Reg Little and Warren Reed, THE CONFUCIAN RENAISSANCE - Selections by Peter Myers; my comments are shown {thus}. Date November 24, 2002; update November 14, 2003.

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Reg lives in Brisbane. He informed me that a Chinese edition of this book is selling well in China.

Confucius was "purged" during the Cultural Revolution, with its campaign against the "Four Olds", but since then he has been rehabilitated.

The West itself is undergoing its own Cultural Revolution, exemplified by the push for Gay Marriage, with a similar rejection of the past. Although often promoted by Fabian politicians, the avant-garde of this movement in the universities is Trotskyist; it is often not recognised as a form of Marxism, because we are so used to identifying Marxism with the Stalinist or Maoist variants.

Confucianism is thus a rival to the Marxist philosophy and the Jewish religion.

The resurgence of Confucianism, as expressed in the "Japan model", played a major role in defeating the Soviet Union; after Mao's death, Deng Xiao-ping visited Japan and decided to switch to the Japan economic model.

Might the same model, now spread to a China-Korea-Japan block, play a similar role in defeating the Capitalism practised in the Anglophone countries?

Reg Little and Warren Reed, THE CONFUCIAN RENAISSANCE (The Federation Press, Sydney,  1989).

{p. 3} The most important figure in the North Asian tradition of civilisation is unquestionably Confucius, an itinerant Chinese scholar, philosopher, and teacher during a time over 2,500 years ago ...

{p. 4} Not a man to emphasise either pragmatic or divine inspirations, he focused on virtue, learning and ritual as the means of ensuring that Man lived in harmony with the Natural Order, which was also a Moral Order. He believed that through the study of past customs, traditions, and literature Man gained understanding of the will of Heaven which led to fulfilment from acting in accordance with that will.

His teachings gained widespread support, paradoxically because in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), the first to unite China, there was a period of draconian rule. This was based on the tenets of Legalism, which rigidly stressed the letter of the law over all other considerations and consequently highlighted the need for flexibility, tolerance, and humanity in the exercise of power.

The mythology which determines the reputation of Confucius today is, of course, largely the product of the long history of China since the death of Confucius. These writings, however, which are ascribed to him or his influence have set a number of parameters which have been the dominant philosophical, social, and political force in the evolution of Chinese civilisation over more than 2,000 years.

Moreover, these writings offer an insight into why philosophy has played a role in the life of the common man as well as the educated and intellectual man in the Chinese tradition of civilisation that is not to be found in other civilisations.

A number of characteristics which have distinguished Confucian civilisation over several thousand years can be traced to these writings. These include:

(1) A reverence for antiquity. Confucius reinforced and legitimised the respect and deference for examples from antiquity, which runs deep in Chinese civilisation, by choosing from the ancient legends sage kings of antiquity to be his ideals. This contributes to a deep-rooted sense of stability and maturity which, contrary to the criticisms of some Western commentators, provides fertile soil for innovative and flexible adjustment in the face of necessity. A number of certainties in respect of hierarchical order, due respect, the succession of generations, and the debt to ancestors are embodied in the Confucian sense of antiquity and provide the framework on which a purposeful and responsible life can be constructed.

{p. 5} (2) A spiritual concern with the forms and functions of the State. Confucius was unique amongst the world's great spiritual prophets in concentrating attention on the importance of the forms and functions of the State. By this means he created a spiritual concern for the proper performance of the duties of the State which has made a major contribution to the fact that throughout the several thousand years since his death it is likely that more human beings have been mobilised in one political entity in China than in any other part of the world. The Confucian influence has focused human energies on mastering the virtues which make for good government.

(3) A respect for education. Confucius emphasised by example and in his teaching the importance of education or self-cultivation in the service of the community and to achieve good government. His teachings have contributed to the development of a tradition of ruthlessly competitive education as a preparation for the holding of high office and as the essence of bureaucracy. This bureaucracy has governed China and continuously recorded this experience over several thousand years, in a manner unknown elsewhere in the world.

