Covid was an experiment in a Wuhan biolab (Wuhan Institute of Virology, or Wuhan CDC) that was accidentally leaked

- Peter Myers, February 27, 2020; update October 8, 2021.

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I made a major revision on June 7, 2021. But in order to keep the pre-existing structure of this webpage, I slotted the new material in as item 14, replacing the earlier item 14. To see the new, and decisive, material, which proves Lab Origin and implicates Shi Zhengli; go directly to item 14.

Item 45 (added June 26, 2021): In a 2016 c-span Video, Peter Daszak admits "my colleagues in China" develop "Killer" Coronaviruses; go directly to item 45.

Item 47 (added July 3, 2021): PLA scientist was first to file a patent for a Covid-19 vaccine on February 24 2020

International Criminal Court asked to hear case that Covid is Bioweapon, Genetic Vaccines are Genocide: ICC-bioweapon-GoF.html (added Sept. 25, 2021).

COMMENT (Peter M.): How come a PLA scientist filed the first Patent for a vaccine? Given the long development time, as Nikolai Petrovsky indicates, this suggests that the PLA was experimenting with SARS-COV-2 before the outbreak of Covid-19. That's why Zhou's death was hardly mentioned - they did not want to draw attention to this anomaly; go directly to item 47.


by Peter Myers

Added March 27, 2020; updated June 7, 2021

The Mainstream Media, which we can justly term The Ministry of Truth (c/- 1984, by George Orwell), has been lying about Covid-19. It censored Francis Boyle, and branded the statements of Luc Montanier, the Nobel-prize winner who discovered the HIV virus, 'fake news'.

I accept the view of Francis Boyle, who drafted the law on Bioweapons unanimously passed by Congress, that Sars-Cov2 was an experiment in a Wuhan biolab (WIV or WHCDC) that was accidentally leaked.

Whereas Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) is a BSL-4 lab, subject to stringent safety rules, although these seem not to have been strictly observed, Wuhan CDC (WHCDC) is a BSL-2 lab attracting much less attention. Yet it too was experimenting with large numbers of bats. It was much closer to the Seafood Market; might it have obtained viral samples from WIV? These labs may have pursued Dual Use and had secret military sections.

Even though SARS-CoV-2 was developed as an experiment in one of those labs, and thus the Chinese Government is to blame, Western Globalists are also to blame.

Biolabs in the West and China are operating like a cartel, denying lab-origin, because if the world accepts lab-origin, there will be a campaign to shut down all those Biolabs. Their excuse is that their work is defensive, but actually they are creating the very problems they purport to solve.

Globalist US researchers at the University of North Carolina (UNC) had been engaging in Gain-of-Function research (in which they enhance the virus) jointly with Chinese virologists from the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).

The UNC team was led by Professor Ralph Baric, and Wuhan team by Professor Shi Zhengli.

'Shi' is her family name. She is the world expert on bat coronaviruses. Her photo is at

She and Ralph Baric, in conjunction with other virologists from their two labs and others, were doing joint research, during which they modified existing viruses, making them more deadly. Such "gain of function" experiments were outlawed in the US in 2014, but in 2017 the ban was lifted (by Anthony Fauci) to enable them to continue.

Nature journal reported in 2015 that a bat virus had been engineered at UNC, by Shi Zhengli-Li, Ralph Baric and their teams:

"A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence." Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, said that the researchers have created a novel virus that "grows remarkably well" in human cells. "If the virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory," he said.

Now we know.

During a webinar hosted by Kevion Barrett, attorney Thomas Willcutts noted that these WIV and UNC experimenters were purporting to help nature strengthen the virus, just to see if it could be done, with the goal of developing counter-measures BEFORE it naturally evolved in the same direction. In fact, the virus now wrecking the world economy was bred by those teams of scientists from WIV and UNC; but probably further enhanced in Wuhan. Barrett-webinar-Covid.html .

Fauci bypassed the Gain-of-Function Pause in the USA (2014-7), by funding similar research at Wuhan Institute of Virology.

In a March 15, 2016 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, titled "SARS-like WIV1-CoV poised for human emergence", Baric et. al. thanked Shi Zhengli of WIV for supplying the bat samples. The paper is at . It states,

"ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Dr. Zhengli-Li Shi of the Wuhan Institute of Virology for access to bat CoV sequences and plasmid of WIV1-CoV spike protein."

This means that American experimenters were using bat genetic material from WIV. Shi Zhengli had collaborated with them on many occasions. China held patents on the Coronavirus S gene (see items 11 & 12).

A US Patent for chimeric coronavirus spike proteins lists Ralph Baric of UNC as Inventor.

Ralph Baric gave an interview (9 min), in which he admits that manipulation of a virus can be done without leaving a signature:

Even though the Chinese and US virologists seemed to be in partnership, Chinese scientists have recently been caught stealing Western technology and taking it home to China, as part of the Thousand Talents Plan promoted by its Government for technology transfer. So, no doubt, each side in this compact had its own agenda.

Now, both sides are covering up their role.

I have made a major revision as of June 7, 2021. But in order to keep the pre-existing structure of this webpage, I slotted the new material in as item 14, replacing the earlier item 14. To see the new, and decisive, material, which proves Lab Origin and implicates Shi Zhengli; go directly to item 14.

My other webpages on the Coronavirus are:

coronavirus-remedies.html - Coronavirus Remedies - Chloroquine and Herbal Medicines
coronavirus-finance.html - .Helicopter money: Central Banks should directly fund government deficits
Mikovits-Plandemic.html - Plandemic 1 and 2. Judy Mikovits on elite rule, and the role of Wuhan Institute of Virology
Barrett-webinar-Covid.html - Lab-made? Leaked or Unleashed?
Ivermectin-no-Lockdown.html - Placard at Sydney anti-Lockdown Protest: IF THE VACCINE WORKS - WHY THE NO LIABILITY CLAUSE?

(0) Director of Wuhan Institute of Virology issued a notice to researchers on Jan. 2 forbidding anyone to release info on COVID19
(1) Evidence is presented here that 2019-nCoV Virus was engineered by virologists in a lab
(2) Zhengli Shi links the bio-engineering of a virulent bat-based coronavirus at University of North Carolina (UNC) to the BSL-4 virology lab in Wuhan
(3) Chinese article tracing Covid-19 to Wuhan biolab, since removed: 'The possible origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus'
(4) Wuhan Lab (Prof. Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge) create a new Coronavirus with Ralph Baric at UNC (Nature Medicine, Nov 9, 2015)
(5) Nature journal (2015): Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research; Lab-made coronavirus related to SARS can infect human cells
(6) Gain-of-Function joint research (2015) between Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge of WIV, and Ralph Baric of UNC
(7) The spike glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV contains a cleavage absent in CoV - showing that it was engineered rather than evolved
(8) Asians show a similar ACE2 expression to other races; => Virus will affect all races
(9) Wuhan Institute of Virology reports 'Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses' (Nov 2017)
(10) Professor Shi Zhengli is Director of the P4 lab at Wuhan Institute of Virology
(11) Chinese patent for coronavirus S gene (2004)
(12) Chinese Patent genetic engineering protein FSPA relevant to S protein of coronavirus SARS- CoV (2005)
(13) Scientific Puzzles surrounding the Wuhan Novel Coronavirus
(14) The RaTG13 Mystery - Amateurs prove Lab origin (added June 7, 2021; updated June 8, 2021); go directly to item 14.
(15) Chinese Canadian Virologist, involved in espionage, made 5 trips to China in 2017-18, & trained scientists at Wuhan lab
(16) China and Viruses: Dr. Xiangguo Qiu and illegal Shipments from Winnipeg to China
(17) China bribed Harvard Chemistry Head in espionage case; 2 of his staff tried to smuggle biological materials to Wuhan
(18) Nanoscientist Charles Lieber lied about his involvement in China's Thousand Talents Plan
(19) Lieber appeared in Boston federal court wearing orange jail garb and chains around his ankles. Released on $1M Bond
(20) Also charged: Yanqing Ye (PLA, works at Harvard); Zaosong Zheng (smuggled 21 vials of biological samples)
(21) 'Hysteria' or 'non-traditional espionage'?
(22) China's Non-Traditional Espionage - statement by FBI
(23) Dr. Francis Boyle: Coronavirus leaked from Wuhan BioLab, as Lyme Disease & West Nile Disease leaked from US Lab at Plum Island
(24) Professor Francis Boyle, author of the BioWeapons Act, says Coronavirus is a Biological Warfare Weapon
(25) TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle interview with Geopolitics & Empire on Coronavirus
(26) Chinese military website: Wuhan Coronavirus is manmade by the U.S. to attack China
(27) Chinese Communist Party, in video on WeChat, says Wuhan coronavirus was created by U.S. to attack China
(28) HIV-Like "Mutation" recalls Indian scientists claim: Coronavirus engineered to incorporate parts of HIV genome
update March 15, 2020: Global Research writers say that Coronavirus is a US weapon against China, planted deliberately
update March 17, 2020: China orders Lab to stop Leakage; Russia, Venezuela & Cuba very little affected
(31) Coronavirus Exposed, by Sir Adrian Bond
update March 19, 2020: Coronavirus reveals American Decline; investors seek Chinese assets as 'Safe Haven'
(33) Francis Boyle reiterates: COVID-19 is a BioWeapon that escaped from Wuhan lab
(34) Molecular Biologist Says COVID-19 Could Have Leaked From Wuhan Biolab; "A denial is not a refutation"
(35) State Dep't Cables Warned Of Potential 'SARS-Like Pandemic' in 2018 after visit to Wuhan Lab Experimenting With Bat Coronavirus
(36) Chinese Coronavirus is Man Made - Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize winner who Discovered HIV (Gilmore Health)
(37) Indian paper which found HIV sequences engineered into Covid-19
(38) MSM censors Luc Montagnier claim to have found HIV embedded in Covid-19
(39) Larouche (EIR) writers lead many conspiracy theorists astray
(40) Kevin Barrett hosts Matthew Ehret, and says Covid-19 is a US bioweapon aimed at China
(41) Ministry of Truth: Facebook Fact Checkers, urged on by Soros' Avaaz
(42) 2016 paper in PNAS thanks Zhengli Shi of Wuhan Institute of Virology for bat CoV sequences and plasmid of WIV1-CoV spike protein
Added June 20, 2021, updated June 28, 2021: 'Redstate' reports: High-level Chinese defector reveals Covid was PLA bioweapon; DIA kept him clandestine because Chinese spies inside CIA, State Dept, & FBI
(44) Defection of Dong Jingwei would be comparable to the defections of Victor Kravchenko, Walter Krivitsky, and Whittaker Chambers
added June 26, 2021 - In 2016 Video, Peter Daszak admits "my colleagues in China" develop "Killer" Coronaviruses; go directly to item 45.
(46) US Bio-warfare Laboratories In West Africa Are The Origins Of The Ebola Epidemic: Professor Francis A. Boyle
(added July 3, 2021): PLA scientist was first to file a patent for a Covid-19 vaccine on February 24 2020; go directly to item 47.
(48) (added July 15, 2021) Professor Sucharit Bhakdi and Dr. David E Martin - controversal statements on Covid
(added Sept. 9, 2021) Daszak's EcoHealth Alliance papers released, reveal that viruses were constructed in level 3 lab at Wuhan University Center for Animal Experiment - not at Wuhan Institute of Virology
(50) Chinese whistleblower Dr. Li-Meng Yan says the virus is a bioweapon created in PLA labs using bat coronaviruses ZC45 and/or ZXC21 as the template

