The USSR Constitution of 1924 Comments by Peter Myers; my comments are shown {thus}. Date July 2001; update January 13, 2014

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This constitution is important, because it was endorsed just ten days after Lenin died on 21 January 1924. At the time, a triumvirate (Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin) was ruling the USSR, of whom Stalin was the only non-Jew. He had not yet gained full power, and Trotsky was still a powerful figure, although his challenge was rebuffed by the triumvirate. This Constitution, then, is Lenin's, and Trotsky's too. The 1918 Constitution was for Russia only; coming soon after the Revolution, it could not have been as thought-out as the 1924 one. By the time of the 1924 Constitution, there were four Soviet Socialist Republics. This Constitution marked their formal federation into one "Union".

Those advocating World Federalism have something similar in mind: a "Federation" is just a "Union".

The later, 1936 Constitution was Stalinist, and centralised power much further in Moscow; all subsequent Constitutions were also Stalinist, except that Gorbachev was in the process of negotiating a new non-Stalinist Constitution, more Federal i.e. less Unitary, when the coup took place.

The USSR Constitution had two parts: a Declaration and a Union Treaty (a treaty between the federating republics). Gorbachev was in the process of re-negotiating the Union Treaty, when he was deposed. Apparently he was even trying to change the name of the USSR, to "The Union of Sovereign States", a name reminiscent of the present British Commonwealth, where the distribution of power is more hidden than it was in the USSR.

For investigators of World Government, the Declaration part of the 1924 USSR Constitution is especially interesting, because it contains a committment to gradually expand the Federation by incrementally admitting more and more republics, after they had been liberated, until the whole world had joined the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:

"... the very structure of Soviet power, intemational by nature of class, pushes the masses of workers of the Soviet Republics to unite in one socialist family. [...] access to the Union is open to all Republics already existing as well as those that may be bom in the future, [...] the new federal state will be the worthy crowning of the principles laid down as early as October 1917 of the pacific co-existence and fratemal collaboration of peoples, [...] it will serve as a bulwark against the capitalist world and mark a new decisive step towards the union of workers of all countries in one world-wide Socialist Soviet Republic."
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From: Rex A. Wade, Documents of Soviet History, vol 3 Lenin's Heirs 1923-1925, Academic International Press, Gulf Breeze, Fl., 1995. ==start==

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE U.S.S.R. 31 January 1924

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUBLICS

PART I DECLARATION Since the foundation of the Soviet Republics, the states of the world have been divided into two camps: the camp of capitalism and the camp of socialism. There, in the camp of capitalism: national hate and inequality, colonial slavery and chauvinism, national oppression and massacres, brutalities and imperialistic wars. Here, in the camp of socialism: reciprocal confidence and peace, national liberty and equality, the pacific co-existence and fratemal collaboration of peoples. The attempts made by the capitalistic world during the past ten years to decide the question of nationalities by bringing together the principle of the free development of peoples wilh a system of exploitation of man by man have been fruitless. In addition, the number of national conflicts becomes more and more confusing, even menacing the capitalist regime. The bourgeoisie has proven itself incapable of realizing a harmonious collaboration of the peoples. It is only in the camp of the Soviets, only under the conditions of the dictatorship of the proletariat that has grouped around itself the majority of the people, that it has been possible to eliminate the oppression of nationalities, to create an atmosphere of mutual confidence and to establish the basis of a fraternal collaboration of peoples. It is only thanks to these circumstances that the Soviet Republics have succeeded in repulsing the imperialist attacks both intemally and externally. It is only thanks to them that the Soviet Republics have succeeded in satisfactorily ending a civil war, in assuring their existence and in dedicating themselves to pacific economic reconstruction. But the years of the war have not passed without leaving their trace. The devastated fields, the closed factories, the forces of production destroyed and the economic resources exhausted, this heritage of the war renders insufficient the isolated economic erforts of the several Republics. National economic reestablishment is impossible as long as the Republics remain separated. On the other hand, the instability of the international situation and the danger of new attacks make inevitable the creation ol a united front of the Soviet Republics in the presence of capitalist surroundings. Finally, the very structure of Soviet power, intemational by nature of class, pushes the masses of workers of the Soviet Republics to unite in one socialist family. All these considerations insistently demand the union of the Soviet Republics into one federated state capable of guaranteeing external security, economic prosperity internally, and the free national development of peoples. The will of the peoples of the Soviet Republics recently assembled in Congress, where they decided unanimously to form the "Union of Socialist Soviet Republics," is a sure guarantee that this Union is a free federation of peoples equal in rights, that the right to freely withdraw from the Union is assured to each Republic, that access to the Union is open to all Republics already existing as well as those that may be bom in the future, that the new federal state will be the worthy crowning of the principles laid down as early as October 1917 of the pacific co-existence and fraternal collaboration of peoples, that it will serve as a bulwark against the capitalist world and mark a new decisive step towards the union of workers of all countries in one world-wide Socialist Soviet Republic.