(4) A preference for government by Man, or virtue, rather than by law. Confucius clarified a major weakness of the rule of law which is little understood in the West today, in a key passage of the Analects in the following words

"Lead the people by laws and regulate them by penalties and the people will try to keep out of jail but will have no sense of shame. Lead the people by virtue and restrain them by the rules of decorum, and the people will have a sense of shame and moreover, will become good"

Such a clear early statement of this dilemma and the recurring debate between Confucian and Legalist factions throughout Chinese history, have created a deep cultural awareness of the complexities and subtleties of rule by virtue and by law. A contemporary reflection on the role of MITI in Japan's post-war economic growth might suggest that its functions were dependent on a regime which was recognised as functioning with the authority of virtue as well as the authority of law.

{p. 6} (5) An acceptance of the diversity of spiritual and philosophical authority. Confucius lived in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Period of the Hundred Philosophers in Chinese History, a time of remarkable philosophical activity, not only in China but throughout the world. The Confucian achievement, however, accommodated the rival teachings of Mozi, provided a strilcing compliment to the Daoist teachings of Laozi and Zhuangzi, and prospered in the face of the conflicting teachings of the Legalist thinking of Han Feizi. Buddha, too, was the originator of a more familiar type of religious tradition which has been welcomed by the Confucian world of China. Confucianism has created a unique culture in China in many ways but perhaps in no way more important than in creating an environment where different spiritual traditions, ie Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism, Christianity, etc, can prosper together.

(6) The creation and promotion of unique concepts of humanity (ren) and ceremony (li). Confucius promoted a perception of social order where these concepts were central to the wholesome functioning of a human community. Subsequent interpretations have produced perhaps the most sophisticated understanding of how to order large numbers of people in the largest institutional structures the world has known.

The rival Daoist {Taoist} philosophers, Laozi and Zhuangzi, also initiated a major Chinese spiritual tradition which has survived to this day. Whereas Confucianism defines a man's relationship to other men, society, and the State, Daoism {Taoism} defines "the individual's" relationship to the Absolute. While the particular teachings attributed to Laozi and Zhuangzi are noteworthy for their fluidity and wisdom in addressing many of the leading questions which confront Man, they contrast strongly with Confucian teaching in providing a more intuitive, less socially burdensome and more spiritually transcendental philosophy. To wit, paradox and poetry of the Daoist texts has provided a critical balance to the more weighty, grave, and responsible Confucian texts.

When the harsher, more immediately pragmatic and anti-intellectual texts of the major Legalist, Han Feizi, are added to the Confucian, Daoist, and other related texts of Mencius, Mozi,

{p. 7} Xunzi, it is apparent that the Period of the Hundred Philosophers gave the Chinese a rich and diverse armoury of thought with which to handle their subsequent experience. In many ways this thought is at its most powerful when it assumes the character of myth, pervades the consciousness of the common people, and projects the authority of unquestioned spiritual reality.

Thus, the overlapping Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 BC) and Period of the Hundred Philosophers (531-233 BC) in Chinese history provided a legacy of myths and sages which consolidated the sense of "Chineseness" and provided inspiration and guidance for all following generations. This first took form in China, and then in Korea and Japan. Later, it emerged in what are today's rapidly-growing overseas communities of Chinese in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and elsewhere.

The rule of the first Emperor of China, Qin Shihuang (246- 210 BC), followed this remarkable philosophically and intellectually rich period of Chinese history whose turmoil sometimes attracted the title of "Period of the Warring States". It was a brief rule but for the first time the country was brought under a single unified administration. Unprecedented power and resources were wielded by a unified state which inspired awe and dread with its magnificence.

The short lived Qin Dynasty was the result of many years of gradual, calculated conquest but harsh measures used to abolish feudalism, impose unity, establish a common standard for Chinese characters, and institute a nation-wide currency contribhuted to its fragility andl rapid fall soon after the death of Qin Shihuang.

What followed was the Han Dynasty, which lasted for around four centuries and managed to consolidate the national unification first achieved by Qin and went on to interpret and apply the teachings of the Hundred Philosophers in a manner which has ever since served the people of North Asia in producing a remarkable spiritual, political and administrative culture.

Together, these two Dynasties provided a broad and mature base for subsequent Chinese development and achievement as histoy's longest continuous unified nation state.