(0) Director of Wuhan Institute of Virology issued a notice to researchers on Jan. 2 forbidding anyone to release info on COVID19

Jennifer Zeng @jenniferatntd · Feb 18

More detail report in Chinese here: #COVID2019 #Coronavirus #CoronavirusOutbreak #coronaviruschina Quote Tweet

Jennifer Zeng @jenniferatntd · Feb 18

Yanyi Wang (also Wang Yanyi), director of #Wuhan Institute of Virology, issued a notice to researchers on Jan. 2 to pass on telephone message by #China's Nation Health Commission, forbidding anyone to release info of #COVID19. Original and English translation here. #Coronavirus

(1) Evidence is presented here that 2019-nCoV Virus was engineered by virologists in a lab

- by Peter Myers, February 27, 2020

Evidence is presented here that 2019-nCoV Virus was engineered by virologists in a lab. James Lyons-Weiler suggests that they were developing an experimental vaccine; Francis Boyle, author of the BioWeapons Act, says that they were developing a BioWeapon. In either case, it was released accidentally, most likely from Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).

The only other possibility is that it was deliberately planted by the USA. But is not race-specific; if it spreads worldwide, it will kill people of all races, and wreck the world economy. Any deliberate attack would rebound on the attacker.

One common feature of articles blaming a US attack, is that they exonerate China of any role in developing the virus.

Given the devastation, the Chinese public will want to hold someone accountable. Although that could be local workers at the Lab, the regime as a whole is implicated, because it's pushing the "Made in China 2025" agenda, a sort of 10-year plan to achieve economic dominance.

So the Government, to retain the Mandate of Heaven, is shifting the blame to the USA. However, this could incite war; if not now, then later, as a contributing factor.

China's draconian measures will probably contain its spread within China. But then the rest of the world will have to deal with it. It's unlikely that other countries will be able to suppress transmission in the highly controlled way China is doing. Therefore there's likely to be a substantial death toll, worldwide. Healthy people will survive, but those with weak immune systems could succomb.

Unless some way is found to stop it, this virus will destroy tourism, business travel, and manufacturing supply-chains. It will make city life impossible, and ruin the world economy.

Imagine all the airconditioned buildings, buses, trains, planes etc, vulnerable to aerosol transmission of such a virus. It's not in ANY country's interest to plant such a disease; it will attack us all, sooner or later.

The MSM has set its 'factcheckers' to refute 'conspiracy theories' about the Covid-19 virus.

They are also suppressing evidence of Chinese espionage at Western universities. However, espionage at Harvard University (Charles Lieber and two Chinese nationals) and Winnipeg NML lab (Xiangguo Qiu) is well attested.

In both cases, there was a connection to Wuhan. In Lieber's case, Wuhan University of Technology; and in Qiu's case, Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV).

Nature journal reported in 2015 that a bat virus had been engineered at the University of North Carolina (UNC): "Lab-made coronavirus related to SARS can infect human cells."

One of the leaders in this project was Shi Zhengli-Li; she used to work at the University of North Carolina, and obtained US Research Grants, but then became head of Wuhan BSL-4 Bio-Lab.

Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, said that the researchers have created a novel virus that "grows remarkably well" in human cells. "If the virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory," he said.

Now we know.

Zheng-Li Shi (also written Zhengli Shi, Shi Zhengli, and Shi Zheng-Li) is a Professor, and director of WIV's P4 lab.

She and Xingyi Ge (also from WIV) did the genetic engineering for Ralph Baric at UNC, to develop a Coronavirus that could infect humans directly without animal mediation.

The spike glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV contains a cleavage absent in CoV - showing that it was engineered rather than evolved.

Asians show a similar ACE2 expression to other races; this means that 2019-nCoV will affect all races. Deliberate release is therefore unlikely, because it will spread worldwide.

In Nov 2017, Wuhan Institute of Virology reported 'Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses' (item 9). Zheng-Li Shi is listed in that article as having the role of "Project administration, Supervision".

Scientists from other countries were also involved in the research at Uni North Carolina, and the same would apply to Harvard and Winnipeg. But only Chinese have been implicated in smuggling genetic material to China (in the Harvard & Winnipeg cases).

Only Chinese have obtained Resaearch Grants in the USA, and used that money to promote research in China. Nevertheless other scientists of Chinese origin, such as Dr. Sean Lin, remain loyal to the US.

This is a big issue for our Universities, which are hotbeds of Multiculturalism. They have welcomed these Chinese scientists as migrants, and given them full rights, only to have China claim them back via its Thousand Talents Program. China regards all Chinese overseas as Chinese citizens. Its Thousand Talents Program, pitched at universities in the West, is a means of Technology Transfer to China.

Now the Universities are endangering public safety by pressing governments to allow fee-paying students from China to return, despite the risk to the local population.

China was able to conduct economic espionage for the last 30 years, because the rest of the world had not woken up to it, distracted by Mideast wars. But now that the world is awake to China's intentions, a clampdown is being applied. China is rushing to get as much technology as it can, by any means. "Made in China 2025" sets a deadline. I submit that this rush partly explains the leak of 2019-nCoV from Wuhan BioLab.

China touts itself as a Confucian society. This is strange, because Mao mounted an anti-Confucian drive as part of the Cultural Revolution. It destroyed much of China's heritage.

After Deng took over, Mao was criticised, but with the rise of Xi, Mao is spoken of positively and past failings are hushed up.

The reality is that China under Xi is a Stalinist state. Today's Confucianism is in the service of Stalinism and totalitarianism.

Students are encouraged to spy on their teachers:

Confucian Classrooms in the West are are paid for by the Chinese government. They indoctrinate Western children with propaganda:

Is that real Confucianism? Would China allow other countries to similarly influence children in China?

China is the new Soviet Union - a hi-tech Soviet Union.

We seem to be in a re-run of the 1930s. The Cambridge Five of those days, the Alger Hiss and Harry Hopkins and Dexter White, are the Professor-Spies of today; with their apologists, of course.

The SCMP of 27 Feb, 2020 reports that Chinese scientists at Nankai University discovered a HIV-like "mutation" in 2019-nCoV. This recalls Indian scientists' earlier 'discredited' claim that Coronavirus was engineered to incorporate parts of the HIV genome. See item 28 below.

The SCMP report says, "Research by team from Nankai University shows new virus has mutated gene similar to those found in HIV and Ebola."

Ebola was one of the viruses smuggled from Winnipeg to Wuhan Institute of Virology by Dr. Xiangguo Qiu; see items 15 & 16 below.

