Yuri Ivanov, CAUTION: ZIONISM! Essays on the Ideology, Organisation and Practice of Zionism, Progress Publishers Moscow, Translated from the Russian, 1970. My comments are shown {thus}. Date Feb 12, 2001; minor correction February 15, 2006}

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{This book was written in August 1968 (p. 166), just after the 1967 Middle East war. Its criticisms of Zionism imply that writers who claim that Judaism=Communism are wrong. Jews themselves were deeply divided between Communism and Zionism. However, in the early history of the USSR, they were not forced to choose as they were in 1967 and 1973. Footnotes are at the end.}

{p. 12} The World Zionist Organisation was founded in August 1897 in Basle at the First International Zionist Congress {ed. comment: Basle appears to be the headquarters of the world's Central Banks}. Some time afterwards the World Zionist Organisation created the Jewish Colonial Trust, an international Zionist joint-stock company. Once organised, Zionism began its activity with a fraud. Finding this "date of birth" unsatisfactory, Zionist and pro-Zionist circles energetically disseminated (for external consumption) the myth that Zionism, "seeking to set up a Jewish state", was as old as the world, since for thousands of years "the Jews had been nourishing the hope of returning to Palestine". Just as much attention, by the way, is paid to the dissemination of this myth today. "Zionism is as old as the captivity of the Jewish people when the Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar,"3 wrote Professor Norman Bentwich, a British Zionist who had written much about Palestine, but who preferred to live in Britain most of the time. Howard Morley Sachar, a British Zionist historian, stresses that "Zion . . . was not just the chimera of the living dead. It was enshrined in the hearts of Jews in every part of the world".4 Nahum Sokolow, a prominent Zionist ideologue, asserts that Zionism has been an "ideal of thousands of years for which the best of our nation have laboured, struggled, suffered and died...".5 He is seconded by Justice L. Brandeis, one of the oldest Zionist leaders in the USA, who writes "Since the destruction of the Temple, nearly two thousand years ago, the longing for Palestine has been ever-present with the Jew."6 These quotations have been handed down from generation to generation and referred to in research papers, encyclopaedias and academic editions.

{p. 14} Norman Bentwich and many of his associates set a fairly exact date for the "appearance" of Zionism - the period of the "captivity of the Jewish people, when the Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar", i.e., the sixth century B.C.

But if we were to follow the logic of the Zionist authors the date of the appearance of Zionism should be moved back another two centuries to the time when Israel, part of King Solomon's realm (the other being Judah), fell under the onslaught of King Sargon II of Assyria (8th century B.C.) and thousands of Israelites were driven off to be resettled in Assyria, a usual measure resorted to by conquerors in those times. It should be borne in mind that the Israelites were engaged mainly in agriculture or trade. Israel traded extensively with Phoenicia and Syria, and lying "on the routes to Asia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, it had also become Commercial (and urban), while Judah . . . remained a land of poor and conservative shepherds".7 As Nathan Ausubel asserts, Sargon II not only sold Jews as slaves in the market but also sent them "to colonise selected regions of his far-flung empire".8 Since back in the reign of King Solomon, his subjects and also Tyrians and Phoenicians had begun to form communities throughout the vast territory of the Near and Middle East, there are no grounds for questioning the same Ausubel who believed that after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Judah and the migration of a considerable part of the Jews to Babylonia the latter "saw in the land of their captivity large and well-rooted Jewish communities which had been established there since the eighth century. The newcomers . . . merely swelled their numbers".9

{note} "our return to the land of our fathers as promised in the Scriptures," wrote Theodor Herzl, the founder of the World Zionist Organisation, in 1900, "...is... of the greatest contemporary political interest to those powers which are seeking something or other in Asia."