PART II TREATY

The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Ukraine, the Socialist Soviet Republic of White Russia, and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Transcaucasia (including the Socialist Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia, and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Ammenia)Ñunite themselves in one federal stateÑ"The Union of Socialist Soviet Republics."

Chapter I Attributions of the Supreme Organs of Power of the Union ARTICLE 1. The Union of Socialist Soviet Republics through its supreme organs has the following powers: (a) To represent the Union in its international relations; to conclude all diplomatic relations; to conclude treaties, political and otherwise, with other States; (b) to modily the exterior frontiers of the Union, as well as to regulate questions concerning the modification of frontiers between the member Republics; (c) to conclude treaties concerning the reception of new Republics inlo the Union; (d) to declare war and to conclude peace; (e) to conclude internal and external loans of the Union and to authorize internal and external loans of the member Republics; (f) to ratify international treaties; (g) to direct commerce with foreign countries and to determine the system of intemal commerce; (h) to establish the basic principles and the general plan of the national economy of the Union; to define the domains of industry and industrial enterprises that are of federal interest; to conclude treaties of concession both federal and in the name of the member Republics; (i) to direct transportation and the postal and telegraph services; (j) to organize and direct the armed forces of the Union; (k) to approve the budget of the federal state which includes the budgets of the memher Republics; to establish duties and federal revenues, making additions and reductions in order to balance the member Republics' budgets; to authorize duties and supplementary taxes to meet the member Republics' budgets; (l) to establish a uniform system of money and credit; (m) to establish general principles of exploitation and use of the earth, as well as those of the sub-soil, the forests, and the waters of the territories of the Union; (n) to establish federal legislation on the emigration from the territory of one of the Republics to the territory of another and to set up a fund for such emigration; (o) to establish principles of the judicial organization and procedure, as well as civil and eriminal legislation for the Union; (p) to establish the fundamental laws regarding work; (q) to establish the general principles regarding public instruction; (r) to establish the general measures regarding public hygiene; (s) to establish a standard system of weights and measures; (t) to organize federal statisties; (u) to fix the fundamental legislation regarding federal nationality, with reference to the rights of foreigners; (v) to exereise the right of amnesty in all territories of the Union; (w) to abrogate the acts of the Congresses of the Soviets and the Central Executive Committees of the member Republics contrary to the present Constitution; (x) to arbitrate litigious questions between the member Republies. ARTICLE 2. The approval and modification of the fundamental principles of the present Constitution belong exclusively to the Congress of Soviets of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics.

CHAPTER II Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics ARTICLE 3. The sovereignty of the member Republics is limited only in the matters indicated in the present Constitution, as coming within the competence of the Union. Outside of those limits, each member Republic exerts its public powers independently; the U.S.S.R. protects the rights of the member Republics. ARTICLE 4. Each one of the member Republics retains the right to freely wilhdraw from the Union. ARTICLE 5. The member Republics will make changes in their Constitutions lo conlorm with the present Constitution. ARTICLE 6. The territory of the member Republics cannot be modified without their consent; also, any limitation or modification or suppression of Article 4 must have the approval of all the member Republics of the Union. ARTICLE 7. Just one federal nationality is established for the citizens of the member Republics.

