Robert Wilton, Russia's Agony (1918) and The Last Days of the Romanovs (1920). Wilton was correspondent of the Times of London at St Petersburg. Peter Myers, April 19, 2001; update May 4, 2003. Chapter 16 of The Last Days of the Romanovs added April 28, 2017.

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Robert Wilton, St Petersburg correspondent for the London Times, documents that the October Revolution was a Jewish Revolution, led by "Pseudo Jews", i.e. Jews who had renounced religion, many of whom had come from Western Europe with Lenin, or from America with Trotsky. Even religious Jews were afraid of them; the viciousness of the Bolsheviks arose from Jewish alienation from things Russian. Wilton says that, assimilation of Jews in Poland and other countries having failed, the only solution to the Jewish Question is Zionism.

The 1920 book is presented here first, because it gives the suppressed facts on who led the Bolshevik Revolution; the 1918 book gives more explanatory material.

ADDED April 28, 2017: Chapter 16 of The Last Days of the Romanovs, naming the Jews running all the revolutionary parties, was omitted from the British & U.S. editions. Here a translation from the French Edition is published for the first time.

(1) The Last Days of the Romanovs
(2) Chapter 16 of The Last Days of the Romanovs, naming the Jews running all the revolutionary parties
(3) Russia's Agony by Robert Wilton

(1) The Last Days of the Romanovs, by Robert Wilton, London, Thornton Butterworth Limited, 1920.

{p. 26} Nonentities, figureheads of the Sovnarkom, do not interest us. We are concerned with great, if maleficient, personages in

{p. 27} the Red world. Most of them are still unknown outside the ranks of professional revolutionaries. A goodly proportion of the hundred Jews who came out of Germany with Lenin, and the hundreds who came from Chicago, deserve to be included in this gallery, for they undoubtedly held Russia under their sway. To enumerate and describe them would require a small volume. I need sketch only those who act prominently in the drama of Ekaterinburg. The most important were: Sverdlov, Safarov, Voikov, and Goloshcheckin, and the murderer-in-chief, Yurovsky. Others will be introduced later on.

The names of Safarov and Voikov figure in the list of Lenin's fellow-passengers. Both are very powerful Bolsheviks, holding high places in the executive and police branches. Sverdlov was the uncrowned Tsar of the Soviets. His authority was for more than a year higher than that of Lenin or even Trotsky.

{p. 125} When the Jewish murderers and their accomplices, the German-Magyar 'Letts,' had taken wing before the advance of the Whites, these prisoners were sent to Perm for future disposal, while they themselves had hurried westward, having helped to accomplish the hellish design of the Jew fiend, Yankel Sverdlov - to exterminate 'all the Romanovs.' Others had already preceded them to Perm, and the design had been fully accomplished there. The murder of the Romanovs at Perm took place exactly twenty-four hours after the murder of the family at Ekaterinburg.

{p. 146} But why all these precautions? If the people are so anxious to try and punish their late ruler, why resort to all manner of subterfuges, both in committing the 'execution' and in acquainting the people with the death of their 'oppressor'?

The answer is a simple one: Sverdlov and his associates were not sure of the people. The reason of that is equally simple: they were not Russians; they were Jews. They

{p. 147} were 'internationalists,' repudiating all nationality, yet disguised under Russian names. The Russians in their midst were dupes or dummies. Krassin might come to clear the ground, but Apfelbaum-Kamenev appeared for the serious work. What happened in London in 1920 is comparable in a modest way with the Red mechanism in Russia itself.

Taken according to numbers of population, the Jews represented one in ten; among the komisars that rule Bolshevik Russia they are nine in ten - if anything, the proportion of Jews is still higher.

These men feared the Russian people, they feared the Romanovs because they were Russians, they feared Nicholas Romanov because he had been a Russian Tsar, and when he refused to be seduced from his loyalty to his people and to the Allies they resolved that he should die - he and all the Romanovs. This resolve was carried out when the advance of anti-Bolshevik forces gave a reasonable hope of sophisticating the crime and avoiding a just punishment. And so definite was Jew-ruled Moscow on the necessity of the ex-Tsar's death that a whole month before the murder the report persisted that Nicholar II was dead.