{p. 15} In the view of many historians the class structure in the Jewish communities in Babylonia was the same as generally obtained in the area. There were farmers, craftsmen, landowners and petty and rich traders, and slavery was practiced. Initially community of religion, language and way of life sufficed to preserve the cohesion of a community. But these ties were bound to weaken gradually due to influence from without - under the impact of various neighbouring cultures, and as a result of frequent intermarriage and the vigorous ousting of Hebrew by Aramaic. There is every reason to assume that traders and moneylenders made up the influential economic class in the Babylonian Jewish communities. Many historians note this circumstance. "Recently recovered cuneiform texts," writes Lujo Brentano, a German scholar, "show that the resettled Jews were active in commerce. They practiced moneylending which was widespread among the Babylonians and were also wealthy traders."10 The wealthy section of the Babylonian Jewish communities viewed this process of assimilation with apprehension, as a threat to their power: they could not hope to exert their control so effectively in an open, and still somewhat alien, society, as within a closed community. It is thus clear why one of the first, and according to James Parkes11 the first synagogue, should have been established in Babylon, where the selfish interests of community headmen probably more than elsewhere made them aware of the need to isolate their refractory co-religionists. The institution of the synagogue vastly enhanced the communal nature of the observance of Jewish religious rites and gripped the Jewish communities in the vice of a still more obligatory ritual. Needless to say, the entire authority of the synagogue was used exclusively to further the interests of the wealthy minority. Naturally, the transformation of the synagogues into religious, spiritual centres of the Jewish communities was a gradual process, which, moreover, did not hinder but, on the contrary, served to further the commercial and financial operations of the community hierarchy. The appearance of the synagogue, some historians contend, indirectly stimulated the transformation of the Jewish farmers in those places where they remained into urban dwellers. It took the Jewish communities in Babylonia a relatively

{p. 16} short time to really put down deep roots, a fact which found its religious reflection in the summons of Jeremiah the prophet: "Build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them. Take ye wives, and beget sons and daughters ... and multiply ye there, and be not diminished."12 In 538 B.C. Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of Babylon, in an effort to strengthen Palestine out of personal considerations, issued a proclamation permitting the Jews to return to Jerusalem. But as the Chief Rabbi of great Britain (1917) noted, "After the proclamation issued by Cyrus, the mass of the Jewish people still remained in Babylon."13 This view is upheld by A. T. Olmstead, a US historian, who writes: "... It was scarcely to be expected that the Jews already rich would abandon fertile Babylonia for the barren hills of Judah. ..."14

{p. 17} Hoping to plant the seeds of fervid misanthropy among the Jews, the Zionists lay particular stress on the following: 1) the brutal suppression of the revolt and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, as supposingly illustrating one of the links in the chain of singular sufferings of the Jews, singularly brutal repressions against them throughout recorded history. This Zionist thesis already holds the false element of exclusiveness which is essential in counterposing Jews to non-Jews; 2) the suppression of the uprising in Judea and the repressions which followed as being one of the most decisive facts proving the "unquestionably forcible eviction of the Jews from Palestine". In this connection it would not be amiss to note that in the light of the destruction of Carthage, the suppression by the Romans of the revolt of the Achaean League and the disappearance of Corinth from the face of the earth, and also the stubborn, courageous struggle of the Gauls and the Britons against the Romans, the Jewish rising was no more or less heroic and its consequences no more or less sanguinary than many other episodes in the resistance to Roman rule. As regards the forcible eviction of the Jews from Palestine, we think Leonard Stein makes an interesting point in his description of the years immediately preceding the uprising in Judea: "Flourishing [emphasis added - Y.I.] Jewish communities had long existed in Egypt and Cyrenaica, in Syria and Mesopotamia, in Italy and Greece." Stein goes on to point out: "The Jews were dispersed long before

{p. 18} In The Ancient World Vincent M. Scramuzza and Paul L. MacKendrick write that 40 per cent of the 500,000 population of Alexandria were Jews.21 The two American historians mention an interesting fact: after one of the clashes between the Jewish and Greek communities in Alexandria caused by their economic and political rivalry, the Roman Emperor Claudius "ordered the Greeks to respect the liberties Augustus had guaranteed to the Jews, and he warned the Jews neither to agitate for more privileges ... nor to encourage clandestine immigration of Palestinian Jews into Egypt".22

The rise of new Jewish communities went on just as intensively in the period of the expansion of the Arab Caliphate (7th century A.D.). It is common knowledge that the sovereigns of the empires which succeeded each other in the Mediterranean region brutally oppressed and exploited all the peoples they conquered, including the Jews. But, it is an historical fact that the appearance of the Arab Caliphate brought about the revival of the old Jewish community in Baghdad that had been dragging out a miserable existence in the Hellenistic age. Historian Cecil Roth shows in his History of the Jews that this community developed into a spiritual centre of the Jews living inside and outside the Caliphate.23 According to the authors of The Cambridge Medieval History, this period also witnessed the intensive settlement of Jewish communities in Spain, Egypt and Mesopotamia, that is, in the most flourishing provinces of the Caliphate, and the Jews had few rivals as traders in the 9th century A.D. There is evidence of them being constantly on the move between the kingdom of the Franks and China. "Ibn Khurdadhbih, the Postmaster of the Caliphate of Baghdad, gives in his Book of the Ways (c. 847) a remarkable picture of the activities of the so-called 'Radanite' Jewish traders, from China to Spain, in the ninth century.... 'Jew' and 'merchant' are used as almost interchangeable terms."24