CHAPTER III Congress of Soviets of the Union ARTICLE 8. The supreme organ of power of the U.S.S.R. is the Congress of Soviets, and, in the recesses of the Congress of SovietsÑthe Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. which is composed of the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities. ARTICLE 9. The Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. is composcd ol representatives of the city and town Soviets on the basis of one deputy per 25,000 electors, and of representatives of the provincial Congresses of Soviets on thc basis of one deputy per 125,000 inhabitants. ARTICLE 10. The delegates to the Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. are elected in the provincial Congresses of Soviets. In the Republics where there does not exist provincial division, the delegates are elected directly to the Congress of Soviets of the respective Republic. ARTICLE 11. Regular sessions of the Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. are convoked by the Central Executive Committee of the Union once yearly; extraordinary sessions may be convoked on decision of the C.E.C. (Central Executive Committee), or on the demand of the Federal Soviet, or of the Soviet of Nationalities, or on the demand of two member Republics. ARTICLE 12. In cases where extraordinary circumstances interfere with the meeting of the Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. on the date set, the C.E.C. of the Union has the power to adjoum the meeting of Congress.

CHAPTER IV The Central Executive Committee of the Union ARTIC1.E 13. The Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. is composed of the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities. ARTICLE 14. The Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R. elects the Federal Soviet from among the representatives ol the member Republics in proportion to the population of each one to make a grand total of 371 memhers. ARTICLE 15. The Soviet ol Nationalities is composed Or representatives ol the member Republics and associated autonomous Republics of the R.S.F.S.R. on the basis of five representatives for each member Republic, and one representative for each associated autonomous Republic. The composition of the Soviet of Nationalities in its entirety is approved by the Congress of the U.S.S.R. (The autonomous Republics of Adjaria, and Abkhasia and the autonomous region of Osetia, Nagornyi-Karabakh and Nakhichevanskaia each send a representative to the Soviet of Nationalities.) ARTICLE 16. The Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities examine all decrees, codes, and acts that are presented to them by the Presidium of the C.E.C. and by the Council of People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R., by the different Commissariats of the People of the Union, by the C.E.C. of the member Republics, as well as those that owe their origin to the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities. ARTICLE 17. The C.E.C. of the Union publishes the codes, decrees, acts, and ordinances; orders the work of legislation and administration of the U.S.S.R., and defines the sphere of activity of the Presidium of the C.E.C. and of the Council of Commissars of the People of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 18. All decrees and acts defining the general rules of the political and economic life of the U.S.S.R., or making radical modifications in the existing practices of public organs of the U.S.S.R. must obligatorily be submitted for examination and approval to the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 19. All decrees, acts, and ordinances promulgated by the C.E.C. must be immediately put into force throughout all the territory of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 20. The C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. has the right to suspend or abrogate the decrees, acts, and orders of the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R., as well as those of the Congress of Soviets and of the C.E.C. of the member Republics, and all other organs of power throughout the territory of thc Union U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 21. The ordinary sessions of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. are convoked by the Presidium of the C.E.C. three times yearly. The extraordinary sessions are convoked by the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. on the demand of the Presidium of the Federal Soviet or of the Presidium of the Soviet of Nationalilies, and also on demand of one of the C.E.Cs. of the member Republics. ARTICLE 22. The projects of law submitted for examination to the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. do not have the force of law until adopted by the Federal Soviet and by the Soviet of Nationalities; they are published in the name of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 23. In case of disagreement between the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities, the question is transmitted to a compromise committee chosen by the two of them. ARTICLE 24. If an accord is not reached by the compromise committee, the question is transferred for examination to a joint meeting of the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities; and, if neither the Federal Soviet nor the Soviet of Nationalities obtain a majority, then the question may be submitted, on the demand of one of these organs, to the decision of an ordinary or extraordinary Congress of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 25. The Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalities elect for the preparation of their sessions and the direction of their workÑtheir Presidiums, composed of seven members each. ARTICLE 26. Between sessions of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R., the supreme organ of power is the Presidium of the U.S.S.R., constituted by the C.E.C. to the extent of 21 members, including the Presidium of the Federal Soviet and the Presidium of the Soviet ol Nationalities. To form the Presidium of the C.E.C. and the Council of People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R., conforming to Articles 26 and 37 of the present Constitution, joint sessions of the Federal Soviet and of the Soviet ol Nationalilies are convoked. In the joint session ol the Federal Soviet and the Soviet of Nationalitiies, the vote is taken separately within each group. ARTICLE 27. The C.E.C. elects, in accordance with the number of member Republics, four Presidents of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R from among the members of the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 28. The C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. is responsible before the Congress of Soviets of the U.S.S.R.