(2) Zhengli Shi links the bio-engineering of a virulent bat-based coronavirus at University of North Carolina (UNC) to the BSL-4 virology lab in Wuhan

Logistical and Technical Exploration into the Origins of the Wuhan Strain of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Posted on January 31, 2020

by harvard2thebighouse

An excellent YouTube summary of many but not all of the points in the report below by a Professor of Neurobiology at UPitt is available here. <>

{Updates have been moved to the bottom of this article}

This report is the product of a collaboration between a retired professional scientist with dozens of peer-reviewed publications and 30 years of experience in genomic sequencing and analysis who helped design several ubiquitous bioinformatic software tools, and a former NSA counterterrorism analyst. It considers whether the Wuhan Strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) is the result of naturally emergent mutations against the possibility that it may be a bio-engineered strain ­ directly altered by genetic manipulation, subject to artificially-guided evolutionary selection, or both ­ meant for immunotherapy protocols that was released into the public, most likely by accident since China's rate of occupational accidents is about ten-times higher than America's, and some twenty-times more than Europe's ­ the only other regions with high-level virology labs. Additionally, researchers from this Wuhan lab were reported to have particularly sloppy field research methods, being both bled and peed on by local bats that host coronaviruses remarkably similar to the Wuhan Strain COVID-19. And they've also been reported to smuggle used research animals out of their labs, selling them for cash on the street. Perhaps unsurprisingly, in mid February the Chinese Ministry of Science sent out a directive to all its labs emphasizing the important of carefully handling bio-infectious agents and alluding to slack oversight and past lapses.

Mistakes may have been precipitated by the need to quickly finish research that was being rushed for John Hopkins' Event 201 which was held this past October and meant to gameplan the containment of a global pandemic. Research may also have been hurried due to deadlines before the impending Chinese New Year ­ the timing of these events point to increased human error, not a globalist conspiracy. Beijing has had four known accidental leaks of the SARS virus in recent years, so there is absolutely no reason to assume that this strain of coronavirus from Wuhan didn't accidentally leak out as well. This is unlikely to be a plot twist in one of the novels Tom Clancy wrote after he started mailing it in.

Simply and horribly, this is likely to become another Chernobyl or Fukushima ­ a catastrophic illustration of mankind's hubris and intransigence clashing with Nature, as fate again reaps a once unimaginably tragic toll.

Given that this outbreak was said to begin in late December when most bat species in the region are hibernating and the Chinese horseshoe bat's habitat covers an enormous swath of the region containing scores of cities and hundreds of millions people to begin with, the fact that this Wuhan Strain of coronavirus, denoted as COVID-19 emerged in close proximity to the only BSL-4 virology lab in China, now notoriously located in Wuhan, which in turn was staffed with at least two Chinese scientists ­ Zhengli Shi and Xing-Yi Ge ­ both virologists who had previously worked at an American lab which already bio-engineered an incredibly virulent strain of bat coronavirus ­ the accidental release of a bio-engineered virus meant for defensive immunotherapy research from Wuhan's virology lab cannot be automatically discounted, especially when the Wuhan Strain's unnatural genomic signals are considered.

­ In 2002, Stony Brook first assembled a virus from scratch, building a polio-virus, and providing proof-of-concept for the creation, alteration, and manipulation of viral genomes. A generation earlier, artificially enhancing selection by intentionally infecting countless series of lab animals with different viruses created the H1N1 Swine Flu. Its Franken-genome has a mysterious untraceable genetic parentage and a "clear unnatural origin," and H1N1 became the poster-child for a moratorium against gain-of-function research ­ experimentation that seeks to increase a pathogen's virulence, creating a more effective double-edged sword to counter and learn from. In the case of H1N1, it wasn't a question of if it'd escaped from a research laboratory, only whether it'd been designed as part of a weapons system, or been part of a vaccine trial.

­ By 2015, conducting research that was met with an enormous amount of concern, scientists at UNC had successfully created a "chimeric, SARS-like virus" by altering the viral genome of a Chinese bat coronavirus's spike-protein genes ­ sequences that code for the spikes that poke out from surface of viruses and allow them to unlock entry into hosts, in this case making the bio-engineered coronavirus incredibly contagious. This research raised eyebrows since it was clearly gain-of-function research, a practice banned in America from 2014 until December 2017 when NIH lifted the ban, specifically to allow research on this sort of virus. Looking at UNC's gain-of-function research on coronavirus spike-proteins, which received its funding just before the ban was implemented and was only allowed to go forward following a special review, a virologist with the Louis Pasteur Institute of Paris warned: "If the [new] virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory."

­ But then oddly, in late January right as the pandemic was blooming, Dr. Ralph Baric claimed in an interview that people should be more concerned with the seasonal flu ­ despite having personally overseen the controversial engineering of a hyper-virulent strain of batty coronavirus just a few years back. Immediately discounting the burgeoning outbreak of an unknown coronavirus as a non-event seems particularly troubling for someone who'd trained two Chinese scientists on how to make hyper-virulent coronaviruses, especially when it's hard to imagine that Dr. Baric was unaware his past colleagues were now working at the Wuhan Virology Lab, the epicenter of the outbreak. Highlighting the dissembling absurdity of this statement, based on reporting from the Chinese CDC: the Wuhan Strain COVID-19 appears to be twenty-times more lethal than the seasonal flu.

­ Scientists have expressed concern about China's ability to safely monitor this BSL-4 lab in Wuhan since it opened in 2017: "an open culture is important to keeping BSL-4 labs safe, and he questions how easy this will be in China, where society emphasizes hierarchy. 'Diversity of viewpoint, flat structures where everyone feels free to speak up and openness of information are important.'" This lab is at most 20 miles from the wet market where the virus had been assumed to have jumped from animal to human. However the idea that a Chinese lab could have a viral sample escape is well-documented ­ as mentioned, one lab in Beijing has had four separate incidents of the SARS virus leaking out accidentally.

­ Notably, the first three known cases from early December had no contact with that market, and roughly one-third of the initial exposed cohort had no direct ties to Wusan's wild meat wet-market, the original presumptive source of the virus. And in mid February, reporting indicated that COVID-19's patient zero in fact had no connection at all with the wet-market. This is reinforced by the fact Chinese research has also concluded that COVID-19 "may have begun human-to-human transmission in late November from a place other than the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan."

­ Since its discovery, scientists have been unable to fully determine the zoological origins of COVID-19, it was initially thought to have passed through snakes, but now all that's agreed upon is that it's mostly bat in origin. This inability to derive an exact zoological source is exactly what would be expected if the virus had been artificially engineered to target humans as UNC already has, this doesn't prove an artificial nature ­ but it is consistent with one. Although there has been speculation that pangolins may have been the missing vector, the only data about the pangolin virome wasn't entered into NCBI's system until late January, and couldn't possibly have been collected any earlier than late September 2019, and doesn't fully answer the vector question anyways.

­ As explained in Nature, COVID-19's Franken-genome combines a cornucopia of distinct genetic markers from each of the three other distinct branches of the coronavirus family tree, but is distinct enough from all of them that it in fact forms its own clade. Along those same lines, a full-genome evolutionary analysis of COVID-19 published in The Lancet concluded, "recombination is probably not the reason for emergence of this virus" since it seems that the Wuhan Strain isn't a mosaic of previously known coronaviruses, but instead draws from distant, discrete parts of the coronavirus family tree ­ not how these viruses naturally evolve. Because even mixing and matching coronavirus genomes from every known mammal, scientists couldn't find any possible combination that would explain those regions of the Wuhan Strain's genome. The Lancet muses that a mysterious animal host could still be out there, however since they've already searched through every known possibility and been unable to find a match, another obvious explanation is that bio-engineering accounts for the inexplicable regions of the Wuhan Strain's genome

­ Early research found that COVID-19 targets the ACE2 receptor, which may be found in East Asians more frequently than other global populations, indicating that the Wuhan Strain COVID-19 was likely developed as part of a gain-of-function defensive project possibly linked to immunotherapy or vaccinations ­ never meant to leave the lab, but meant to serve as a Red Team to fight back against, not as an offensive weapon since the virus is likely wired to be more virulent among Asian populations. Further support for this is the fact that the Wuhan BSL-4 virology lab was already actively looking into the risks posed from bat coronaviruses, and actively researching coronavirus treatments ­ by definition both of these projects would require live virulent strains of coronavirus. And disturbingly, COVID-19 appears to have 10 to 20 times more affinity for the ACE2 receptor than SARS, according to a pre-print out of the University of Texas.

­ Researchers have pointed out that the most critical sections of the COVID-19's protein-spike genome don't match the previously reported pattern that would be expected for optimal binding to the ACE2 receptors found in humans and ferrets, which indicates that these particular segments wouldn't have been directly genetically engineered to increase virulence. However this is exactly what researchers looking for a "safe" vaccine candidate would engineer, and doesn't rule out a scenario where the virus was passed through a series of experimental hosts. The research team in fact notes that its spike "appears to be the result of selection on human or human-like ACE2 permitting another optimal binding solution to arise," failing to mention that the only other human-like receptors are found in ferrets ­ which have frequently been used in vaccine trials for viruses with this sort of protein-spike. And so the Wuhan Strain's unique affinity for the human ACE2 receptor may be a horrible accident, engineered but not intentionally.

­ The Wuhan Strain of coronavirus, COVID-19, appears to be transmissible even before its host shows any symptoms at all, making temperature-scanning at airports ineffective since hosts appear to be contagious for about a week before any symptoms emerge. This is in stark contrast with SARS, whose hosts weren't contagious until they were symptomatic, allowing for its relatively quick containment. This chart is not from a peer-reviewed source but was claims to capture the comparative rates of infections between recent outbreaks. A recent pre-print now gives COVID-19 a rating of R4, meaning each host passes the virus on to four new victims, a rate significantly higher than any past global viral outbreak.