{p. 19} As we have already noted, prior to the Middle Ages wealthy traders played the leading role in the Jewish communities and the class composition of these communities did not differ from that of society as a whole. The Jewish hierarchy was vitally concerned with preserving the communities and did so with the help of the synagogue, which had first appeared in Babylon. It should be added that in the Hellenistic age, in the period of Roman domination and throughout the existence of the Arab Caliphate, Jewish communities enjoyed full autonomy in their internal affairs since this was in the interests both of the community hierarchies and of the imperial ruling circles. As Nathan Ausubel rightly notes, self-government was of particular benefit to the governing strata of the communities in the matter of tax collecting (this being at the same time a matter of direct interest to the imperial ruling classes - Y.I.) and also as a means of forcibly imposing their own laws and regulations in the ghetto. 25 In the opinion of many bourgeois historians the Jewish communities which settled in numerous countries before the Middle Ages were commercial associations. But as we see it, this conclusion is correct only insofar as it concerns the wealthy upper crust whose activity mainly determined the character of the communities and who, by virtue of economic dependence and relative isolation, were served by all members of the community representing the most diverse classes. We can only speak of very relative isolation of the Jewish colonies before the Middle Ages. (Those who conceived the myth about the antiquity of Zionism as an "ever-present longing" to return to Palestine tried to turn even this to their advantage and formulated a thesis about the racial purity of the Jews, their spiritual unity rising above "class prejudices' and the urge of the Jews to remain just as they are in the name of their forthcoming "return to holy Zion".)

{p. 20} According to Olmstead, members of the Babylonian Community with time stopped using Hebrew and adopted Aramaic.26 Jews living outside Palestine were divided into two large language groups, one speaking Aramaic, as did the Jews in Palestine, and the other Greek.27 Discussing the Hellenistic age, Cecil Roth writes: "Egypt was, at this time, the greatest centre of Hellenic culture. The Jews could not fail to be influenced by this fact. They speedily relinquished the language of their fathers in favour of Greek; they universally adopted Hellenic names.... Imitations of, and supplements to the Bible . . . were composed in Greek . . . heavily tinged with the local philosophical conceptions."28 The most influential Jewish community in Spain, that of Cordova, "adopted the dress, language and customs of the Arabs", according to The Cambridge Medieval History.29 One could go on and on, but these few examples should suffice. Philo Judaeus aptly summed up the settlement of the Jews before the Christian era as follows: "And while they hold the Holy City (Jerusalem), where stands the holy Temple of the most high God, to be their Mother-city, yet those (i.e., cities of the Diaspora) which are theirs by inheritance from their fathers, grandfathers, and ancestors... are in each case considered by them to be their Fatherland in which they were born and reared."30 This was written in the first century B.C.

{p. 21} "It must not be imagined, however," writes Cecil Roth, "that the origin of the Jewish settlement in Europe was due entirely to the slave element. Commerce is a factor more potent, though not always more prominent, than warfare."33 By the beginning of the Middle Ages Jewish settlements appeared in most European countries. It is difficult to attribute this to the persecution of the Jews, as Zionists are inclined to do, for it is known that the Ottoman Empire,

{p. 22} The American Zionist historian, Ben Halpern, asserts that during the Ottoman period subjects of the Sultan "moved freely in and out of Palestine from other parts of the farflung Empire, from North Africa to the Balkans.... The Ottoman Empire was hospitable, moreover, to refugees from Christian Europe. But the Jewish immigrants and residents were drawn to Constantinople, Damascus, or Cairo, where economic and political conditions were far more favourable rather than to Palestine."34 Many bourgeois historians hold that trade had been replaced by moneylending as the chief economic activity of the leaders of the Jewish communities in Medieval Europe. In the 6th century A.D. the Christian Church forbade the lending of money at interest. In the 12th century the laws prescribing punishment for moneylending became particularly severe (the Muslim Church also outlawed such financial operations).35 Therefore, according to the Cambridge Medieval History "though the success of these regulations was imperfect, they nevertheless tended to throw the business of moneylending more and more into the hands of those to whom canonical prescriptions did not apply",36 in other words, into the hands of the Judaists. Medieval laws in many countries prohibited Jews from joining trade guilds, and this too caused the hierarchy of the Jewish communities to turn to moneylending, the character of the Jewish communities, as we have said earlier, was determined by the activity of their prosperous upper crust served by numerous dependent co-religionists who had nothing to do with the activity and machinations of the ruling class. "The principal householders, indeed, might be financiers," says the Cambridge Medieval History. "These would represent, however, only a small proportion of the total numbers. Dependent upon them, directly or indirectly, there would necessarily be numerous subordinates - agents and clerks - help in their business; synagogal officials to carry out divine worship; scribes to draw up their business documents ...