CHAPTER V The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the Union ARTICLE 29. Between sessions of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R., the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R is the supreme organ of legislative, executive, and administrative power of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 30. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. oversees the enforcement of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and the execution of all decisions of the Congress of Soviets and of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. by all the public agents. ARTICLE 31. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. has the right to suspend and abrogate the orders of the Council of People's Commissars and of the different Councils of the People of the U.S.S.R. as well as those of the C.E.C. and C.P.C. (Councils of People's Commissars) of the member Republics. ARTICLE 32. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. has the right to suspend the acts of the Congresses of Soviets of the member Republics submitting afterwards these acts for the examination and approval of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 33. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. promulgates the decrees, acts, and orders; examines and approves the projects of decrees and acts deposited by the C.P.C., by the different authorities of the U.S.S.R., by the C.E.C. of the member Republics, by their Presidiums and by other organs of power. ARTICLE 34. The decrees and decisions of the C.E.C., of its Presidium, and the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. are printed in the languages generally employed in the member Republics: Russian, Ukrainian, White Russian, Georgian, Armenian, Turko-Tartarian. ARTICLE 35. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. decides questions regarding the relationships between the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. and the People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R., for one part and the C.E.C. of the member Republics and their Presidiums, for the second part. ARTICLE 36. The Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. is responsible before the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R.

CHAPTER VI Council of People's Commissars of the Union ARTICLE 37. The Council of People's Commissars (C.P.C.) of the U.S.S.R. is the executive and administrative organ of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. and is constituted by the C.E.C. as follows: (a) The President of the Council of People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R., (b) The Vice-Presidents, (c) The People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, (d) The People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, (e) The People's Commissar for Foreign Commerce, (f) The People's Commissar for Ways and Communication, (g) The People's Commissar for Postal and Telegraph Service, (h) The People's Commissar for the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, (i) The President of the Supreme Council of National Economy, (j) The People's Commissar for Labor, (k) The People's Commissar for Finances, (l) The People's Commissar for Supplies. ARTICLE 38. The Council of People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R., in the limits of the power granted to it by the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. and on the basis of rules regulating the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R., publishes the decrees and decisions that must become effective throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 39. The C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. examines the decrees and decisions given it by the various People's Commissariats as well as those from the C.E.C. of the member Republics and by their Presidiums. ARTICLE 40. The C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. is responsible for all its work before the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. and before its Presidium. ARTICLE 41. The orders and acts of the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. may be suspended and abrogated by the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. and by its Presidium. ARTICLE 42. The Central Executive Committees of the member Republics and their Presidiums may object to the decrees and orders of the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. to the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R., without suspending the execution of these orders.

