler before his escape from Birkenau. Wetzler, in a 1982 letter to Miroslav Karny, wrote that he had carried plans of the extermination facilities with him during his escape, but that the plans were lost before he and Vrba wrote their report. This would reconcile the different accounts; but Vrba says that nothing was written down, and the entire report (including the numbers) was written from "personal memotechnical methods". (See pg. 564, note 7 of Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, edited by Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, published by Indiana University Press, 1994. Continue reading

[36] This information is related in SS Defense Affidavits #12 (Rothemund) and #29 (Schneider), available from the Hague. It is worth noting that the Revisionists have energetically written about the Franke-Gricksch Report, notably in an article by Brian A. Renk ("The Franke-Gricksch Resettlement-Action Report" which appeared in the Journal of Historical Review of Fall, 1991. Continue reading

[37] The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex, by Dino A. Brugioni and Robert G. Poirier, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C., 1979 Continue reading

[38] Ibid., pgs. 10-11 Continue reading

[39] Auschwitz Exit, Vol. 1; A Field Guide and an Investigation into the Holocaust, by Abraham Cohen, Copyright 1979 by Bible Researcher, Taby, Sweden.; Bible Researcher, Revisionist History Nr. 175, 1979, pg. 7. (The name, "Abraham Cohen" was a pseudonym of Dittlieb Felder, according to his friend and Revisionist colleague, Michael Hoffman.) Continue reading

[40] By John Clive Ball, Ball Resource Services Limited, Suite 160 - 7231 120th Street, Delta, B.C., Canada, V4C 6P5, copyright 1992. Continue reading

[41] Some Considerations about the "Gas Chambers" of Auschwitz and Birkenau, by Germar Rudolf, Paper presented at the 1st Australian Revisionist Conference, August 9, 1998, pg. 4. I copied this from the Internet site: http://vho.org. Continue reading

[42] Letter of Mr. Dino A. Bruggioni dated (on envelope) as Sept. 24, 1996. Continue reading

[43] Air Photo Evidence, Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Sobibor, Bergen Belsen, Belzec, Babi Yar, Katyn Forest, by John Clive Ball, Ball Resource Services Limited, Suite 160 - 7231 120th Street, Delta, B.C., Canada, V4C 6P5, copyright 1992. Pg. 45, points 1 and 2, upper left. Continue reading

[44] Some Considerations about the "Gas Chambers" of Auschwitz and Birkenau, by Germar Rudolf, Paper presented at the 1st Australian Revisionist Conference, August 9, 1998, pgs.3- 4. Continue reading

[45] See for example, the U.S. photographs of Krematoria 2 and 3 taken on September 13, 1944. In one photograph, there appear to be two marks on Krema 2, Leichenkeller 1, one on the north side of the roof quite close to the main building. Across the road at Krematorium 3, Leichenkeller 1, there seem to be 6 marks. The photo ID of this is: National Archives Record Group 373, Can B8413, Exposure 6V2. On another photo taken the same day, there are some very faint marks on Krematorium 2, Leichenkeller 1, while appearing on Krematorium 3, Leichenkeller 1, are two light marks on an otherwise dark roof. The photo ID of this is: National Archives Record Group 373, Can B8413, Exposure 3VA. These photos are shown here. Continue reading

[46] "The Gas Chambers: Truth of Lie?", by Dr. Robert Faurisson/ Interview with Storia Illustrada, The Journal of Historical Review, Vol. Two, Number Four, Winter 1981, pg. 325. Continue reading

[47] See for example, the excellent plan reproduced on pgs. 284-285 of Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers by Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 515 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10022, 1989. Continue reading

[48] Testimony of Rudolf Hoess taken at Nurnberg, Germany, On 1 April, 1946, 1430 to 1730 by Mr. Sender Jaari and Lt. Whitney Harris, pg. 25. Continue reading

[49] We may here point out what would have happened had Bischoff labeled the Leichenkeller as "Homicidal Gas Chambers". When the Revisionists would have encountered the Höß interrogation, they would have commented on the contradiction: "Höß said in 1946 that he couldn't even tell Bischoff about the purpose of the underground room, and yet the blueprints made under Bischoff's authority have the room labelled 'Homicidal Gas Chambers'. Another contradiction proving that the Holocaust is a Hoax!" Continue reading

[50] This photograph is printed on pg. 342 of Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers by Jean-Claude Pressac, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 515 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10022, 1989. Continue reading

[51] Photographic section after pg. 32. The book itself was published in 1996 Continue reading

[52] Ibid., pg. 340. Continue reading

[53] Common sense and eyewitness testimony would make this expected. Continue reading

[54] Ibid., pg. 341 Continue reading

[55] Ibid. pg. 335 Continue reading

[56] Ibid., pg. 227 Continue reading

[57] "The 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Majdanek" by Germar Rudolf, downloaded from the internet from http://www.codoh.com/found/fndgcger.html, pg. 6. Continue reading