{p. 23} The socio-economic order in feudal Europe that accounted for the high degree of differentiation and seclusion of social groups within each class (not to mention classes as a whole), was mainly responsible for the strict isolation of Jewish communities and the erection of the almost insurmountable ghetto walls around them. It should be noted that the community hierarchy did not oppose the establishment of such economic social and physical isolation, for it provided the opportunity for "maintaining the Jewish religion and all that this religion embraced"38 (emphasis added - Y.I.). According to the British Zionist historian H. M. Sachar, ". . .the first Spanish and Sicilian ghettos of the early medieval era were actually requested by the Jews themselves...."39 Quoting Salo Baron, A. Lilienthal, US historian and publicist, wrote that the rabbis insisted on separatism on political and religious grounds: therefore the basic laws regulating ghetto life in Portugal were passed at the request of Jews living there. Jewish communities in Britain, France, Germany and other European countries enjoyed the "protection" of the monarchs who had a vested interest in their existence and activity since the taxes levied on them flowed directly into the royal coffers. "The average revenue derived from the Jews in northern countries," notes the Cambridge Medieval History, "has been reckoned at about one-twelfth of the total royal income."40 Religious persecution of the Jews in the Middle Ages was largely due to economic motives. T. Geilikman, a contributor to the Bolshaya Sovietskaya Entsiklopediya, makes the following observation: "Not content with levying enormous taxes on the Jews, the royal authorities did as they pleased with the promissory notes issued in their name. At the end of the reign of Henry II, for example, the property of Aaron Lincoln, one of the wealthiest Jewish bankers whom the kin owed £100,000 stg., was seized by the royal treasury together with the promissory notes and mortgage deeds on land issued in the former's name. The attitude of the ruling classes ...

{p. 24} to the Jews became particularly manifest during the pogrom on the eve of the Third Crusade (1190) when the English nobility, debtors of Jewish moneylenders, burned their promissory notes."41 T. Geilikman further notes that "in the 13th century Lombard competition abolished the need for Jewish capital... Towards the close of the century the Church increased its opposition to the Jews and in 1290 all of them were expelled from England by a decree of Edward I".42 However, the migration routes of the Jews in the Middle Ages following the persecution of the Jewish communities in Portugal, Spain, England and some other countries are rather disappointing for the Zionists. As Cecil Roth writes, while in the 8th and 9th centuries the Euphrates Valley was the centre of the Jewish religion, by the 16th century it had shifted to Poland.43

{p. 25} As regards physical attachment to Palestine, it did exist as the facts show, but in a somewhat discouraging (for the Zionists) form: according to regulations it was necessary for adherents to the Jewish faith to own land in order to be able to engage in financial operations. Therefore, some early Babylonian teachers enacted "an ordinance (taqqanah), enabling Jewish businessmen to use for that purpose the ideal claim of each Jew to the possession of four ells of Palestinian soil"45 (emphasis added - Y.I.). ... From Poland, Jewish communities began to migrate to Russia. ... The tsarist authorities established what was know as the Jewish pale.

{p. 26} ... to assert that any given nation, nationality or national group "suffered more than anybody else in the world throughout the history of mankind" is tantamount not only to deliberate misrepresentation of the historical facts in the interests of base nationalistic aspirations, but also deliberate adoption of an inverted racialist stand ...

{p. 27} Every nation preserves in its memory a succession of events characterised by violence, barbarous, bloody reprisals, calamities and privations. Therefore the professional wails of the Zionists create little impression on those who know and remember such tragic episodes as the "blinding of the Bulgars", "sitting on bones" or the transportation to America of millions of Africans in the holds of ships, some of which belonged to Jewish traders and banker, the forbears and class brothers of the Zionists.

{p. 30} The first Zionists were the ruling circles of colonial powers.