{p. 148} The Germans knew what they were doing when they sent Lenin's pack of Jews into Russia. They chose them as agents of destruction. Why? Because the Jews were not Russians and to them the destruction of Russia was all in the way of business, revolutionary or financial. The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed with the stamp of alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov (who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews Goloschekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yukovsky, is the act not of the Russian people, but of this hostile invader.

The Jewish domination in Russia is supported by certain Russians: the 'burgess' Ulianov, alias Lenin, the 'noble' Chicherin, the 'dissenter' Bonch-Bruevich. They are all mere screens or dummies behind which the Sverdlovs and the thousand and one Jews of Sovdepia continue their work of destruction; having wrecked and plundered Russia by appealing to the ignorance of the working folk, they are now using their dupes to set up a new tyranny worse than any that the world has known.

Sovietdom has consecrated three heroes to whom monuments have been erected: to Karl Marx, to Judas Iscariot, and to Leo Tolstoi, the three names that are assocuated with Revolution, Apostasy, and Anarchism; two of them Jews.

When the Jew Kanegisser assassinated the Jew Uritsky, the Soviets ordained a Terror throughout the land. Rivers of Russian blood had to wipe away the stain caused by a Jew who dared to oppose the Jewish rulers of unhappy Russia.

{p. 153} To bring the Tsar or the Tsarevich to Moscow would involve risks. The Jews were in a fright; telegrams discovered in Ekaterinburg show that they trusted none of the Russians in their employ. That is why the Romanovs remained in Ekaterinburg.

{p. 155} In the autumn of 1915 there assembled in Vienna the representatives of the German and Austrian General Staffs to discuss a plan for the promotion of a revolutionary movement in Russia. It was then that all the outlines of the 'Russian' revolution were laid down; it was at that meeting that the leading actors in the Red tragedy were chosen: the Lenins and the Sverdlovs and the host of Jewish wreckers, who spent the interval between their engagement and their appearance on the Russian stage in the calm of Swiss resorts, studying and rehearsing their parts.

The money that financed the 'Russian' revolution was German money, and - I say it on the strongest evidence which can be corroborated in the German secret archives - YYANKEL SVERDLOV RECEIVED A SALARY FROM THE GERMANS TILL NOVEMBER 7, 1917, when, becoming Red Tsar of All the Russias, he had at his disposal loot unimaginable. {end quotes}

(2) Chapter 16 of The Last Days of the Romanovs, naming the Jews running all the revolutionary parties

Translated from the French Edition by Nathel.

This is the first time an English translation has been published.

TRANSLATOR'S NOTE: I have left the name in their French style (e.g. Sverdlof for Sverdlov) since Iım not knowledgeable in Russian.



It is proven that the Ekaterinebourg Soviet did not know what the butchers were doing: Yourovski, Golochtchekine _ agents of Sverdlof_ and their associates; Volkof, Safarof and Syromolotof; the Russian "president" Beloborodof was acting under the orders of Golochtchekine.

I have cited the names of the members of the Ekaterinebourg Soviet (p.103). In appearance, the majority is Russian and, contrary to the rules in Sovietia, it really was a Russian majority. The inhabitants of the Urals would not have tolerated an organization openly Jewish. But, as we know, that Soviet was never anything but a sham; the authority remained in the hand of Sverdlof.

The files contains a very precise documentation on the actions of the individuals names above. They organized a real manufacture the fabricate forgeries, establishing so-called conspirations to organize the escape of the Czar. We can find draft of letters allegedly exchanged between Nicolas and White Officers, etc.

Correspondents of American newspapers, who came to Ekaterinebourg to "investigate" reported fantastic stories, as told by Red agents, concerning aeroplanes that mysteriously came to save the Czar, or servants who had entered the Ipatief house in order to facilitate the escape...

The Moscow Soviet press gave the signal for all this campaign of lies on May the 4th 1918, describing the White conspiracy to free the Czar, adding that all concerns were useless, since the Ural Soviet was taking care of the guarding of the Czar. (See the end of this chapter.)

The conversations between the "presidency" of the Soviet of Ural and the chief in Moscow occurred sometimes by direct wire. The police search at the telegraphic office gave a few unhoped for results. Either by negligence or by the intervention of anti-Bolshevik employees, the file grew in size from precious documents. Hereıs one: Sverdlof speaks on one side, Beloborodof on the other.