CHAPTER VII The Supreme Court of the Union ARTICLE 43. In order to maintain revolutionary legality within the territory of the U.S.S.R., a Supreme Court under the jurisdiction of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. is established, competent: (a) To give the Supreme Courts of the member Republics the authentic interpretations on questions of federal legislation; (b) To examine, on the request of the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., the decrees, decisions, and verdicts of the Supreme Courts of the member Republics, with the view of discovering any infraction of the federal laws, or harming the interests of other Republics, and if such be discovered to bring them before the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. (c) To render decisions on the request of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. as to the constitutionality of laws passed by the member Republics; (d) To settle legal disputes between the member Republics; (e) To examine the accusations brought before it of high officials against whom charges have been made relative to their performance of duties. ARTICLE 44. The Supreme Court performs its functions in the following manner: (a) With a full attendance of the member judges of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.; (b) Or, in a meeting of the Civil Judiciary College and the Criminal Judiciary College of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.; (c) Or, in a meeting of the Military College. ARTICLE 45. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., in full session, is composed of 11 members, including its President and Vice-President, the four Presidents of the Supreme Courts of the member Republics, and a representative of the Unified States Political Administration of the U.S.S.R.; the President and the Vice-President and the other five members are named by the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 46. The Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. and his assistant are named by the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. The Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is charged with the duties: (1) to give the decisions of all questions in the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., (2) to prosecute the cases brought before the Court, (3) and, in cases of lack of agreement among the judges of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., to bring these questions of dispute before the Presidium of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 47. The right to submit the questions referred to in Article 43 to the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. for examination belongs exclusively to the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R., to its Presidium, to the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., to the Prosccutors of the Supreme Courts of the member Republics and to the Unified States Political Administration of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 48. The regular sessions of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. constitute the special legal chambers to examine: (a) The civil and criminal affairs of exceptional importance that are of interest to two or more member Republics; (b) Personal charges against members of the C.E.C. and the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. A decision of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. to proceed to examine a case may take place only after special authority has been granted for each case by the C.E.C. of the Union or its Presidium.

CHAPTER VIII Commissars of the People of the Union ARTICLE 49. For the immediate direction of the several branches of public administration attributed to the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R., ten People's Commissars are created as mentioned in Article 37 of the present Constitution and who act according to the regulations of the People's Commissars approved by the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 50. The People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R. are divided into the following groups: (a) People's Commissars handling strictly federal matters of the U.S.S.R. that are extemal in character; (b) People's Commissars handling matters that are purely domestic in character. ARTICLE 51. The first group of the Commissars handling matters external in character includes the following People's Commissars: (a) For Foreign Attairs, (b) For Military and Naval Affairs, (c) For Foreign Commerce, (d) For Ways and Communication, (e) For Postal and Telegraph Service. ARTICLE 52. The second group handling matters that are strictly domestic in character includes the following People's Commissars: (a) The Council of National Economy (b) For Supplies, (c) For Labor, (d) For Finances, (e) For the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate. ARTICLE 53. The People's Commissars handling matters of purely external character have, in the various member Republics their delegates directly subordinate to these Commissars. ARTICLE 54. The People's Commissars handling matters of domestic concern have as executing organs in the various member Republics, People's Commissars of these Republics of similar title. ARTICLE 55. The C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R., including the individual Commissars, are the heads of the various departments mentioned. ARTICLE 56. Under each People's Commissar, and under his presidency, is formed a College, of which the members are named by the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 57. The People's Commissar has the right to personally take decisions on all questions that come within the jurisdiction of his department, on advising the College of his department of his act. In case of disagreement on any decision of the People's Commissar, the College, or its members separately, may bring the dispute before the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R., without suspending the act of the Commissar. ARTICLE 58. The orders of the different People's Commissars of the Union may be aabrogated by the Presidium of the C.E.C., and by the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 59. The orders ol the People's Commissars ol the U.S.S.R. may be suspended by the C.E.C. or by the Presidium of the C.E.C.s of the member Republics in case ot evident incompalibilily of these orders wilh the Federal Constitution, with Federal legislation or with legislation of the member Republic. This suspension is immediately communicated by the C.E.C. or by the Presidiums of the C.E.C.s of the member Republics to the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. and to the proper People's Commissar of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 60. The People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R. are responsible before the C.P.C., the C.E.C of the U.S.S.R., and its Presidium.