"Under the authority of the Dutch West India Company ... in 1652," wrote Charles P. Daly, "a tract of land ... was granted in the island of Curacao to Joseph Nunez da Fonseca, and others, to found a colony of Jews in that island ... but it was not successful.... "59 In 1654 England was planning to settle Jews in her colony of Surinam, and France had similar plans for Cavenne. The first attempt to colonise Palestine by settling Jews there was made by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799 out of strategic considerations. But it ended just as unsuccessfully as all the preceding attempts. ... Shortly before Napoleon's proposed colonisation of Palestine, an anonymous letter was published in France allegedly written by a member of the Jewish community to his friend: "The country we propose to occupy shall include [liable to such arrangements as shall be agreeable to France] Lower Egypt, with the addition of a district of country, which shall have for its limits a line running from Ptolemais ... to the Asphaltic Lake, or Dead Sea, and from the South point of the Lake to the Red Sea." Further on the anonymous author gives the following reasons for the occupation of this territory: "This position which is the most advantageous in the world, will render us, by the navigation of the Red Sea, masters of the commerce of India, Arabia and the South and East of Africa, Abyssinia, and Ethiopia, those rich countries which furnished Solomon with so much gold and ivory and so many precious stones..."61 The letter naturally proposed that this wealth be shared with France.

{p. 31} On August 17, 1840, The Times carried an article entitled "Syria - Restoration of the Jews", which said in part: "The proposition [as far as it is known, no one had tabled such a proposition - Y. I.] to plant the Jewish people in the land of their fathers, under the protection of the five Powers, is no longer a mere matter of speculation, but of serious political consideration." But while The Times as a semi-official organ of the British Government had to be diplomatic and stress its concern for other colonialists, there were some circles in Britain which saw no reason to conceal their actual motives and views on this matter. The Earl of Shaftesbury, a prominent British statesman, in a letter of September 25th, 1840, to Viscount Palmerston, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, wrote that it was essential to make Syria a British dominion. He underlined that this would require both capital and labour and that capital was "of too sensitive a nature to flow with readiness into any country where neither property nor life can be regarded as secure...". In conclusion Shaftesbury made the following point: "If we consider their [i.e., the Jews' - Ed.] return in the light of a new establishment or colonisation of Palestine, we shall find it to be the cheapest and safest mode of supplying the wants of these depopulated regions."63 The colonial powers' struggle for influence in the Middle East was extremely intense in the period immediately preceding and following the construction of the Suez Canal. Characterising their fierce rivalry in that part of the world, Dr. Edward Robinson (1797-l863) wrote: "France has long since been the acknowledged protector of the Roman

{p. 32} Catholic religion. ... In the members of the Greek Church ... the Russians have even warmer paltisans.... but where are England's partisans in any part of Turkey?"64 England sought to secure the support of the oriental Jews (by passing an act of protectorship over them) and to persuade the European Jews to move (under her aegis) to Palestine. On January 25, 1853, Colonel George Gauler, former Governor of South Australia and hence an experienced colonial official, declared in Parliament: Divine Providence has placed Syria and Egypt in the very gap between England and the most important regions of her colonial and foreign trade, India, China, the Indian Archipelago and Australia.... Hence the providenitial call upon her, to exert herself energetically for the amelioration of the condition of both of these Provinces ... and it is now for England to set her hand to the renovation of Syria, through the only people whose energies will be extensively and permanently in the work, - the real children of the soil, the sons of Israel."65 ... In 1866 Henri Dunant, founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, suggested the founding of an Eastern International Society to promote the development of Palestine "with the participation of the people of Israel". He pointed out that "influential men in France, England, and elsewhere are favourably disposed to the scheme".67 Such "collective ownership", however, was not calculated to suit the British. Writing at the close of his political career the Earl of Shaftesbury noted in the press: "Syria then will be a place of trade pre-eminence. And who are pre-eminently the traders of the world? Will there, when the coming change has taken place, be any more congenial field for the energies of the Jew?... And has not England a special interest in promoting such a restoration? It would be a blow to England if either of her rivals should get hold of Syria."

{p. 84, (Chapter II)} "National Jewish circles, wrote Hagen, pleading Polkes's view, "are very pleased with the radical policy of the Germans with regard to the Jews, since it tends to increase the Jewish population in Palestine so that in the near future we shall be able to count on a preponderance of Jews over the Arabs."42

Heinz Hohne stressed that "the Zionist group, which was backed by the 'Haganah' whose leadership included Eichmann's confidential agent Polkes, opposed Britain's new policy on the question of resettling the Jews".43 This organisation "set up a network of confidential agents in Europe who secretly smuggled Jewish settlers to Palestine. Golomb's* people had no scruples about availing themselves of SS assistance in this work..."44

Unravelling the knot of secret ties between the nazis and the Zionists, Hohne wrote: "During the Jewish pogrom which had the code name 'Crystal Night', two representatives of the Mossad,** Pino Ginzbur, and Moshe Auerbach, arrived in Hitler's Reich.... They suggested speeding up the Zionist programme of re-educating the Jews prepared to go to Palestine....