Sverdlof. _ Whatıs new with you?

Beloborodof._ The situation on the front is better than we thought yesterday; it is known that the enemy, having cleared all other sectors, is concentrating all his forces on Ekaterinebourg.

Sverdlof. _ Will you be able to hold long?

Beloborodof._ Tough to say. We are taking all means to maintain our position. Everything not absolutely necessary was evacuated. Yesterday, a messenger left with all the documents that interest you. Let the decision of the C.C.E. be known; and can we inform the people through the text that you know?

Sverdlof. _ At the meeting of the presidency of the C.C.E. on the 18th, it was decided to recognize the decision of the Ural Soviet as regular. You can publish your text. I will immediately transmit the exact text of our publication...

It is useless to reproduce it, since it the text of the Bolshevist radio published by the French newspapers on July 22nd, quoted in this book (p. 102)

The reader will appreciate the character and content of that conversation by direct wire. It had occurred on July 19th of course. We remember that the people were "informed" on the 20th, Sverdlof having granted permission to publish. We can see it, Sverdlof in in command...

I have in my hands the telegrams exchanged by the Jewish powers of Ural and Moscow. Most are in code, bearing the address of Gorbounof, Leninıs secretary, in charge of the Code. Without revealing the content of these communications, I can only say that they confirm on every point the story of the crime of Ekaterinebourg. Besides, the document that will follow is sufficiently clear, indicating that the execution was decided already on the 4th in Moscow and by the individuals known to the reader.

Sverdlof sends the order to his associates to report on the situation and to send him a trustworthy person to receive his verbal instructions. Golochtchekine is already in Moscow. He has already aroused worries concerning the Russian Guard, which had become sympathetic to the Romanof:

Moscow: to the president of the C.C.E. Sverdlof for Golochtchekine.

Syromolotof already gone to organize the matter in accordance with instructions of the Centre. Worries vain. Avdeief fired. His assistant Mochkine arrested. Yourovski replaces Avdeief. Inside Guard totally relieved and replace by other people. 4558 Beloborodof. _ 4, VII

Syromolotof brought Sverdlofıs instructions. Yourovski got to work immediately while waiting for the return of Golochtchekine. The Russians were already replaced by Magyar executioners.

In Moscow, Sverdlof pursued his relationship with Mirbach for a few days. The German Ambassador was murdered on July 7th.

The Red autocracy, at the time of the murder of the Romanof, consisted entirely of Jews, with the sole exception of Lenin, his real name being Vladimir Oulianof, ennobled bourgeois of Simbirsk. Only a Russian could have been capable of such a destructive imagination; only Jews could have realize his plan of universal upheaval. But Leninıs conception had no other goal that a utopian, while the Semitesı actions were pursuing a real goal: the takeover of Russia.

In so doing, they were only continuing the tradition, momentarily compromised by the war, of intermediaries between Germany and Russia. In spite of the differences, rather superficial, between the bourgeois Jew and the Bolshevist Jew, the plan pursued by Sverdlof in concert with Kaiser State was exactly the same as the plan between the Republican Germany closely allied to the actual Red autocracy; the economic debacle of the world, giving the Germans the opportunity to clear their debts, while reinforcing their control of Russia. The "Americanism" of the Trotskis, at was before anything else with the Sverdlofsı "germanism" became an alliance after the rejection, too late, of the Red regime by the Government of Wilson.

The résumé of the soviet public servants, ending chapter II, show the participation of 15 Germans. These representatives, artfully distributed in various departments _ not counting the military in the Red Army _ guaranteed a perfect liaison, always working notwithstanding the outside events.