­ The successful end results of the aforementioned bat coronavirus bio-engineering research at UNC that was critiqued for being too risky in 2015, was published the following year and described the successful bio-engineering of a highly-virulent coronavirus derived from bats which was achieved by tinkering with its spike-protein genes. In this paper, researcher #8 is listed as one "Zheng-li Shi" who's listed as being attached to the "Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China."

­ Zhengli Shi seems to have returned to Wuhan at some point since 2016, specifically to the Wuhan Institute of Virology's Disease Engineering Technical Research Center, since she then appears in this September 2019 paper on the human behaviors most likely to lead to bat-borne coronavirus exposure in southern China, and also in the paper claiming that this coronavirus was bat in origin, which was peculiarly submitted in coordination with the announcement of the outbreak. Very, very peculiarly. She also appears in this pending preprint on the current outbreak of COVID-19, just a small sample of the dozens of coronavirus-related papers she's published over a three decade career.

­ Not only does Zhengli Shi provide a direct chain of expertise tying the already successful bio-engineering of a virulent bat-based coronavirus at UNC directly to the BSL-4 virology lab in Wuhan, but back in January 2014 she'd received a $665,000 grant from NIH for a study titled The Ecology of Bat Coronaviruses and the Risk of Future Coronavirus Emergence (NIAID R01 AI1 10964) as well as $559,500 more from USAID for a study titled Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT_2China (Project No. AID-OAA-A-14-00102). Beyond this American funding specifically into viral diseases zoonotically transferring from animals to humans which would slipped in just before the ban, over the years she's also received around $3 million in grants to study these zoonotic viruses from China and other countries, and has served on the editorial board of several virological research magazines. More of her research into the intersection of coronaviruses like the Wuhan Strain and their epidemic potential was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Threat Reduction Agency, and U.S. Biological Defense Research Directorate of the Naval Medical Research Center.

­ And so a scientist who's been prolifically involved with studying the molecular interaction of coronaviruses and humanity, spending decades and millions of dollars, and having even helped build a hyper-virulent coronavirus from scratch at UNC ­ just so happens to be working at the only BSL-4 virology lab in China that also just so happens to be at the epicenter of an outbreak involved a coronavirus that's escaping zoological classification, and has other unnatural characteristics that will be discussed below.

­ Another Chinese virologist, Xing-Yi Ge, appears as an author on the 2016 UNC paper and is also attached to the lab in Wuhan. Previously in 2013, he'd successfully isolated a SARS-like coronavirus from bats which targets the ACE2 receptor, just like our present virus, the Wuhan Coronavirus COVID-19 uses. And it turns out that sections of the Wuhan Strain's ACE2 receptor's genes are unique: they're almost identical to SARS's spike-protein genes ­ despite the fact that almost none of the two coronavirus's genomes are similar anywhere else at all. Beyond that, although the Wuhan Strain's spike-protein genome differs from SARS in four out of the five most important genomic spots that determine binding to the ACE2 receptor, they surprisingly don't effect the protein-spike's shape. And in an even bigger coincidence, these four spots also code for the outside region of the spike that allows entry into cells, and do not effect it either ­ allowing the Wuhan Strain to still use the ACE2 receptor to unlock cells while possibly gaining additional capabilities. The odds that this concordance was bio-engineered into the virus are several orders of magnitude more likely than for this to randomly have evolved in nature.

­ Numerous videos purportedly from inside hospitals in Wuhan depict a crisis that is far greater than the numbers released by China to date. There is widespread but unverified online reporting that Wuhan crematoriums have been running 24/7, which is consistent with a recent peer-reviewed study that claims that as of January 25, Wuhan had over 75,000 infections ­ when the official number was just 761. Chinese language social media also reflects a sense of panic and desperation that is highly discordant with the numbers being released by the Chinese government. Who, notably, are refusing any direct assistance from the American CDC. (Evidence that China is vastly downplaying this pandemic's severity: Example 1. Example 2. Example 3. Example 4. Example 5. Example 6.)

­ Some of the dystopian carnage creeping across China may be due to the fact that much of China's population may have already been exposed to coronavirus infection via SARS or other less notorious strains, which would allow the Wuhan Stain COVID-19 to use antibody-dependent enhancement to much more efficiently enter into cells, and then become much more virulent since this enhancement hijacks the body's preexisting immune response to coronavirus infections and allows easier entry. However whether or not people have been exposed to a coronavirus infection before, once it's been circulating in a population for long enough the Wuhan Strain may be able to reinfect its own past hosts and use this molecular hijacking on antibodies left from its own previous infection to become far more virulent, regardless of whether or not someone has been exposed to other coronaviruses before COVID-19. And early reporting from Chinese doctors indicates that re-infections of the Wuhan Strain are far more lethal than the first.

­ Additionally, although another since-retracted pre-print noted several very short genomic sequences in COVID-19's spike-protein gene that look far more similar to sequences found in HIV than to other coronaviruses ­ critics quickly pointed out that the shared homology didn't reach statistical significance. However a closer look at the data reveals that there were a few small shared genomic segments that, despite being physically separated from each other along each strand of DNA, all worked together to code for the Wuhan Strain's protein-spike's crucial receptor binding site. Something that is highly unlikely to have happened by chance. And despite most of its protein-spike being shared with SARS, these substituted segments weren't shared at all ­ nor were they found in any other coronavirus. One possible reason for these HIV-like segments is that they were meant to be epitopes, or molecular flags meant to mark intruders for a vaccine to target. It is mathematically possible for this to happen in nature ­ but only in a ten-thousand bats chained to ten-thousand Petri dishes and given until infinity sense. Alternatively, it could also be produced by infecting a room full of ferrets with a bespoke coronavirus vaccine and sifting through the wreckage for your genomic needle.

­ Critics have brushed off the Wuhan Strain's shared homology with HIV as statistically insignificant, however clinical reporting indicates that the Wuhan Strain may be using this shared HIV homology to attack CD4 immune cells just like HIV does, as an unusually high percentage of patients are showing low white blood cell counts, especially the sickest ones. This pathogenicity may well be due to the unique HIV-live genomics of the Wuhan Strain, as one white-paper by LSU's professor emeritus of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology who's also a Harvard-educated virologist with a PhD in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics notes: "This is the first description of a possible immunosuppressive domain in coronaviruses or COVID-19. The three key [mutations] common to the known immunosuppressive domains are also in common with the sequence from [the spike-protein]. While coronaviruses are not known for general immunosuppression of the style shown by HIV-1, this does not rule out immunosuppression at the site of active infection in the lung, which would prolong and potentially worsen infection at that site." Even more troubling, a peer-reviewed study noted that one particular part of the Wuhan Strain's spike-protein genome also wasn't found in any of its relatives, "and may provide a gain-of-function to [COVID-19] for efficient spreading in the human population." And according to that paper, this particular type of cleavage site makes similar viruses both more pathogenic and more neurotoxic.

­ And it should be noted that SARS ­ much ballyhooed as a close relative to the Wuhan Strain ­ didn't notable effect white blood cell counts. Additionally, clinical treatment guides published online in late January by established Chinese medical sources note the progressive reduction of white blood cells, as well as the importance of monitoring this decline. And reporting from Thailand indicates that adding a cocktail of two different anti-HIV drugs to the typical flu treatment regime seemed to effectively knock back the Wuhan Strain. Additionally, one of the only autopsies performed outside of China to date found that the deceased had a severely depleted white blood cell count. These lowered counts may come from this shared similarity with HIV, or it could also be the result of antibody-dependent enhancement as well, since this phenomenon primarily targets white blood cells for its hijackings.

­ In a highly concerning turn, scientists have noted that the Wuhan Strain can have a "striking" short term rate of mutation which doesn't indicate an artificial origin but captures the unique threat posed by this coronavirus regardless of its providence, since a faster mutation rates makes it more likely this virus can dodge testing and neutralize vaccines. Something there is already early evidence for. Further concerning are reports out of China that even patients who appear cured still harbor COVID-19 in their system, and although the full implications of this are not yet known ­ none of them are good.

­ Giving further credence to the idea that the Wuhan Strain was bio-engineered is the existence of a patent application that looks to modulate a coronavirus' spike-protein genes ­ the precise region altered by Zhengli Shi at UNC to make a hyper-virulent strain of coronavirus, and whose alteration and adaptation would explain the Wuhan Strain's unusual behavior as discussed above.

­ And curiously, the head of Harvard's Chemistry Department, Dr. Charles Lieber, was arrested in the midst of this outbreak on charges that he'd been accepting millions of dollars in bribes from the Chinese government. According to his charging documents, Dr. Lieber first went to the Wuhan University of Technology (WUT), in November 2011 to participate in a nanotechnology forum, which was when he was recruited into a bribery scheme that would net him several million dollars to "establish a research lab and conduct research at WUT," which became known as " Joint Nano Key Laboratory," as well as mentor and advocate for graduate students. By 2015, Dr. Lieber appeared to be fairly intimately involved with what seemed to begin as simply a nanotechnology lab, but now had shifted to involve biology as well, since he described visiting the lab multiple times per year "as we try to build up the nano-bio part of the lab." Whether or not this nano-bio part of the Nano Key Laboratory is related to Wuhan's BSL-4 virology lab isn't clear, however if the Wuhan Strain was bio-engineered, technology classified as "nano-bio" would've almost certainly played a role.