{p. 48} The stubborn insistence of US commentators in interpreting the Japanese economic performance in orthodox Western economic concepts has of course, been a major part of the West's vulnerability to Japanese strategies. With the exception of some relatively undeveloped thinking about mercantilism, there is little intellectual or conceptual equipment within the Western tradition of economic wisdom to cope with the strategies undertaken by Japan. On the contrary, the Western preoccupation, often hypocritical, with free trade, non-government interference in markets, and the fantasy of the perfect market, have made it all the easier for Japanese public and private institutions to influence both domestic and international markets to their advantage. The fact that this was achieved within an international economic system where the rules had been laid down by the English-speaking peoples in the Bretton Woods institutions established after the Second World War, is evidence of the Japanese capacity to master and conform, at least ceremoniously, with alien standards and practices while still manoeuvering to advantage.

Another critical element in the Japanese economic miracle was of course, the Japanese capacity to motivate and mobilise the people of Japan to serve the world market place at considerable initial personal sacrifice. The rewards for that initial sacrifice are only today beginning to be reaped.

The Four Dragons

While the Four Dragons - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore - did not have the immediate problem of the US Occupation to solve they all had to struggle to establish a foundation for their economic takeoff in the midst of adversity. Without exception, a critic element in their success has been their ability to form close alliances with the U.S and key parts

{p. 49} of its economy. Once this had been achieved their strategies in many ways bore comparison with the Japanese approach, though particular tactical moves might have been quite distinctive. ...

The success of the Four Dragons achieved something which the success of Japan alone could not achieve. First, it established that there were practices which could lead to successful economic strategies which were not unique to Japan and which were clearly linked to a Confucian tradition of civilisation. Secondly, it created a dynamic in the region which placed pressure on other communities in the area to strive harder. Thirdly, it demonstrated that basic elements for economic success as achieved in North Asia, were probably present in China too, if some of the negative aspects of the post-1949 reforms could be overcome. ...

Below, an attempt is made to identify some of the most important of the common characteristics shared by the North Asian Confucian communities.

(1) An emphasis on obligation within society rather than rights, and a complex tradition of mutually interacting pressures to ensure that all members are caught within the network of obligation and share both responsibilities and rewards.

(2) An emphasis on rule by Man, or virtue, rather than the law, which maximises the harmony and cohesion possible in society, stresses ritual or "rites", and tends to ensure that competition is pursued within a framework of established ceremony and courtesy which preserves social consensus.

{p. 55} (3) A high emphasis on rigorous, even ruthless competitive education, which instills lifetime standards of excellence in all, and allocates lifetime positions of national bureaucratic and other authority to the victors of the educational competition.

(4) An acute sense of the linkages hetween past and present which promotes a keen awareness of historical time and the long term commitment necessary for major institutional and related achievements, contrasting rather strongly with Western short term emphasis on the "bottom line" and "cost effectiveness".

(5) A high sense of the value of human community and order rather than material possession and accumulation with ultimate economic authority being placed in the hands of those with non-commercial motivations of a high order, but a shrewd and hard-headed understanding of commercial reality.

(6) A high regard for logic and rationality balanced by a strong sense for the need for intuitive and emotional checks, reflected in some ways by the complimentary spiritual traditions of Confucianism and Daoism.

{should be "complementary"}

(7) An acute awareness of the changing nature of reality and the need for polar opposites to compliment, rather than to conflict with one another, reflected respectively in the Yijing and Yin Yang teachings.

{should be "complement"}

(8) A unique perception of commerce, technology, and science with a healthy tension between "market driven" innovation and "environmental" caution, producing less interest in scientific "break throughs" but a keen attention to the possibility of "fusion" of diverse technologies, as in robotics, to better serve community interest.

(9) A strong instinct for institutional pragmatism and innovation in response to problems, reflecting the authority and responsibility carried by the officials who rule society in a manner unthinkable in non Confucian environments.

(10) A profound concern to avoid the evils of "spiritual pollution' associated with Westernisation and individualism, such pollution heing identified almost as a crime because of its capacity to weaken and leave vulnerable the larger community and state.

{p. 77} The Spiritual and Intellectual Failure of the West

{p. 78} What was first colonial and political dominance shifted to become economic power. Economic and legal concepts, often, as noted earlier, enshrined in global organisations, were deployed to institutionalise a proper order in the evolving international community. A deeply rooted Western instinct of superiority, produced by centuries of determining the fate of other peoples has, however, thrown up a certain vulnerability. A variety of Western attitudes, values, and disciplines have ceased to function in a way which forms strong, coherent, purposeful, and productive communities.