Itıs in the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party the rests the power; now here is its composition in 1918:

Bronstein (Trotski), Apfelbaum (Zinoviev), Lourie (Larine), Ouritski, Volodarski, Rosenfeldt (Kamenev), Smidovitch, Sverdlof (Yankel), Nakhamkes (Steklof). JEWS .............. 9

Oulianov (Lenin), Krylenko, Lounatcharski. RUSSIAN ...........................................3

The other socialist "Russian" parties are in the same situation. Here are their central committees: S.D. mensheviks: 11 members, all Jews; Communists of the People: 6 members, of which 5 are Jews, 1 Russian; S.R. (right), 15 members of which 13 Jews, 2 Russians (Kerenski _ unless he has a Jewish origin _ and Tchaikovski); S.R. (left) 12 members, of which 10 are Jews, 2 Russians; Committee of Anarchists of Moscow, 5 members of which 4 Jews, 1 Russian; Party of the Polish District, 12 members all Jews including Sbelson (Radek), Krakhmal Zagorski and Schwartz (Goltz).

These parties, so-called of opposition, work more or less openly with the Bolsheviks, blocking the Russians. Of 61 individuals heading these parties, there were 6 Russians and 55 Jews. Whatever the label, a revolutionary government will Jewish.

Here the Revolutionary Council of the People: Oulianof, (Lenin), president, Russian; Tchitcherine, Foreign Affairs, Russian; Lounatcharski Public Education, Russian; Djougachvili, Nationalities, Georgian; Protian, Agriculture, Armenian; Lourie (Larine), Economic Council, Jew; Schlichter, Food Supplies, Jew; Bronstein (Trotski), War and Navy, Jew; Lander, State Control, Jew; Kauffman, Public Land, Jew; Schmidt, Labor, Jew; E. Lilina (Knigissen), Public assistance, Jew; Spitzberg, Religion (Cults), Jew; Apfelbaum (Zinovief), Interior, Jew; Avelt, Hygiene, Jew; Isidore Goukovski, Finances, Jew; Volodarski, Press, Jew; Ouritski, elections, Jew; I. Steinberg, Justice, Jew; Fenigstein, Refugees, Jew; Savitch and Zaslavski, his assistants, Jews. Of 22 Members, 3 Russians, 1 Georgian, 1 Armenian, 17 Jews.

Here is the Central Executive Committee:

Y. Sverdklof, president, Jew; Avanessof, secretary, Armenian; Bruno, Letton; Breslau, Letton; Babtchinski, Jew; Boukharine, Russian; Weinberg, Jew; Gailiss, Jew; Ganzburg, Jew; Danichevski, Jew; Starek, German; Sachs, Jew; Scheinmnn, Jew; Erdling, Jew; Landauer, Jew; Linder, Jew; Wolach, Czech; Dimanstein, Jew: Encukidze, Georgian; Ermenn, Jew; Ioffe,Jew; Karkhline, Jew; Knigissen, Jew; Rosenfeldt (Kamenef), Jew; Apfelbaum (Zinovief), Jew; Krylenko, Russian; Krassikof, Jew; Kapnik, Jew; Kaoul, Letton; Oulianof (Lenin), Russian; Latsis, Jew; Lander, Jew; Lounatcharski, Russian Oeterson, Letton; Peters, Letton; Roudzoutas, Jew; Rosine, Jew; Smidovitch, Jew; Stoutchka, Letton; Smiltch, Jew; Nakhamkes (Steklof), Jew; Sosnovski, Jew; Skrytnik, Jew; Bronstein (Trotski), Jew; Teodorovitch, Jew; Terian, Armenian; Ouritski, Jew; Telechkine, Russian; Feldmann, Jew; Froumkine, Jew; Souriupa, Ukrainian; Tchavtchevadze, Georgian; Scheikmann, Jew; Rosental, Jew; Achkinazi, Imeretrian; Karakhane, Karaim; Rose, Jew; Sobelson (Radek) Jew; Schlichter, Jew: Schikolini, Jew; Chklianski, Jew; Levine (Pravdine), Jew;.

62 Members, 5 Russian, 6 Lettons, 2 Germans, 1 Czech, 2 Armenians, 2 Georgians, 1 Imeretian, 1 Karaim, 1 Ukrainian, 41 Jews.