"...German transports of the Mossad which carried the Jews - and this was a secret condition put forward by German Intelligence - were not to disclose Palestine as their destination."45

* Eliahu Golomb, a Haganah commander

** An organisation set up by the Haganah leaders {ed. note: the author thus claims that Mossad existed prior to the creation of Israel}

{p. 100 (Chapter IV) } We all know that a common mentality is an essentiai attribute of a nation, and the Zionist leaders attach primary importance to moulding an Israeli mentality. All school curricula are designed to cultivate the idea that the Jews are a chosen people and to spread manifestly racialist views. At the same time the vicious train of ideas originating in the Bible and propagated by the Zionists for the purpose of leaving a practically indelible mark on the mentality of the rising generation leads up, as a rule, to friendship with the neo-nazis in West Germany.

"During their eight-year compulsory schooling the Israeli children have to devote 1,000 academic hours to the study of the Tanach, Mishnah and the Talmud," writes Zeromski ...

Everywhere in Israel you will see a quotation from the Bible which reads: "This land do I give to them, even to the children of Israel. . ." and each pupil who is taught the Bible from the age of six knows that this land extends from the

{p. 101; see Genesis 15:18-21} river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates". Here we have both the idea of "greater Israel" and a justification of present and future seizures of Arab territories.

In all address delivered to Israeli Army representatives on October 28, 1958, Knesset Member and Zionist leader Menahem Beigin said: ''You Israelis must have no compunction when you kill your enemy. You must not sympathise with him until we have destroyed the so-called Arab culture, on whose ruins we shall build our civilisation."7

Ex-Prime Minister of Israel Ben-Gurion impressed the following idea on the students: "The map [of Israel - Y. I.] is not the map of our country. We have another map which you students and youngsters in Jewish schools must translate into reality. The Israeli nation must expand its territory from the Euphrates to the Nile."8

"Turning our eyes to the north," wrote Menahem Beigin, "we see the fertile lowlands of Syria and the Lebanon . . . to the east the wide rich valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris ... and the oil of Iraq,, to the west the land of the Egyptians. We shall be unable to develop until we have regulated our territorial problems from positions of strength. We shall force the Arabs into absolute submission."9

{p. 113} The Israeli version of apartheid (Ashkenazim-Sephardim-"goy"* -Arab) plus an elaborate system of brutal racial discrimination against the Arabs serve the same purpose. ...

* Gentile.

{p. 123 (Chapter 5)} In 1928 Jacob de Haas, Theodor Herzl's habitually circumspect secretary, succumbed to the temptation of revealing an aspect of Zionist activity which is most highly valued and financed by the "powers that be", and one that is carefully concealed and denied by the Zionists themselves:

"A real organisation does not exhibit all its strength on parade, though that ... form of demonstration was not overlooked when the need arose. The great strength of the American Zionist organisation was in the multifariousness of its contacts and in the accurate knowledge of those in control of the human resources on which they depend. Did the British need to obtain a contact in Odessa or were they in need of a trustworthy agent in Harbin? Did President Wilson require at short notice a thousand word summary detailing those who were in the Kerensky upheaval in Russia? The New York office rendered all these services [emphasis added - Y.l.), asking for nothing but receiving much, the respect and good will of the men whose signatures counted in great affairs. Thousands of Zionists everywhere served, and served well in that far flung line which the organisation maintained."1

{p. 128} It would be stressed that these measures are but a few of the variations performed by the Zionist propaganda bandwagon, but we consider them the basic ones. Multiplied by more than 70 years of daily effort they cannot be regarded as harmless and deserve the most serious attention.

The second essential factor of the above appeal of the World Zionist Organisation is the direct instructions of the Zionist leaders to "mobilise the sympathies and active support for Israel among all the peoples of the world".

This appeal leaves a lot unsaid.

Taking into account the existence of powerful Zionist organisations in the USA, Britain, France, Scandinavia and Latin America and also the Zionist leadership in Israel, the psychological warfare experts of the international Zionist centre are just as concerned, and sometimes more concerned with brainwashing the non-Jews in the pro-Zionist spirit than with conducting work among their "adopted kin". Success in this activity, they believe, will also bring a section of Jews who categorically reject Zionism to contemplate or even capitulate.

One of the most important measures employed by the Zionists in this sphere is economic blackmail. ... At one time 199 synagogues in America and Canada summoned people to purchase Israeli bonds sold directly on their premises, thus forcing many Jews into directly participating in this and many other financial operations.