CHAPTER XI The Unified Political Administration of State ARTICLE 61. With the goal of unifying the revolutionary efforts of the member Republics in their struggle against political and economic counter-revolution, spying and banditry, there shall be created under the jurisdiction of the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R., a Unified State Political Administration (O.G.P.U.) of which the President shall be a consulting member of the C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R. ARTICLE 62. The O.G.PU of the U.S.S.R. directs the activities of the local organs of O.G.P.U. through its delegates under the jurisdiction of the C.P.C. of the member Republics, acting in virtue of a special ruling sanctioned through legislative channels. ARTICLE 63. The overseeing of acts of the O.G.P.U. as to their legality shall be in charge of the Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. by virtue of a special ruling of the C.E.C. of the U.S.S.R.

CHAPTER X The Member Republics ARTICLE 64. Within the limits of the territory of each member Republic the supreme organ of power is the Congress of Soviets of the Republic, and in Congressional recesses, its Central Executive Committee. ARTICLE 65. The relations between the supreme organs of power of the member Republics and the supreme organs of power of the U.S.S.R. are established by the present Constitution. ARTICLE 66. The C.E.C. of the member Republics elect from among their own membership the Presidiums that in the recesses between sessions of the C.E.C. are the supreme organs of power. ARTICLE 67. The C.E.C. of the member Republics will form their executive organs, the Council of People's Commissars, as follows: (a) The President of the Council of People's Commissars, (b) The Vice-Presidents, (c) The President of the Supreme Council for National Economy, (d) The People's Commissar for Agriculture, (e) The People's Commissar for Finances, (f) The People's Commissar for Supplies, (g) The People's Commissar for Labor, (h) The People's Commissar for the Interior, (i) The People's Commissar for Justice, (j) The People's Commissar for the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, (k) The People's Commissar for Public Instruction, (l) The People's Commissar for Public Health, (m) The People's Commissar for Social Welfare, and in addition, and with a voice either consultative or deliberative, according to the decision of the C.E.C. of the member Republics, representatives from the People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R. for Foreign Affairs, for Military and Naval Affairs, for Foreign Commerce, for Ways .and Communication, for Postal and Telegraph Service. ARTICLE 68. The Supreme Council of National Economy and the Commissars of Supplies, of Finances, of Labor, and the Inspectorate of Workers and Peasants of the member Republics, while being subordinate to the C.E.C. and C.P.C. of the member Republies, will execute the orders of thc C.P.C. of the U.S.S.R.

CHAPTER XI Arms, Flag and Capital of the Union ARTICLE 70. The insignia of the State of the U.S.S.R. is composed of a sickle and a hammer on an earthly globe, surrounded by sun rays and framed with wheat stalks, with an inscription in the six languages mentioned in Article 34: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" Above the insignia, there shall be a five pointed star. ARTICLE 71. The flag of the State of the U.S.S.R. shall be in red or vermillion cloth with the arms of the Union. ARTICLE 72. The Capital of the U.S.S.R. is Moscow.

Milton H. Andrew, Twelve Leading Constitutions: 227-45, with modifications. ==end==

The Jewish identities of Lenin and Trotsky: lenin-trotsky.html.

Pitirim Sorokin and Dmitri Volkogonov describe the Kronstadt Massacre and Trotsky's Role: kronstadt.html.

The early Soviet Union - after Lenin and Trotsky, but before Stalin's ascendancy: soviet-union-early.html.

To this day, leaders of the British Labour Party claim that the Zinoviev Letter was a forgery. But given the extent of Soviet duplicity, its authenticity must be reconsidered: zinoviev.html.

To buy Rex A. Wade, Documents of Soviet History, vol 3 from Amazon:

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0875691382/qid=974582154/sr=1-3/t/102-9071524-1971300

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