Here now are the members of the Extraordinary Commission of Moscow:

Dzerjinski, president, Pole; Peters, vice-president, Letton; Chklovski, Jew; Zeistine, Jew; Razmirovitch, Jew; Kronberg, Jew; Khaikina, Jewess; Karlson, Letton; Schaumann, Letton; Leontovitch, Jew; Rivkine, Jew; Antonof, Russian; Delafabre, Jew; Tsitkine, Jew; Roskirovitch, Jew: G. Sverdlof (brother of the president), Jew; Biesenski, Jew; Blioumkine (murderer of Count Mirbach), Jew; Alexandrovitch (accomplice of the preceding) Russian; I. Model, Jew; Routenberg, Jew; Pines, Jew; Sachs, Jew; Jacob Goldine, Jew; Galperstein, Jew; Kniggisen, Jew; Latzis, Letton, Daybol, Letton; Suissoune, Armenian; Devlkenen, Letton; Liebert, Jew; Vogel, German; Zakiss, Letton; Schillenkuss, Jew; Janson, Letton; Kheifiss, Jew;

In all, 36 with 1 Pole, 1 German, 1 Armenian, 2 Russians, 8 Lettons, 23 Jews.

No need then to be surprised of the Jewish complicity in the murder of the Romanof family. The absence of such a complicity would have been astonishing.

(See pages 253, 269, 279 the innuendos of the king slayers concerning the various rumors that were spread: the Red autocracy new how to spread false news in order "to work" at ease. At pages 105 and 121 we saw how the Soviets themselves were fooled.).

(3) Russia's Agony by Robert Wilton, London, Edward Arnold, 1918. {Footnotes are included thus}

{p. 56} For a proper examination of the situation in Russia under the Old Regime, and more particularly of the events that occurred during the Revolution, it becomes necessary to deal at some length with the position of the Jews. It had an intimate bearing upon all that happened in 1917.

Something like six millions of Jews inhabited the Russian empire at the beginning of the war. They were twice as numerous as the Germans, with whom they were largely associated in business. Their numbers had been enormously increased as the result of an evil act - the partition of Poland at the end of the eighteenth century. By this political blunder Russia strengthened the Brandenburg-Prussian realm, and saddled herself with the Polish and Jewish questions. Thereby she was destined to come, sooner or later, into direct collision with the Germans and to find herself handicapped in her struggle.

The ancestors of the Polish Jews had fled from Germany to escape persecution. But they brought with them a deep-rooted association with that country. During the centuries of abode in Teutonic lands they had evolved a specific language called Yiddish, a German jargon. They acted as a sort of advance guard of German penetration. In Poland they enjoyed a large measure of freedom.

{p. 57} All business was in their hands. They acted as agents to the great landlords. The urban population was - and remains - mostly Jewish. But Poles and Jews lived peacefully enough together. The Jews certainly had the best of the bargain; they prospered, and were not ungrateful. They helped the Poles with money during the insurrections of 1831 and 1863.

Thirty years ago the Poles began to go into business for themselves. Competition arose. The landlords started agricultural associations to shake off the Jewish monopoly. A rift betokened itself, and has been growing ever since, - effectively discrediting Assimilationist theories, largely based upon the earlier and one-sided adjustment of Polish and Jewish interests. {see footnote 1}

Old Russia tried vainly to denationalize the Poles, and, obeying the dictates of self-preservation, to prevent the Jews from spreading eastward. This was the origin of the Pale.

No Jew was supposed to enjoy rights of residence, roughly speaking, east of the Dnieper. The Little Russians had become more or less inured to Jewish methods, and were left to bear the brunt of an ever-increasing Jewish element. For every Jewish boy and girl had to marry and produce a numerous progeny. Such was the Talmudic law. Unpermitted to hold lands and incapacitated for husbandry, the Jewish masses filled the towns and settlements, managing to eke out a miserable existence, living under the menace of pogroms, which exploited Gentiles were ready to perpetrate whenever the police gave the signal.

That the enforcement of the Pale system would lead to abuses was to be expected. Jews could not own land or reside outside specified settlements, even within the

{footnote 1} The history of Polish politics during the past three decades does not enter within the scope of this book. In the author's opinion, based on long residence in Poland, it should afford convincing evidence of the utter failure of Assimilation or of any solution of the Jewish problem except Zionism. {end footnote}

{p. 58} Pale. The police were able to levy blackmail for all kinds of real or alleged infractions of this rule. Wealthier Jews could always evade it by means of bribery. Without this source of income the police could not, indeed, have made ends meet. Their pay and allowances were ludicrously insufficient. But with the help of the Jewish revenue they accumulated comfortable fortunes. Thus the police had an interest in the Jews so long as the Pale was maintained, and tolerated or prompted pogroms only when the okhrana judged them to be necessary. We shall see how this system of corruption gradually affected the whole Empire.