Given the above facts, either:

­ A coronavirus spontaneously mutated and jumped to humans at a wet market or deep in some random bat cave which just so happened to be 20 miles from China's only BSL-4 virology lab, a virus with an unusually slippery never-before-seen genome that's evading zoological classification, that may be as much as twenty-times more contagious than SARS and whose spike-protein region which allows it to enter host cells holds an unique HIV-like signature with the concomitant clinical response, that somehow managed to infect its patient zero who had no connection to this market, and then be so fined-tuned to humans that it's gone on to create the single greatest public health crisis in Chinese history with approaching 100 million citizens locked-down or quarantined ­ also causing Mongolia to close its border with its largest trading partner for the first time in modern history and Russia to ban Chinese citizens from entry into their country.

­ Or, Chinese scientists failed to follow correct sanitation protocols possibly while in a rush leading up to an international virological conference and during their boisterous holiday season, something that had been anticipated since the opening of the BSL-4 lab and has happened at least four times previously, and accidentally released this bio-engineered Wuhan Strain ­ likely created by scientists researching immunotherapy regimes against bat coronaviruses, who've already demonstrated the ability to perform every step necessary to bio-engineer the Wuhan Strain COVID-19 ­ into their population, and now the world. As would be expected, this virus appears to have been bio-engineered at the spike-protein genes which was already done at UNC to make an extraordinarily virulent coronavirus. Chinese efforts to prevent the full story about what's going on from getting out are because they want the scales to be even since they're now facing a severe pandemic and depopulation event. No facts point against this conclusion.

Speaking volumes about the corporatized nature of our media, the only entities to acknowledge my research and journalism have been Zero Hedge, which received a permanent ban from Twitter for opening the door to this obvious possibility, and Jennifer Zeng of the Epoch Times. Something tells me Tencent or other companies controlled by the CCP have significant capital invested in Buzzfeed, which drew censure to Zero Hedge's reporting, as well as many other media outlets which have stifled discussion of the outbreak such as Reddit. These companies have been willing to endanger millions of lives for a few dollars. And since clicks come way before integrity, multiple media outlets and journalists have entirely ignored me after I've provided proof that I've broken details of this story, appropriating my work for their own.

Read more from the former NSA counterterorrism analyst here, and learn why social inequalities are the most likely source of sustained violence in America.

Find out about why a lot of what you think you know about evolutionary biology is wrong.

Medium user @siradrianbond provided all information regarding Dr. Zheng-li's extensive grant funding.

UPDATE 2/14, 3:02am EST: A probable smoking pre-print has been released, by the National Natural Science Foundation of China:

"In summary, somebody was entangled with the evolution of 2019-nCoV coronavirus. In addition to origins of natural recombination and intermediate host, the killer coronavirus probably originated from a laboratory in Wuhan."

In a predictable turn, that article has been removed and both researchers have since deleted their profiles off of the ResearchGate site completely. But curiously, the trend in reporting from the Chinese government diverged sharply on February 11th, when the paper was initially uploaded onto the site ­ making it appear as if there may be infighting within the Party about what their official story will be as the cover-up unfolds. And back on January 2nd, the Wuhan Institute of Virology's director sent out a memo forbidding discussion of an "unknown pneumonia in Wuhan," making it abundantly clear that the Chinese government knew about this outbreak long before they took any steps to contain it, or made any public announcement.

These propaganda efforts have been bolstered by possible collusion from American scientists, some of which is detailed below ­ but also most notably by one Peter Daszak, who had been publishing papers on coronaviruses alongside the primary Chinese person-of-interest, Zhengli Shi, for years. Perhaps most notably, Daszak is listed as a co-author in the paper first documenting the isolation of a coronavirus from a bat that targets the ACE2 receptor ­ just like COVID-19 ­ which was done in Wuhan's virology lab supervised by Zhengli Shi, and led by a second suspect Chinese researcher who you'll meet below. At best, Daszak is perhaps acting as an unwitting agent of the Chinese government, but regardless holds an enormous conflict-of-interest. And if nothing else, it is wildly irresponsible to speak-out against the possibility that the virus got out of a lab when a natural origin has not been conclusively demonstrated. Daszak's statement in The Lancet is either incompetence, or is meant to be a smokescreen for the wanton hubris and greed that have fueled the gain-of-function research detailed below: As one possibility, coronaviruses have been seen as a viable vector for an HIV vaccine for years ­ a project with hundreds of millions of dollars dangling over it.

Such a vaccine is just one possible gain-of-function pursuit that would fit much of the genomic picture below, whether or not it was the exact target of the Wuhan lab's genomic tinkering ­ the reality is millions of dollars of funding from multiple world governments have poured into this research, funding that's dangled over these scientists as they've chased it like Icarus, this time not just risking their own lives ­ but hundreds of millions of others as well.

(3) Chinese article tracing Covid-19 to Wuhan biolab, since removed: 'The possible origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus'


Was at (but removed)

The possible origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus

Preprint - February 2020

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21799.29601

2 authors, including:

Botao Xiao

South China University of Technology

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: project National Natural Science Foundation of China (11372116)

All content following this page was uploaded by Botao Xiao on 06 February 2020.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.

The possible origins of 2019-nCoV coronavirus

Botao Xiao 1 2 and Lei Xiao 3

1 Joint International Research Laboratory of Synthetic Biology and Medicine, School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China

2 School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China

3 Tian You Hospital, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430064, China

The 2019-nCoV coronavirus has caused an epidemic of 28,060 laboratory-confirmed infections in human including 564 deaths in China by February 6, 2020. Two descriptions of the virus published on Nature this week indicated that the genome sequences from patients were 96% or 89% identical to the Bat CoV ZC45 coronavirus originally found in Rhinolophus affinis 1,2. It was critical to study where the pathogen came from and how it passed onto human.

An article published on The Lancet reported that 41 people in Wuhan were found to have the acute respiratory syndrome and 27 of them had contact with Huanan Seafood Market 3. The 2019-nCoV was found in 33 out of 585 samples collected in the market after the outbreak. The market was suspicious to be the origin of the epidemic, and was shut down according to the rule of quarantine the source during an epidemic.

The bats carrying CoV ZC45 were originally found in Yunnan or Zhejiang province, both of which were more than 900 kilometers away from the seafood market. Bats were normally found to live in caves and trees. But the seafood market is in a densely-populated district of Wuhan, a metropolitan of ~15 million people. The probability was very low for the bats to fly to the market. According to municipal reports and the testimonies of 31 residents and 28 visitors, the bat was never a food source in the city, and no bat was traded in the market. There was possible natural recombination or intermediate host of the coronavirus, yet little proof has been reported.

Was there any other possible pathway? We screened the area around the seafood market and identified two laboratories conducting research on bat coronavirus. Within ~280 meters from the market, there was the Wuhan Center for Disease Control & Prevention (WHCDC) (Figure 1, from Baidu and Google maps). WHCDC hosted animals in laboratories for research purpose, one of which was specialized in pathogens collection and identification 4-6. In one of their studies, 155 bats including Rhinolophus affinis were captured in Hubei province, and other 450 bats were captured in Zhejiang province 4. The expert in collection was noted in the Author Contributions (JHT). Moreover, he was broadcasted for collecting viruses on nation-wide newspapers and websites in 2017 and 2019 7,8. He described that he was once by attacked by bats and the blood of a bat shot on his skin. He knew the extreme danger of the infection so he quarantined himself for 14 days 7. In another accident, he quarantined himself again because bats peed on him. He was once thrilled for capturing a bat carrying a live tick 8.

Surgery was performed on the caged animals and the tissue samples were collected for DNA and RNA extraction and sequencing 4,5. The tissue samples and contaminated trashes were source of pathogens. They were only ~280 meters from the seafood market. The WHCDC was also adjacent to the Union Hospital (Figure 1, bottom) where the first group of doctors were infected during this epidemic. It is plausible that the virus leaked around and some of them contaminated the initial patients in this epidemic, though solid proofs are needed in future study.

The second laboratory was ~12 kilometers from the seafood market and belonged to Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ^9'10. This laboratory reported that the Chinese horseshoe bats were natural reservoirs for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) which caused the 2002-3 pandemic 9.

The principle investigator participated in a project which generated a chimeric virus using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system, and reported the potential for human emergence 10. A direct speculation was that SARS-CoV or its derivative might leak from the laboratory.

In summary, somebody was entangled with the evolution of 2019-nCoV coronavirus. In addition to origins of natural recombination and intermediate host, the killer coronavirus probably originated from a laboratory in Wuhan. Safety level may need to be reinforced in high risk biohazardous laboratories. Regulations may be taken to relocate these laboratories far away from city center and other densely populated places.


BX designed the comment and performed literature search. All authors performed data acquisition and analysis, collected documents, draw the figure, and wrote the papers.


This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11772133, 11372116).

Declaration of interests

All authors declare no competing interests.


1. Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020.

2. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature 2020.

3. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet 2019. ps://

4. Guo WP, Lin XD, Wang W, et al. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents. PLoS pathogens 2013; 9(2): e1003159.

5. Lu M, Tian JH, Yu B, Guo WP, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ. Extensive diversity of rickettsiales bacteria in ticks from Wuhan, China. Ticks and tick-borne diseases 2017; 8(4): 574-80.

6. Shi M, Lin XD, Chen X, et al. The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses. Nature 2018; 556(7700): 197-202.