Western success and prosperity have given rise, particularly in the new countries devoid of deep-rooted traditions, to a faith in "progress, science, and the future" which tends to ignore the lessons of the past. Functional disciplines are seen as effective solutions while political leaders and society in general are responsive to trends and fashions. This leads to a situation where wisdom and maturity are devalued for the latest economic theory or legal reference, which tends to sweep the most well-intentioned before it.

In perhaps their most developed form in the United States today, the Western traditions of economics and law continue to produce the widespread phenomena of lawyers undertaking litigation for individual clients to gain monetary advantage for both customer and consultant, and of economists promoting the notion of the perfect competitive market in a way which seems to bear little relation to the everyday problems with which common citiens must grapple. As a result, many of the most gifted and best trained minds are preoccupied with, and entangled in internal squabbles which often contribute little to the community's overall well being.

Moreover, the holders of high office in the Western state are predominantly shaped by these same philosophies of economics and law. They contrast, however, especiall in the law, with their counterparts in North Asia who, while the may have studied

{p. 80} the same Western disciplines, are nevertheless deeply grounded in a Confucian tradition which values community responsibilities over individual rights and gains.

The Economists

The economists are probably the most pervasive and powerful priesthood in the modern Western World. Like the leaders of many such orthodoxies, they have failed the communities they were expected to serve - both intellectually and spiritually. Chalmers Johnson has commented that one of the groups which will be judged most harshly in the near future in the West is that of the economists and social scientists for failing to explain the growth economies of North Asia.

Intriguingly, John Maynard Keynes, who himself must share some responsihility for Western economic failures, showed a deep understanding of the roots of this problem when he wrote in The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money as follows:

"... the ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who helieve themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribble of a few years back. I am sure that the power of vested interests is vastly exaggerated compared with the general encroachment of ideas. Not, indeed, immediately, but after a certain interval; for in the field of economic and political philosophy there are not many who are influenced by new theories after they are twenty five or thirty years of age, so that the ideas which civil servants and politicians and even agitators apply to current events are not likely to be the newest. But, soon or late, it is ideas, not vested interests, which are dangerous for good or evil".

Part of the problem lies in the fact that while economists have their own versions of myths and sages, these are desiccated and of little appeal to the common man or the broad community. They are of little use in assisting politicians to communicate with

{p. 81} the electorate. They are of even less use to leaders who need to motivate and mobilise large numbers of people in big institutions where few individuals can expect to be generously rewarded by market forces. Much of the language of the contemporary Westem economist, although dressed up as scientific, analytical, and quantitative, has a strong element of myth. In the economist's jargon this is usually disguised with some delicacy in the beginning of his work by explaining that there are a numher of assumptions that must he made to set up the intellectual framework needed to describe economic forces. The economist's major myth is that of the marketplace. While there is normally acceptance of the fact that the perfect market does not exist, generally an assumption is made, whetlher implicitly or explicitly, that the perfet market can he used for purposes of analytical exlanation. From this point a number of other false truths follow. ...

A major aspect of Japan's achievement was that it took a system intended to serve the interests of the English speaking powers and turned it to its own advantage, largely through studying and mastering the consumption demands of major English-speaking markets.

{p. 82} The intellectual slackness, bordering on dishonesty, of the economists was that they were slow to point to the strongly controlled nature of the North Asian domestic economies and, despite much evidence to the contrary, argued that these were basically free market economies. ...

Unfortunately, the Western debate between the ideals of social welfare and market economics has distracted Western political states from the need to ensure continuing economic strength. Parties on opposite ends of the spectrum compete to satisfy consumers, thereby promoting attitudes of indlulgence. In contrast, the North Asian states, motivated by politicians and bureaucrats who have been conscious of the basic economic weaknesses of indulgent Western systems, have promoted community attitudes of abstention and asceticism while identifying prosperity and fulfilment with ever-increasing success in production.

Fundamentals, such as the need for production to take priority over consumption, and for self discipline to rule indulgence, have been overlooked as Western economists have built on a foundation of shaky assumptions and elaborate superstructures of theory which have lost touch with the real forces that inspire Man to work with his broader community.

{p. 83} The Lawyers

The second group in most Western countries which wields major power is the lawyers.