In addition to his inborn propensity for the accumulation of riches, the Jew living within the Pale was incited thereto by the degrading position of his impecunious co-religionary. The poorest peasant lived like a prince in comparison with the average Jew. A piece of herring, an onion, and a crust of bread formed the Jew's diet. Dirt, squalor, and privation were his destined portion. Besides, the pogroms affected rich and poor alike. Was it surprising that the Jew strove to escape from the Pale by fair means or foul, and that to him the lands east of the Dnieper seemed like a Canaan, a land flowing with milk and honey, where he might wax rich and live secure? But how could the moneyless Jew hope to reach it? The struggle to gain affluence was naturally intense. Only the craftiest and least scrupulous could hope to raise their heads above the seething mass of Jewish pauperdom.

Among this suffering multitude the devil of class-hatred raised a fearsome harvest. The teachings of Karl Marx, a German Jew, were here decocted in their quintessence and spread by migrants from the Pale into more favoured lands - into the heart of Russia, into England and far America. Like many a noisome malady that has come to afflict mankind from the Near and Farther East, the worst political poisons exuded from the Pale.

{p. 59} The rich and poor among the Jews were bound together by ties of religion and charity. The wealthier Israelites gave of their abundance to the less fortunate ones of their faith. But this bond was not a comprehensive one. Certain important elements repudiated it by severing all ties with Jewry. For apostasy was one of the manifold evils arising out of Jewish disabilities. The poorer Jew could also break open the door of his prison by passing stringent academic tests. Then he went into the cities, an isolated, needy adventurer, quickly losing his faith, dominated by thirst for vengeance, seeing in the most violent political creeds and methods an appeal to redress the wrongs of his people, and ready to implicate the bourgeois Jew and the Gentile in his feelings of class and political hatred.

Through the schools the Jew sought to satisfy his desire for freedom rather than a thirst for learning. University degrees gave certain rights and privileges, including the right to travel or reside anywhere in Russia. Every Jewish boy strove to enter a university. For this purpose he had to matriculate through a high school. The proportion of Jews admissable had to be limited, however, or they would have swamped the "gymnasia" within the Pale. Only the very cleverest Jewish boys could gain access to the State schools and eventually enter the university. And the proportion of Jewish undergraduates was also restricted. It represented more than double the Jewish to the Gentile population, but that did not satisfy Jewish appetites. Handicapped, the Jews yet managed to exceed the norm at the close of their studies, because they were more persistent and could endure greater privations than the poorest Russian student. An outcry was raised when the Ministry of Education insisted on refusing further admittance to Jewish undergraduates until the proportions had been readjusted.

Attempting to safeguard the Russians from the Jewish encroachment became more pronounced and desperate

{p. 60} as the tide of Hebrew invasion rose higher, and - I may add - as outcasts from Jewry developed revolutionary tendencies. The Jews were slowly but surely pervading all the lucrative professions: the Bar and medicine {footnote 1: They had almost monopolized them by the time the Revolution broke out.} and to a lesser degree art and literature. They had small inclination for science or engineering. Commissions in the Army and Navy were barred to them. Commerce and industry could not appeal to the impecunious Jew. These lucrative branches were reserved for wealthy Hebrews, who, by payment of a certain Guild tax (amounting to about £100 per annum), could reside everywhere. In banking and industries the Jews became all-pervasive, as in the Press. They were confidants of Grand Dukes. The bureaucracy tried to restrain their irresistible sway by introducing senseless restrictions. For instance, a Jew could not be freely elected to boards of companies.

Numerous methods of evading the law of residence arose. Dentists' and chemists' assistants and certain artificers were granted partial exemptions. These callings were glutted with Jews. "Colleges" sprung up which did a profitable trade in "diplomas." The police readily winked at irregularities for a consideration. Petrograd was full of Jews who had no legal right of residence. They lived in suburban districts on payment of a "private tax" to the police, who watched over their interests paternally, and were disposed to molest only those Jews who had a right to reside there.