Zionists throughout the world own 1,036 periodicals. Nonetheless, their leaders attach paramount importance to installing their agents or "sympathetic elements" into the central press in all countries, into the foreign services of broadcasting stations, into the cinema industry and television. Zionists never underestimate the role played by these powerful levers in indoctrinating public opinion since they know very well

{p. 129} that such "trifles" as composing an article of long primer and placing it next to a dramatic photograph, or composing it of nonpareil and hiding it away at the bottom of the second but last page sometimes make all thc difference. Better still they know that any noble idea which contradicts their views can be discredited through endless mechanical repetition until people will stop taking it seriously ...

In The Other Side of the Coin, A. Lilienthal takes a close look at the activity of the Zionists in the US press, particularly in The New York Times, a paper with one of the largest circulations in the country. Incidentally, its overseas circulation is steadily growing and 72 newspapers in the USA, Canada and other countries use its news service.

{p. 130} Lilienthal writes that he selected The New York fimes on account of its being one of the most influential newspapers in the USA and by no means because it was unique among US newspapers in its pro-Zionist orientation.

It is not only US reality that offers hundreds of irrefutable facts testifying to the carefully planned purposeful activity carried on by Zionists on radio and television, in literature and literary criticism, in the theatre and the cinema, and many other fields that influence man's world outlook. ...

The last but not the least important factor clearly indicated in the Appeal of the World Zionist Organisation is money.

Reading the above-quoted excerpt from the Appeal one cannot fail to be struck by the repeated mention of "financial assistance", "donations", "to the maximum exert your financial resources" and other "variations on the financial theme". Putting it briefly, without any special calculations (which could have been made on the basis of information from different countries) the dollar sums which the international Zionist concern and Israel's ruling circles received during the latest aggression against the Arab states are enough to cover the cost of several further ventures of this kind.

Where did these billions come from? The lion's share was lifted from the pockets of American, British, French, South African and other working people ... Why did the US ruling circles pass a law exempting from taxation all "donations" (however fantastic they might be) in aid of Israel? Why is it that in Britain, shaken by the devaluation of the pound and losing hundreds of millions of pounds a month through the Israeli blockade of the Suez Canal, hundreds of millions of pounds are successfully raised by the Zionists to keep the canal closed for as long as possible? Yes, there is food enough for thought.

{p. 146} The Pope was speaking on television. ... The Parisians ... did not know that on the mantle of Paul VI, glittering on their TV screens, there lay the shadow of the Vatican Cardinal Augustin Bea, who had long ago abandoned his Jewish faith to embrace Catholicism in order to help cement the alliance between the Catholic Church and the Jewish Church by means of the Second

{p. 147} Vatican Council Declaration of November 20, 1964

The Israeli historian and journalist Hannah Arendt was so right when she wrote: "Where, indeed, was there better proof

{p. 148} of the fantastic concept of a Jewish world government than in this one family, the Rothschilds, nationals of five different countries ... In close co-operation with at least [my italics - Y.I.] three different governments . . . whose frequent conflicts never for a moment shook the solidarity of interests of their state bankers? No propaganda could have created a symbol more effective for political purposes than the reality itself."*

* Quoted from H. M. Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish History, p. 129.

{p. 151} question: why is it that the capital of the Rothschild family, and a Jewish family mark, feeding as parasites on the economy of many countries, should have emerged not only unscathed but even healthier than ever from the years when the nazis were brutally murdering numerous peoples in Europe, the Jews among them? We have already seen how the Jews in Europe were doomed in advance to the role of victims by the Zionist fanatics, nursed from the cradle by the Rothschilds, how the Zionists came to terms with the nazis with whom they collaborated in driving the Jews either into the concentration camp crematoria or the kibbutzes of the "Land of Canaan". The German journalist Heinz Hohne hit the nail squarely on the head when he wrote that "since the Zionists and the National Socialists had elevated race and nation to the scale of all things, it was inevitable that a common bridge should have appeared between them".

{p. 152} Let us consider the following lines: "Where the roads from the west cut across the roads from the east, there lies the City of Jerusalem, the fortress of Zion. And the Jews when they acknowledge the God of Israel, the One who is omnipotent, Jehovah, at sunrise and at sunset, stand with their feet together and their faces towards Jerusalem, towards Zion; those in the west turn to the east, and those in the Orient turn to the west, all at the same hour, all facing towards Jerusalem.... With the sure intuition which they had for the new, for the dawn, they surmised the changing aspect of the world outside, the ousting of birth and worth by money....

They knew that to exercise power and to endure power is not the real, the important thing. The colossi of force, did they not all go to rack and ruin one after the other? But they the powerless, had set their seal on the world....

{p. 153} ...This mysterious knowledge it was that united the Jews and smelted them together, nothing else. For this mysterious knowledge was the meaning of the Book.