In many ways, lawyers are uniquely qualified to understand and guide the structures, rules, and morality of the community. The prohlem is, however, that they have become market-motivated "mediators". Nowhere was this illustrated more dramatically than in India after the Bhopal accident at a Union Carbide plant when numbers of US attorneys rushed to recruit the victims for legal suits. The worst examples are still largely to he found in the US but the distortions introduced into productive activity in that country by litigation and fee-hungry legal representatives, have become a major weakness in the overall economy and community.

Studies reveal that major US resources go into the training of lawvers whereas comparable resources go into the training of engineers in Japan. This is reflected in the increasingly advanced applied technology which comes out of Japan and has wrought such havoc upon the US economy.

In Japan, the small number of trained lawyers tends to move substantially into senior government positions where their responsibilities are largely to ensure the smooth, harmonious operation of the community and economy as a whole. In doing this they are motivated not so much by notions of rule by law as by notions of rule by Man in the best Confucian tradition.

Of course, Western observers, to the degree they perceive what is happening, tend to be critical of the less-than-rigorous application of the exact letter of the law in Japan. There are many examples of Japanese and US perceptions of correct application of the law conflicting strongly, one interesting area being that of anti-trust law. The long Confucian-Legalist debate which runs through Chinese history gives a dimension to Chinese and Japanese perspectives on the law which is lacking in the West where there has been no similar contest over the merits and demerits of a Legalist approach to the ordering of society.

The failure of Legalism showed the Chinese that the world (including the social systems of men), is not a rigid machine, but an organism. While seemingly unruly in detail, it displays an overall pattern and order that is intrinsic rather than imposed.

In the Chinese cosmogony the world is self-created, and self-

{p. 84} creating. For the Christians (and the Greeks), it is made by an outside force (God) to a pre existing pattern- like a clock by a watchmaker. This means that the Chinese have a faith in the ability of the system to right itself, if by chance it falls out of harmony. In the West, there is no such faith. The notion of "original sin" is a reflection of this lack of faith. Only the law can restore order. In the West, conservatives resort to the law and punishment to impose order. In the East, while harsh remedies are not absent, conservatives resort to education of the transgressor. The greatest sanction is fear of ostracism from the group and all the joy and security it represents. ...

Spiritual Pollution and Education

The frequent Chinese campaigns aainst spiritual pollution often draw muffled mockery from Western observers, yet the concern is one which appears to run throughout the North Asian communities. It has not been difficult for several decades now to persuadeJapanese diplomats and businessmen to express their concern about the implications for Japan of the apparent weakening of the spirit of young Japanese through increasing "Westernisation" and "Americanisation". In South Korea, the same concern seems to break out at regular intervals into open conflict hetween government forces and students who are claiming liberties and rights common in the West but still not so readily acknowledged in that country.

{p. 86} Consumption or Production?

While Mao was still alive in China, Chinese offlcials were fond oftalking about cities which had been "consumption cities" which,

{p. 87} after 1949, became "production cities". There was, in this presentation an element of unreality in that the level of production was, by most international standards, not so impressive. Nevertheless, the language represented a very important element of China's move to prepare itself for rapid economic growth.

{p. 88} Rights or Obligations?

The promotion of the concept of human rights embodied in the UN system is generally accepted within Westem societies as

{p. 89} something close to "motherhood" in its fundamental goodness. There is little understanding of the fact that many non-Western societies see this as a tool designed to interfere in their political, social, and economic organisation. In some instances where there are clearly political abuses and atrocities, the principles developed around the concept of human rights do serve a noble cause. In many cases, however, they tend to intrude into and distract from the efforts of struggling governments to establish coherent and productive order within societies which do not possess the same degree of political maturity found in Western democratic societies. In North Asia, though, there is in many ways a higher level of political maturity than is to be found in the Western democracies. This maturity is built upon an emphasis on obligation rather than rights. ...

The increasing Western emphasis on the individual and individual rights, which is often synonymous with "human rights", works of course, in the opposite direction to do away with complex social networks bonded together by obligation. It often promotes through art forms the figure of the anti-hero whose main motiviation in life seems to be continuous rebellion against acceptance of any social norm or obligation.

{p. 93} The Leader - Japan or China?

"For is and is not come together;
Hard and easy are complementary;
Long and short are relative;
High and low comparative;
Pitch and sound make harmony;
Before and after are a sequence".