It becomes clear that the purpose for which the Pale and all the other anti-Jewish restrictions had been devised was mistaken and mischievous. It defeated itself. It led to the penetration of Russia by Hebrew elements of the most aggressive kind which had severed themselves from Jewry - had become pseudo-Jews - while it left the Jewish masses to suffer in congestion and misery. ...

{p. 61} No instigation was necessary to provoke pogroms. They would have occurred oftener if the police had not interfered. The Little Russian, Lithuanian or Polish peasants, wrecked Jewish shops whenever Jewish "expolitation" assumed intensive forms. A similar phenomenon had been observed in Austria-Hungary, {footnote 1: H. Wickham Steed, the Hapsburg Monarchy.} and recurrence in Russia since the Revolution puts an end to the fiction that the police alone were responsible. Indeed, the frequency of pogroms during 1917 was all the more remarkable because Revolutionary Russia was disposed to champion the Jews as a race that had been oppressed by the Old Regime.

Another point must be explained before I leave the Jewish question. When the Russian armies entered Poland at the beginning of the war many regiments from other parts of the Empire knew little or nothing about the Jews. The soldiers had a religious prejudice against them and also a certain contempt, because the Jews systematically evaded service in the ranks. Here they found enormous populations of Jews who were obsequious and omniscient. Jewish "factors" supplied them with anything for money, even drink. To ingratiate themselves with officers and men they would tell them - long anticipating official knowledge - of promotions and of impending transfers of units. As the Germans displayed by means of derisive placards hoisted over the trenches a similar knowledge of military secrets, the idea gained ground that the Jews were spying in the interests of Germany. "Telephone" wires discovered around Jewish houses confirmed this suspicion. It is interesting to note that the Jews had a habit of "wiring" their houses in order to evade some of the Talmudic laws of ritual and other observances. This simple explanation accounts for many of the cruelties to which Jews were unjustly subjected. Let me add that to my knowledge Jewish soldiers of the right sort performed many gallant deeds - worthy of their remote ancestors, the Maccabeans.

{p. 137} Subversion had been carried out by a handful of pseudo-Jew Extremists in the Soviet, {see footnote 1} but the Soviet was a

{footnote 1} Afterwards their numbers increased largely, and although they studiously concealed their identity under assumed Russian or Polish names, it became known that the principal ones were: Nahamkez-Steklov, Apfelbaum-Zinoviev, Rosenfeldt-Kamenev, Goldmann-Gorev, Goldberg-Mekowski, Zederbaum-Martov, {continued on p. 138}

{p. 138} party to the traitorous business. Most of the leaders - especially the pseudo-Jews - were a truculent pack, cowering behind the soldiery, intent upon realizing their revolutionary "ideals," but terrified by a possibility of failure and eventual reprisals. ...

{footnote continued from p. 137} Himmer-Sukhanov, Krachman-Zagorski, Hollander-Mieshkowski, Lourier-Larin, Seffer-Bogdanov. Among the leaders of this gang - under Lenin - were: Trotsky, whose real name was Bronstein, and Feldmann, alias Chernov. He came to Russia in April, travelling from Switzerland and through Germany in a "sealed carriage" with Rebert Grimm, Mme Kolontay, etc., at a time when Austria, with Germany's approval, proposed "separate terms" to the Provisional Government. He had been amply provided with funds by a "wealthy lady" in Zurich. He "requisitioned" a ballet-dancer's villa opposite the fortress and preached the doctrines of Bolshevism. Having stirred up a revolt in July to defeat Kerensky's "offensive," he was permitted to go back into seclusion. It is said he went to Germany. He came back to carry out the final "victory" of Bolshevism with the aid of Bronstein-Trotsky, who had been a refugee after the troubles of 1905, when he had been Vice-President of the Labour Soviet. He had been expelled from France for anti-war agitation and before the revolution went to America. His detention at Halifax aroused the greatest fury in the Soviet against the British Government, and as "Minister for Foreign Affairs" in the Lenin "cabinet" he gave full vent to his feelings of revenge for his detention.