7. Tao P. Expert in Wuhan collected ten thousands animals: capture bats in mountain at night. Changjiang Times 2017.

8. Li QX, Zhanyao. Playing with elephant dung, fishing for sea bottom mud: the work that will change China's future, thepaper 2019.

9. Ge XY, Li JL, Yang XL, et al. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 2013; 503(7477): 535-8.

10. Menachery VD, Yount BL, Jr., Debbink K, et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nature medicine 2015; 21(12): 1508-13.

map of Wuhan showing WIV, WHCDC, & Huanan Seafood Market:

(4) Wuhan Lab (Prof. Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge) create a new Coronavirus with Ralph Baric at UNC (Nature Medicine, Nov 9, 2015)

Baric nm Nov 9, 2015

A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence

Vineet D Menachery1, Boyd L Yount Jr1, Kari Debbink1,2, Sudhakar Agnihothram3, Lisa E Gralinski1, Jessica A Plante1, Rachel L Graham1, Trevor Scobey1, Xing-Yi Ge4, Eric F Donaldson1, Scott H Randell5,6, Antonio Lanzavecchia7, Wayne A Marasco8,9, Zhengli-Li Shi4 & Ralph S Baric1,2

{NB in scientific papers, the last author is the LEAD author. Hence Baric was the lead here - Peter M}

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations1. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system2, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from infection with CoVs using the novel spike protein. On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests a potential risk of SARS-CoV re-emergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations.

1Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 3National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA. 4Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China. 5Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 6Cystic Fibrosis Center, Marsico Lung Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 7Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona Institute of Microbiology, Zurich, Switzerland. 8Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 9Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Correspondence should be addressed to R.S.B. ( or V.D.M. (

Received 12 June; accepted 8 October; published online 9 November 2015; corrected online 20 November 2015 (details online); doi:10.1038/nm.3985

VOLUME 21 | NUMBER 12 | DECEMBER 2015 nature medicine

Nature Medicine volume 21, pages1508­1513 (2015)

[...] Synthetic construction of chimeric mutant and full-length SHC014-CoV was approved by the University of North Carolina Institutional Biosafety Committee and the Dual Use Research of Concern committee.

Ethics statement.

This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations for the care and use of animals by the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), NIH. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC, Permit Number A-3410-01) approved the animal study protocol (IACUC #13-033) used in these studies. [...] ==

Here's another copy of Baric's paper showing the names for researchers from WIV:

SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronavirus pose threat for human emergence

Vineet D. Menachery,1 Boyd L. Yount, Jr,1 Kari Debbink,1,2 Sudhakar Agnihothram,3 Lisa E. Gralinski,1 Jessica A. Plante,1 Rachel L. Graham,1 Trevor Scobey,1 Xing-Yi Ge,8 Eric F. Donaldson,1 Scott H. Randell,4,5 Antonio Lanzavecchia,6 Wayne A. Marasco,7 Zhengli-Li Shi,8 and Ralph S. Baric1,2

8 Zhengli-Li Shi - Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

8 Xing-Yi Ge - Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

These scientists knew that they were playing with fire. Other virologists had sounded the alarm over what they were doing.

The Nature article referenced in item 4 above, 'Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research', referring to engineering in which Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge were involved, reports:

'Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, points out that the researchers have created a novel virus that "grows remarkably well" in human cells. "If the virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory," he says.'

(5) Nature journal (2015): Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research; Lab-made coronavirus related to SARS can infect human cells

Three days after the Nature Medicine article was published, other scientists raised the alarm.

Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research

Lab-made coronavirus related to SARS can infect human cells.

Declan Butler

12 November 2015

An experiment that created a hybrid version of a bat coronavirus - one related to the virus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) - has triggered renewed debate over whether engineering lab variants of viruses with possible pandemic potential is worth the risks.

In an article published in Nature Medicine on 9 November, scientists investigated a virus called SHC014, which is found in horseshoe bats in China. The researchers created a chimaeric virus, made up of a surface protein of SHC014 and the backbone of a SARS virus that had been adapted to grow in mice and to mimic human disease. The chimaera infected human airway cells- proving that the surface protein of SHC014 has the necessary structure to bind to a key receptor on the cells and to infect them. It also caused disease in mice, but did not kill them.

Although almost all coronaviruses isolated from bats have not been able to bind to the key human receptor, SHC014 is not the first that can do so. In 2013, researchers reported this ability for the first time in a different coronavirus isolated from the same bat population 2.

The findings reinforce suspicions that bat coronaviruses capable of directly infecting humans (rather than first needing to evolve in an intermediate animal host) may be more common than previously thought, the researchers say.

But other virologists question whether the information gleaned from the experiment justifies the potential risk. Although the extent of any risk is difficult to assess, Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, points out that the researchers have created a novel virus that "grows remarkably well" in human cells. "If the virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory," he says.

Creation of a chimaera

The argument is essentially a rerun of the debate over whether to allow lab research that increases the virulence, ease of spread or host range of dangerous pathogens - what is known as 'gain-of-function' research. In October 2014, the US government imposed a moratorium on federal funding of such research on the viruses that cause SARS, influenza and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, a deadly disease caused by a virus that sporadically jumps from camels to people).

The latest study was already under way before the US moratorium began, and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) allowed it to proceed while it was under review by the agency, says Ralph Baric, an infectious-disease researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a co-author of the study. The NIH eventually concluded that the work was not so risky as to fall under the moratorium, he says.

But Wain-Hobson disapproves of the study because, he says, it provides little benefit, and reveals little about the risk that the wild SHC014 virus in bats poses to humans.

Other experiments in the study show that the virus in wild bats would need to evolve to pose any threat to humans - a change that may never happen, although it cannot be ruled out. Baric and his team reconstructed the wild virus from its genome sequence and found that it grew poorly in human cell cultures and caused no significant disease in mice.

"The only impact of this work is the creation, in a lab, of a new, non-natural risk," agrees Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist and biodefence expert at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey. Both Ebright and Wain-Hobson are long-standing critics of gain-of-function research.

In their paper, the study authors also concede that funders may think twice about allowing such experiments in the future. "Scientific review panels may deem similar studies building chimeric viruses based on circulating strains too risky to pursue," they write, adding that discussion is needed as to "whether these types of chimeric virus studies warrant further investigation versus the inherent risks involved".

Useful research

But Baric and others say the research did have benefits. The study findings "move this virus from a candidate emerging pathogen to a clear and present danger", says Peter Daszak, who co-authored the 2013 paper. Daszak is president of the EcoHealth Alliance, an international network of scientists, headquartered in New York City, that samples viruses from animals and people in emerging-diseases hotspots across the globe.

Studies testing hybrid viruses in human cell culture and animal models are limited in what they can say about the threat posed by a wild virus, Daszak agrees. But he argues that they can help indicate which pathogens should be prioritized for further research attention.

Without the experiments, says Baric, the SHC014 virus would still be seen as not a threat. Previously, scientists had believed, on the basis of molecular modelling and other studies, that it should not be able to infect human cells. The latest work shows that the virus has already overcome critical barriers, such as being able to latch onto human receptors and efficiently infect human airway cells, he says. "I don't think you can ignore that." He plans to do further studies with the virus in non-human primates, which may yield data more relevant to humans.

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18787


Menachery, V. D. et al. Nature Med. (2015).

Ge, X.-Y. et al. Nature 503, 535­538 (2013).


On Nov 16, a week after the Nature Medicine article was published, The Scientist reported a debate over the ethics of that research:

Lab-Made Coronavirus Triggers Debate

The creation of a chimeric SARS-like virus has scientists discussing the risks of gain-of-function research.

Jef Akst

Nov 16, 2015

Ralph Baric, an infectious-disease researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, last week (November 9) published a study on his team's efforts to engineer a virus with the surface protein of the SHC014 coronavirus, found in horseshoe bats in China, and the backbone of one that causes human-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in mice.

The hybrid virus could infect human airway cells and caused disease in mice, according to the team's results, which were published in Nature Medicine.

The results demonstrate the ability of the SHC014 surface protein to bind and infect human cells, validating concerns that this virus - or other coronaviruses found in bat species - may be capable of making the leap to people without first evolving in an intermediate host, Nature reported.

They also reignite a debate about whether that information justifies the risk of such work, known as gain-of-function research. "If the [new] virus escaped, nobody could predict the trajectory," Simon Wain-Hobson, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, told Nature."

In October 2013, the US government put a stop to all federal funding for gain-of-function studies, with particular concern rising about influenza, SARS, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). "NIH [National Institutes of Health] has funded such studies because they help define the fundamental nature of human-pathogen interactions, enable the assessment of the pandemic potential of emerging infectious agents, and inform public health and preparedness efforts," NIH Director Francis Collins said in a statement at the time. "These studies, however, also entail biosafety and biosecurity risks, which need to be understood better."

(6) Gain-of-Function joint research (2015) between Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge of WIV, and Ralph Baric of UNC

The Nature Medicine was published online on Nov 9, 2015. On Dec 12, Wuhan Institute of Virology issued its own report on the same research. {whiov = Wuhan Institute of Virology; CAS = Chinese Academy of Sciences.}

Research Progress

WHIOV 04-12-2015

Will SARS come back?

Date 04-12-2015

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARSCoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)CoV underscores the threat of crossspecies transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans.