Laozi { Tao Te Ching, poem 2, tr. R. B. Blakney}

{p. 97} ... the achievements

{p. 98} of the Chinese leadership under Deng Xiaoping since 1977, suggest China will soon be posing a major challenge to Japan and the Four Dragons.

If this dynamic of progress is to be maintained, and history since 1945 suggests nothing short of a World War is likely to disrupt the commitment to competitive economic achievement in the area, then the next several decades will see the shift of world economic leadership to the communities of North Asia.

{But Sharon and Bush seem about to supply that World War, based on the Jewish sense of destiny, vulnerability and mission, but also as adovated by Samuel Huntington in his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. The dust-cover of the 1996 hardback carries just two endorsements - by Henry A. Kissinger and Zbigniew Brzezinski. What appears as understatement, however, is false humility: these two, with Huntington, form a troika as the "brains trust" of the Anglo-American Establishment. There was no need for any further support.}

Increasingly their competition will be played out in marketplaces throughout the global village. In a way, this could be seen to parallel the colonial competition amongst European powers over the past 500 years, which was triggered by the energies and achievements of Henry the Navigator. This time the contest will, however, be played out in different forms, although it is likely to be no less intense than that between the Pope's two liege states, Portugal and Spain, or later European rivals.

No doubt, for cultural and other reasons there will be outbreals of resentment towards the intrusion of new forces into communities accustomed to more settled and easy going ways and apprehensive about new types of dependency relationships. Yet consumption, development, and technological and financial pressures will leave most such communities and their governments with little choice but to accommodate the growing presence of North Asian commercial activity. To attempt to shut it out will be to will upon oneself backwardness and isolation from the mainstreams of world development just as in the past anti-European and anti-American forces have tended to invite the same fate. ...

{p. 99} The fact that critical developments with worldwide implications will frequently be determined in character-based languages against a background of Confucian cultural tradition, will make many global institutions, value attitudes, and conceptual frameworks mainly irrelevant and anachronistic. It is difficult at this time to foresee what new forms will emerge to take their place. As already suggested, given the facility of North Asian peoples to work plausibly within an alien system while motivated by very different considerations, it is possible to foresee a situation where existing institutions, values, and concepts retain a certain formal acceptability while explaining less and less of the reality of international developments. This reality may, for instance, increasingly move into the realm of informal arrangements which run quite contrary to publicly expected notions of international intercourse.

Overall however, the most significant development is likely to he the recognition of the relevance of Confucian values and traditions outside that part of the world where historically they have been the mainstream of social organisation. This will represent a shock to non-Confucian societies comparable to that, of European colonisation from the 15th century onwards.


I am indebted to Reg for the observation that the West has a Personal concept of Divinity and an Impersal concept of Law (the King being subject to the Rule of Law), while the East has an Impersonal concept of Divinity (Karma, Tao, Brahman) and a Personal concept of Law (vested in the Emperor, hopefully wise).

I venture to go one better, however. Werner Sombart's assessment of the abstract quality of Jewish Law suggests to me that the qualities Reg saw as Western are, in fact, Jewish. For

Sombart wrote that transferable debt, i.e. debt to an unspecified (anonymous) creditor, which I would argue is the distinguising mark of Capitalism, originates from Jewish Law:

{p. 78} I believe that if we were to examine the whole Jewish law concerning bearer bonds and similar instruments we should find - and this is my sixth point - that such documents spring naturally from the innermost spirit of Jewish law, just as they are alien to the spirit of German and Roman law. It is a well-known fact that the specifically Roman conception of indebtedness was a strictly personal one. The obligatio was a bond between certain persons. Hence the creditor could not transfer his claim to another, except under exceedingly difficult conditions. True, in later Roman law the theory of delegation and transmission was interpreted somewhat liberally, yet the root of the matter, the personal relationship, remained unchanged. In German law a contract was in the same way personal {endquote; p. 78 in the Free Press edition}

For Sombart's case see sombart.html.

Reg spent many years in the Federal Public Service at Canberra. Don't say that nothing good comes out of Canberra!

Don't let that compliment go your head, Reg!

When harmonious relationships dissolve
Then respect and devotion arise;
When a nation falls to chaos
Then loyalty and patriotism are born.

- Tao Te Ching, poem 18, tr. P. Merel.

The Confucian Renaissance may be purchased at

Write to me at contact.html.