[58] Death Dealer, pg. 30. Continue reading

[59] Ibid., pg. 156 Continue reading

[60] AMT Trial IV, U.S. vs. Oswald Pohl, English Trial Text, pgs. 6736-6737. By the way, the "Mr. Ponger" mentioned was a U.S. prosecuting attorney at the trial of Oswald Pohl, mentioned in some literature as being a zealous communist. Continue reading

[61] Or perhaps Krematorium 3, which was an almost identical mirror image of Krematorium 2. Continue reading

[62] Morgen testified on August 22, 1947 at the same trial (A.M.T. 4, U.S. vs. Oswald Pohl) that, "In every concentration camp there was a disinfection chamber, a decontamination chamber, where the civilian clothes, or anything else were disinfected with gas. Those chambers, however, were made in such manner that according to my opinion no misuse of the chamber could be possible, and did not take place, either. After I heard about the establishment of the extermination installations in Birkenau and in the Government General under the Eastern Territory, you must realize that I tried to find out whether gassing took place in other concentration camps, also. I really did not find anything like it." (English Trial Transcript, pg. 6689). Continue reading

[63] The 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Majdanek, by Germar Rudolf, pg. 6. Continue reading

[64] This hole was created when the roof crashed back down on top of Pillar 1, the southernmost supporting pillar, which pierced the roof at this point. The pillar is c. 40 cm. x 40 cm., hence our estimate of the hole it created. Continue reading

[65] Schultze testimony, see above Continue reading

[66] This plaster coating is not observable on the blueprints, but from on-site observation. This agrees with the "Description of Building" page delivered when the Krematorium was turned over to the SS upon completion. It lists "Internal walls: Brickwork, plastered and whitewashed". (Ibid., pg. 231) Continue reading

[67] "Steel-reinforced concrete" is not observable on the blueprints, but is an on-site observation. Continue reading

[68] On one blueprint (on pg. 323 of Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers), the pillars are shown as 1.99 meters tall, while on all the others we noticed, 2.05 meters tall. Since the room is uniformly shown as 2.41 meters tall, and the pillar height as 2.05 meters tall, we have listed the height of the central roof column as .36 meters tall. In actuality, however, there seems to have been some slight variation to these measurements. The pillars cannot be measured, so far as we were able to tell, because of extensive damage to the tops of the pillars. Continue reading

[69] On-site observation not noticeable from the blueprints. Continue reading

[70] According to the testimony of a Birkenau inmate, Dutch Marine 2nd Lieutenant A.F. Van Velsen, "On 18 January 1945 the concentration camp Auschwitz was evacuated because of the approach of Russian troops. Before that time crematoria 1 and 2 [German: 2 and 3; CDP] had been destroyed by explosives. Crematorium 3 [4; CDP] had been blown up during a revolt of inmates in August 1944; crematorium 4 [5; CDP] was still entirely intact when I left Auschwitz." Nuremburg Document NO-1949, pgs. 5-6. Continue reading

[71] This is apparently true of Pressac's position, on pg. 354 of Auschwitz: Technique and operation of the gas chambers. Continue reading

[72] Some of the Revisionist publications which deal with this problem in a thorough way are The Rudolf Report, edited by Ruediger Kammerer and Armin Solms, pg. 7; Germar Rudolf's The 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Majdanek , pgs. 6-7; and another Rudolf article, Some considerations about the 'Gas Chambers' of Auschwitz and Birkenau, pg. 6. Continue reading

[73] The Rudolf Report, edited by Ruediger Kammerer and Armin Solms, pg. 7 Continue reading

[74] Ibid., same pg. Continue reading

[75] The "Gas Chambers" of Auschwitz and Majdanek, pg. 7 Continue reading

[76] Ibid., same pg. Continue reading

[77] Mentioned by Germar Rudolf on the same pg. as the preceding citation. Continue reading

[78] Some considerations about the 'gas chambers' of Auschwitz and Birkenau, pg. 6 Continue reading

[79] The reader will note that Rudolf made this change under no pressure, but rather as a result of his observations, thus demonstrating his honesty and sincerity as a researcher. Continue reading

[80] "Exterminationist" in Revisionist terminology means one who believes that the National Socialist regime of Adolf Hitler murdered millions of Jews, largely with the use of poisonous gas chambers. Continue reading

[82] Judenausrottung means "Extirmination of the Jews", taken from various statements of Adolf Hitler (for example, that of January 1, 1943, and May 26, 1944). The last reference is in part: "...the Jew has set up as a program the extermination [Ausrottung] of the German people. On September 1, 1939, I declared in the German Reichstag: if anyone believes to exterminate [auszurotten] the German people through such a world war, then he is in error; if Judentum really arranges it, then the one who will be exterminated [ausgerottet] is Judentum." (Source: National Archives, T175, Roll94, speech begins at frame 4972) The speech to which Hitler refers was actually given on January 30, 1939. To quote him, he said, "If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Judentum, but the annihilation [vernichtung] of the Jewish race in Europe...." Continue reading

[83] "No damage present at this hole proves that the hole was constructed after the roof was exploded." Continue reading Contact the webmaster with any questions, suggestions, or problems concerning the site or its design.

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