Recently, Prof. Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge from WIV, in cooperation with researchers from University of North Carolina, Harvard Medical School, Bellinzona Institute of Microbiology and etc, examine the disease potential of a SARSlike virus, SHC014CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Using the SARSCoV reverse genetics system, the scientists generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouseadapted SARSCoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wildtype backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARSCoV. Evaluation of available SARSbased immunetherapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy? both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from infection with CoVs using the novel spike protein.

On the basis of these findings, they synthetically rederived an infectious fulllength SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. The work suggests a potential risk of SARSCoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations.

(7) The spike glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV contains a cleavage absent in CoV - showing that it was engineered rather than evolved

Antiviral Research

The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade

B.Coutard, C.Valle, Lamballerie, B.Canard, N.G.Seidah, E.Decroly


== also see this youtube:

Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) (Covid-19) -- Special Weekend Edition? -- J.C. on a bike! (#0045)

16 Feb 2020

(8) Asians show a similar ACE2 expression to other races; => Virus will affect all races

Asians and other races express similar levels of and share the same genetic polymorphisms of the SARS-CoV-2 cell-entry receptor

Ying Chen1,2, Kejia Shan1,2,3, and Wenfeng Qian1,2,,3*

1 State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

2 Key Laboratory of Genetic Network Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

* Correspondence to:

Wenfeng Qian

Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101, China



The recurrent coronavirus outbreaks in China (SARS-CoV and its relative, SARS-CoV-2) raise the possibility that Asians are more susceptible to coronavirus. Here, we test this possibility with the lung expression of ACE2, which encodes the cell-entry receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We show that ACE2 expression is not affected during tumorigenesis, suggesting that the transcriptome data from the more than 1000 lung cancer samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) can be used to study ACE2 expression among people without cancer. The expression of ACE2 increases with age, but is not associated with sex. Asians show a similar ACE2 expression to other races. Furthermore, the frequencies of ACE2 alleles in Asians are not significantly deviated from those in other races. These observations indicate that individuals of all races need the same level of personal protection against SARS-CoV-2.

(9) Wuhan Institute of Virology reports 'Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses' (Nov 2017)

Nearly all of these authors are from Wuhan Institute of Virology (=WIV).

CAS = Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Zheng-Li Shi is listed as having the role of "Project administration, Supervision".

Peter Daszak, an American, is listed as having the roles of "Funding acquisition, Writing ­ review & editing".

Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus

Ben Hu , Lei-Ping Zeng , Xing-Lou Yang , Xing-Yi Ge, Wei Zhang, Bei Li, Jia-Zheng Xie, Xu-Rui Shen, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Ning Wang, Dong-Sheng Luo, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Mei-Niang Wang, [ ... ], Zheng-Li Shi [ view all ]

Published: PLOS | Public Library of Science

November 30, 2017

About the Authors

Ben Hu Contributed equally to this work with: Ben Hu, Lei-Ping Zeng, Xing-Lou Yang

ROLES Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation, Visualization, Writing ­ original draft AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Lei-Ping Zeng Contributed equally to this work with: Ben Hu, Lei-Ping Zeng, Xing-Lou Yang

ROLES Investigation, Methodology AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Xing-Lou Yang Contributed equally to this work with: Ben Hu, Lei-Ping Zeng, Xing-Lou Yang

ROLES Investigation, Resources AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Xing-Yi Ge ROLES Formal analysis, Resources AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Wei Zhang ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Bei Li ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Jia-Zheng Xie ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Xu-Rui Shen ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Yun-Zhi Zhang ROLES Resources AFFILIATIONS Yunnan Institute of Endemic Diseases Control and Prevention, Dali, China, Dali University, Dali, China

Ning Wang ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Dong-Sheng Luo ROLES Investigation, Resources AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Xiao-Shuang Zheng ROLES Investigation AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Mei-Niang Wang ROLES Resources AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Peter Daszak ROLES Funding acquisition, Writing ­ review & editing AFFILIATION EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, United States of America

Lin-Fa Wang ROLES Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Writing ­ review & editing AFFILIATION Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore

Jie Cui ROLES Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Software, Writing ­ review & editing * E-mail: (JC); (Z-LS) AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Zheng-Li Shi ROLES Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Visualization, Writing ­ review & editing * E-mail: (JC); (Z-LS) AFFILIATION CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China

Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

(10) Professor Shi Zhengli is Director of the P4 lab at Wuhan Institute of Virology

Her photo is at

Prof. SHI Zhengli elected a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology

Date 08-03-2019

On Jan 28, the American Academy of Microbiology elected 109 new Fellows in 2019. The "Class of 2019" represents fellows from China, the U.S., France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Israel, Korea, and etc. Prof. SHI Zhengli from Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.

Prof. SHI is the Director of the Center of Emerging Infectious Diseases at WIV, Director of the Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety of CAS, and the Editor-in-Chief of Virologica Sinica. She received her Ph.D from Montpellier University II, France, in 2000.

Her researches focus on molecular epidemiology and interspecies infection mechanism of emerging viruses of zoonotic origin especially those from bats. She has made distinguished and pioneering achievement in discovery and characterization of important bat-borne viruses. She identified the bat origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and has made crucial contributions to prevention and control of zoonotic emerging infectious disease in China. She had got over 120 publications including research articles on high-impact journals Science, Nature, Cell Host & Microbe, PLoS Pathogens, etc. She won the first prize of Natural Science Award of Hubei Province in 2017 and the second prize of National Natural Science Award in 2018.

(11) Chinese patent for coronavirus S gene (2004)

SARS vaccine of adenovirus vector and preparation method, application of coronavirus S gene

Application number CN 200410044285

Filing date 2004-05-18 Publication date 2006-09-27


translated from Chinese

The present invention belongs to the field of genetic engineering, particularly relates to adenoviral vector SARS vaccines, their preparation and coronavirus S genes in SARS (SARS) on vaccines for the prophylaxis. By means of biological engineering, the coronavirus S gene in combination with deficient recombinant adenovirus, the protective immunogen protein or polypeptide expressed therein, through expansion culture, purification, and formulation to prepare a mucosal immunogenicity can cause the gene vaccine, respiratory mucosal immune response induced by the body to produce antibodies against the virus infection. Specific conditions of the present invention, compared with conventional inactivated virus particle vaccine, safe, easy to use, without limitation intramuscular, have broad clinical applications.


A first object of the present invention is to provide adenoviral vaccine can prevent SARS epidemic "SARS", the better to prevent "SARS" the occurrence and spread; a further object of the present invention to provide a using as deficient adenoviral vector, by cloning, recombinant and other means, adenoviral vector disclosed SARS vaccine preparation and use of vaccines SARS-associated coronavirus S gene in the manufacture.

Object of the present invention is achieved: by means of biological engineering, the S gene of SARS-associated coronavirus (CoV total of four structural gene, wherein one of the S gene, see detailed description below) in combination with deficient recombinant adenovirus, constitute a gene vaccine can cause mucosal immunogenicity.

(12) Chinese Patent genetic engineering protein FSPA relevant to S protein of coronavirus SARS- CoV (2005)

Coronal virus genetic engineering protein and use thereof


Patent: Unexamined APPLIC. open to Public inspection - China

Application: CN20051120530 on 27 Dec 2005

Publication: 27 Dec 2005

PAT: CN1990502



The invention discloses a genetic engineering protein of coronavirus and its application. That is genetic engineering protein FSPA relevant to S protein of coronavirus SARS- CoV and nucleotide sequences amnio sequence and code said FSPA. The invention also discloses a recombinant insect virus strain containing SARS- CoV Spike- recombinant autographa californica nucleopolyhe-drovirus AcNPV- FSPA, CCTCC No.V200513, inserts into the expression box of SARS- CoV Spike. The inventiton also discloses the application of FSPA in checking the coronavirus SARS- CoV, which is the pathogen for acute respiratory syndrome.

(13) Scientific Puzzles surrounding the Wuhan Novel Coronavirus


February 3, 2020 Updated: February 3, 2020

The sudden outbreak of the Wuhan Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has resulted in all of China's Hubei Province and three major cities in Zhejiang Province being subjected to quarantine. Other nations are anxiously trying to get their people out of China, and restrictions are being placed on flights to China. Because this novel virus has an extremely high transmission speed (high R0) and a high fatality rate, it is posing a significant challenge to public health, not only in China, but around the world.

There are major gaps in our knowledge of the virus's origin, duration of human-to-human transmission, and clinical management of those infected based on the current limited information coming from China. Nevertheless, the findings of those scientists who have recently published research papers about this virus are summarized below.

Lancet Article Reports Wuhan Virus Not Likely Caused by Natural Recombination

Most papers reported that the 2019-nCoV is only 88 percent related to the closest bat coronavirus, only 79 percent to SARS, and just 50 percent to MERS. Professor Roujian Lu from the China Key Laboratory of Biosafety, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and his co-authors commented in a Jan. 30 paper in Lancet that "recombination is probably not the reason for emergence of this virus."

A Jan. 27 2020, study by 5 Greek scientists analyzed the genetic relationships of 2019-nCoV and found that "the new coronavirus provides a new lineage for almost half of its genome, with no close genetic relationships to other viruses within the subgenus of sarbecovirus," and has an unusual middle segment never seen before in any coronavirus. All this indicates that 2019-nCoV is a brand new type of coronavirus. The study's authors rejected the original hypothesis that 2019-nCoV originated from random natural mutations between different coronaviruses. (Paraskevis et al 2020 BioRxiv) The article is a preprint made available through bioRxiv and has not been peer-reviewed.