{p. 145} I was absent from Petrograd, having gone to the Front. My friends in the Capital afterwards related to me what had happened. One of them was at the Tauris Palace,

{p. 146} where the Soviet still had its headquarters. He related that the building was full of Jews - reporters and others - who were in terror of being captured by the partisans of the Bolshevik-Jews.

{p. 147} When General Polovtsov came to apprehend two of the Bolshevik ringleaders, he found Kerensky at their quarters, and from him received orders to leave them alone. When General Polovtsov proceeded to disarm the Red Guard, he was forbidden to do so by orders from Prince Lvov, "in compliance with the wishes of the Soviet."

{p. 174} Moreover, the Press, almost entirely in Jewish hands, had gone over to the Soviet, and Moderate organs that would not publish the Soviet proclamations glorifying spoilation and promoting Anarchy had been summarily "expropriated" on behalf of newly founded Socialist publications. The revolutionary pseudo-Jews were thus destroying Russia's hopes of a national revival and dragging the country into disaster. Yound and old, these zealots intensified revolutionary passions. Through the Press they already wielded enormous power and were capturing other channels of control, the Committees and the militia (police).

I called attention at the time to both these dangers. On April 8th I reported on the Soviet's plans "to bring about the defeat of the Russian armies and a dishonourable peace." Pacifist members of the House of Commons raised a great outcry, and M. Miliukov, who was attempting the impossible task of reconciling the Soviet's programme with sober dictates of Allied policy, indirectly supported the "Allied" pacifists. On March 26th I reported from Riga on the pernicious influence of Jewish Extremists. But this appeal to moderation was wilfully distorted by the Jewish Press. Facts cited by me on the best authority were "proved" to be non-existent, and a campaign of slander and intimidation followed. Later on M. Vinaver, the eminent Jewish Deputy, admitted in conversation with me that Nahamkez and his ilk were a greater danger to the Jews than to the Russians. I felt that I had done my duty in calling attention to the ominous feature of the situation, and refer to these incidents here simply to show how impossible it was then to speak the truth about Russia. The Soviet regime was far worse than the okhrana. I know that on one occasion, at least, the okhrana had contemplated my

{p. 175} expulsion for writing too freely about the Old Regime. Now, I was threatened with nothing less than murder. Under the dispensation of "freedom" applied by the Soviet, the truth had become unpalatable and dangerous in Petrograd and inacceptable in London.

Behind the veil thus dropped by the Soviet and its pseudo-Jewish supporters, British and French pacifists worked unremittingly for the success of the Soviet plan. The respective Governments encouraged Socialist deputations to come and "convert" the Russian Revolutionaries, who knew infinitely more about revolution than did these "innocents." It was even rumoured in Petrograd that Mr. Arthur Henderson would succeed Sir George Buchanan. The French experiment with M. Albert Thomas had not, however, proved a success. The Allies dealt with a proposal to hold an international congress in Stockhomlm, initiated by the Soviet in furtherance of its schemes. Oceans of ink were expended on this subject before the real motives of the Soviet were understood. Meanwhile some of the "missionaries" had themselves been "converted."

Another lamentable feature of the revolutionary period was the constant passage of Russian and pseudo-Jew revolutionaries from Allied countries. Every shipload that came from America, England or France gave trouble. The exiles would go straight from the train to the Field of Mars and "stir up" the revolutionary pot. Whether "martyrs of Tsarism" or merely German spies, they all considered themselves to be entitled to a share in the spoils, and had to be provided with "fat places" in the Food, Agrarian, and other Committees. To these shipments we owed the advent of Bronstein-Trotsky and other Bolsheviki.

{p. 326} From the early times of revolutionary activity there had been a "split" among the Jews, separating the bourgeois pseudo-Jew extremist. It assumed a marked character when the pseudo-Jews of the Soviet and their fellow-apostates in the Socialist ranks revealed themselves in their true anarchical colours. Some of the Bolshevist and Maximalist pseudo-Jews even "recanted" on realizing the consequences of their own doctrines, and dissociated themselves from Leninism.

Our successes in Palestine should enable the Allies to provide a solution for two great problems. The greater is the Jewish problem, which cannot be solved except by enabling the Jews to become once more a nation in Zion. The second one is the Armenian problem. {end of transcript}

Bertrand Russell on Americanised Jews' role in creating Bolshevism: russell.html.

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