If . . . they were one, more one than all the other peoples of the world, it was the Book that sweated them into unity. Brown, white, black, yellow Jews, large and small, splendid and in rags, godless and pious, they might crouch and dream all their lives in a quiet room, or fare splendidly in a radiant, golden whirlwind over the earth, but sunk deep in all of them was the lesson of the Book....

"...They had dragged the Book with them through two thousand years.... They had given it to all peoples, and all peoples had embraced it. But it is only legitimate possessors, knowers and judges, were they alone" (all italics mine - Y. I.).

Lion Feuchtwanger could hardly have imagined that these passages of his famous book Jew Suss would one day be taken so seriously, that they would serve to inspire a man like Uri Zvie Greenberg, the bard of Israeli aggression, fascist poet Number One in Israel today.

On October 23, 1968, the Israeli newspaper Haarets published a "masterpiece" of a poem by Greenberg, entitled "On Place and Time", in which "the Israeli knight of nationalism", as he is referred to in the press, cynically extols war and scorns peace, mocks the idea of the equality of all nations, and glorifies the Jewry. He compares the dirty aggression of the Israeli invaders to the war of the Israelite leader Joshua whose "exploits" are extolled in the Bible, who also brutally massacred the indigenous inhabitants of the lands now trampled by the boots of Israeli shock units. He heaps violent abuse on all supporters of peace, and especially those Israeli citizens who have protested against the aggression. He insists that to return the seized Arab territories would mean the end of Israel, and labels as traitors all those who even think of it. The poem ends on the eloquent note: "My Israel, we need a leader with an iron hand!"

BIBLIOGRAPHY {only footnotes in the above extracts are included here}

PREFACE AND CHAPTER I {pp. 5-36} 3 Bentwich, N., Palestine, London, 1934, p. 60. 4 Sachar, H. M., The Course of Modern Jewish History, N. Y., 1963, p. 265. 5 Sokolow, N., History of Zionism, London, Vol. I, p. Xl. 6 Brandeis, Justice L., On Zionism, N. Y., 1942, pp. 24-26 (quoted: Levenberg, S., The Jews and Palestine, London, 1945, p. 42). 7 Scramuzza, V. and MacKendrick, P., The Ancient World, N. Y., 1958, p. 85. 8 Ausubel, N., The Book of Jewish Knowledge, N. Y., 1964, p. 126. 9 Ibid. 10 Brentano, L., Das Wirtschaftsleben der antiken Welt, Jena, 1929, S. 80. 11 Parkes, J., End of an Exile, London, 1954, p. 92. 12 Jeremiah, 29 - 5, 6, 6. 13 Sokolow, N., History of Zionism, Vol. 11, p. 106. 14 Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire, Phoenix Books, Chicago, 1960, p 57. 21 Scramuzza, V. and MacKendrick, P., The Ancient World, p. 599 22 Ibid., p. 600. 23 Roth, C., History of the Jews, N. Y., 1963, pp. 151-55. 24 The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. Vll, 1932, p. 644. 25 Ausubel, N., The Book of Jewish Knowledge, p. 1l9. 26 Olmstead, A. T., History of the Persian Empire, p. 481. 27 The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. Vl, p. 559. 28 Roth, C., History of the Jews, p. 91. 29 The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. III, p. 429. 30 Ausubel, N., The Book of Jewish Knowledge, p. 127. 33 Roth, C., History of the Jews, p. 136. 34 Ben Halpern, The Idea of the Jewish State, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961, p. 105. 35 The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 11, p. 156. 36 Ibid., Vol. VII, p. 643 38 Sachar, H. M., The Course of Modern Jewish History, p. 27. 39 Ibid., p. 29. 40 The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. Vll, p. 648. 41 (cyrillic text} 42 Ibid. 43 Roth, C., History of the Jews, p. 267 et seq. 44 Sokolow, N., History of Zionism, Vol. I, p. 18. 45 Baron, Salo W., A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Vol. V, p. 27. 59 Daly, Charles P., The Settlement of the Jews in North America, N. Y., 1893 (quoted: Sokolow, N., History of Zionism, Vol. I, p. 57). 60 Sokolow, N., History of Zionism, Vol. 11, p. 222. 61 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 221. 63 Ibid., Vol. II, p. 230. 64 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 118.

CHAPTER III {pp. 65-96} 42 Der Spiegel, 19. XII. 1966. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid.

CHAPTER IV {p.p. 97-122} 7 Walichnowski, T., "Od Jeufratu az do Nilu", Kontynenty No. 2, 1968. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid.

CHAPTER V {pp. 123-165} 1 Menorah Journal, USA, February 1928.

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