Puzzles of the Wuhan Novel Coronavirus (Yuhong Dong)

Very High Genetic Identity in Patients Indicates a Recent Transmission to Humans

2019-nCoV is an RNA virus. RNA viruses have high natural mutation rates. The Lancet study by Lu et al. states: "As a typical RNA virus, the average evolutionary rate for coronaviruses is roughly 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site per year, with mutations arising during every replication cycle. It is, therefore, striking that the sequences of 2019-nCoV from different patients described here were almost identical, with greater than 99.9% sequence identity. This finding suggests that 2019-nCoV originated from one source within a very short period and detected relatively rapidly."

A Jan. 31 article by Jon Cohen in Science said: "The longer a virus circulates in a human population, the more time it has to develop mutations that differentiate strains in infected people, and given that the 2019-nCoV sequences analyzed to date differ from each other by seven nucleotides at most, this suggests it jumped into humans very recently. But it remains a mystery which animal spread the virus to humans."

Bat or Huanan Market Source Is Not the Whole Story

Prof. Lu et. al. also discussed the natural host of the virus. An early hypothesis had been the virus had passed to humans from bats sold at Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Market.

Lu et. al write: "First, the outbreak was first reported in late December 2019, when most bat species in Wuhan are hibernating. Second, no bats were sold or found at the Huanan seafood market, whereas various non-aquatic animals (including mammals) were available for purchase. Third, the sequence identity between 2019-nCoV and its close relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21 was less than 90%. Hence, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21 are not direct ancestors of 2019-nCoV."

The authors point out that while the 2019-nCoV causing the Wuhan outbreak might have initially been hosted by bats, it may have been transmitted to humans via other as yet unknown mechanisms.

The Science article said: "Huanan marketplace played an early role in spreading 2019-nCoV, but whether it was the origin of the outbreak remains uncertain. Many of the initially confirmed 2019-nCoV cases- 27 of the first 41 in one report, 26 of 47 in another- were connected to the Wuhan market, but up to 45%, including the earliest handful, were not. This raises the possibility that the initial jump into people happened elsewhere." [...]

On Jan. 22, 2020, two clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Wuhan 2019-nCoV were posted on China websites. One is "Quick Guide for the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia" authored by the expert group of Tongji Hospital, and the other is "Instructions for Handling 2019 New Coronavirus" from the Wuhan Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The first guideline clearly points out a "progressive lymphocyte reduction" while the second guideline highlights "the importance of monitoring the absolute value of lymphocytes." (emphasis added)

Therefore, the observed lymphocyte reduction must be of clinical significance in a certain proportion of patients. CD4 positive T lymphocytes constitute a major fraction of all lymphocytes. Although not a routine test for patients with coronavirus infection, perhaps monitoring CD4 cell counts would be helpful in 2019-nCoV patients.

Another clinical feature of patients infected with 2019-nCoV is the high levels of serum cytokines and chemokines, which is defined as a cytokine storm (Huang et al 2020 Lancet). This is consistent with the observation from Pradhan et al. that the 2019-nCoV S-protein inducing structural rearrangements in GP120, creating a high affinity binding site for a chemokine co-receptor such as CXCR4 and/or CCR5. It is well known that activating T cell surface receptors can cause a cytokine storm. Cytokine storms have potential to create significant damage to organs and bodily tissues. If a cytokine storm occurs in the lungs, for example, immune cells such as macrophages and fluid may trigger tissue damage that results in acute respiratory distress and possible death.

The United States Centers for Disease Control stated: "There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for 2019-nCoV infection." But, there are a few case reports of Wuhan 2019-nCoV patients benefiting from empiric treatment with anti-HIV drugs such as lopinavir. More such detailed clinical experience needs to be shared.


There are many scientific questions regarding this novel virus. Based on recently published scientific papers, this new coronavirus has unprecedented virologic features that suggest genetic engineering may have been involved in its creation. The virus presents with severe clinical features, which make it a significant threat. It is imperative for scientists, physicians, and people all over the world, including governments and public health authorities, to make every effort to investigate this mysterious and suspicious virus in order to elucidate its origin and to better enable populations in China and around the world to respond.

Yuhong Dong holds a M.D. from Beijing Medical University and a doctorate in infectious diseases from Beijing University. Dong has 17 years of working experience in viral infectious disease clinical treatment and antiviral drug research. Dong worked as a doctor in the First Affiliated Hospital of Beijing Medical University and then later as a Medical Scientific Expert specialized in antiviral drug clinical research in Novartis R&D. She currently works as a Chief Scientific Officer in a Swiss Biotech company.

References {visit link}

(14) The RaTG13 Mystery - Amateurs prove Lab origin (added June 7, 2021; updated June 8, 2021)

Prashanth Vaidyaraj noted, in "Tracking the Origin-An Epoch Times Investigation" of April 22, 2020:

"While Wuhan announced the lockdown of the city, Shi Zhengli and her team released a paper stating that the Wuhan coronavirus was of probable bat origin. This was published in Nature on February 3rd. The paper indicated that the Wuhan virus utilized the same key as SARS to gain entry into the human body. She also announced the 2019-nCoV genome sequence was 96.2% consistent with a bat coronavirus originating in Yunnan, China, called RaTG13, signaling a natural source of the Wuhan virus.

"However, Shi Zhengli's natural origin assertion was doubtful. The outbreak occurred in Wuhan, the same location as the P4 laboratory where she was based and which housed highly similar viruses. Common sense would lead the government to first inspect the P4 laboratory for any leakage incident and potential safety concerns. Instead, they shifted public attension from the P4 laboratory to the Huanan Seafood Market that sold no bats and designated it as the origin of the disease."

Transcript at

If RaTG13 is a natural virus discovered in 2013, why did Shi Zhengli not report it until Jan 20, 2020, when Wuhan was in lockdown?

Professor Edward Holmes, an evolutionary virologist at the University of Sydney, wrote,

"(i) RaTG13 was sampled from a different province of China (Yunnan) to where COVID-19 first appeared; and (ii) the level of genome sequence divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 is equivalent to an average of 50 years (and at least 20 years) of evolutionary change. Hence, SARS-CoV-2 was not derived from RaTG13."

However, genetic engineering could bridge the gap.

Rowan Jacobsen·begins the story with his article "Could COVID-19 Have Escaped from a Lab? The world's preeminent scientists say a theory from the Broad Institute's Alina Chan is too wild to be believed. But when the theory is about the possibility of COVID being man-made, is this science or censorship?", published in Boston Magazine on 9/9/2020.

Alina Chan noticed that the Sars-Cov2 virus


was already familiar with human physiology when it had its coming-out party in Wuhan in late 2019. If so, there were three possible explanations.

Perhaps it was just staggeringly bad luck: The mutations had all occurred in an earlier host species, and just happened to be the perfect genetic arrangement for an invasion of humanity. But that made no sense. Those mutations would have been disadvantageous in the old host.

Maybe the virus had been circulating undetected in humans for months, working out the kinks, and nobody had noticed. Also unlikely. China's health officials would not have missed it, and even if they had, they'd be able to go back now through stored samples to find the trail of earlier versions. And they weren't coming up with anything.

Perhaps it was just staggeringly bad luck: The mutations had all occurred in an earlier host species, and just happened to be the perfect genetic arrangement for an invasion of humanity. But that made no sense. Those mutations would have been disadvantageous in the old host.

Maybe the virus had been circulating undetected in humans for months, working out the kinks, and nobody had noticed. Also unlikely. China's health officials would not have missed it, and even if they had, they'd be able to go back now through stored samples to find the trail of earlier versions. And they weren't coming up with anything.

"That left a third possibility: The missing phase had happened in a lab, where the virus had been trained on human cells."

Chan knew she had to move forward and make her findings public. In the final draft of her paper, she torpedoed the seafood-market theory, then laid out a case that the virus seemed curiously well adapted to humans. She mentioned all three possible explanations, carefully wording the third to emphasize that if the novel coronavirus did come from a lab, it would have been the result of an accident in the course of legitimate research.

On May 2, Chan uploaded the paper to a site where as-yet-unpublished biology papers known as "preprints" are shared for open peer review. She tweeted out the news and waited. On May 16, the Daily Mail, a British tabloid, picked up her research. The very next day, Newsweek ran a story with the headline "Scientists Shouldn't Rule Out Lab as Source of Coronavirus, New Study Says."

And that, Chan says, is when "shit exploded everywhere."


The story is now taken up by "Mayo" in an article "Falsifying claims of trust in bat coronavirus research: mysteries of the mine (i)(ii)", published 0n March 1, 2021.


Have you ever wondered if people read Master's (or even Ph.D) theses a decade out? Whether or not you have, I think you will be intrigued to learn the story of why an obscure Master's thesis from 2012, translated from Chinese in 2020, is now an integral key for unravelling the puzzle of the global controversy about the mechanism and origins of Covid-19. The Master's thesis by a doctor, Li Xu [1], "The Analysis of 6 Patients with Severe Pneumonia Caused by Unknown Viruses", describes 6 patients he helped to treat after they entered a hospital in 2012, one after the other, suffering from an atypical pneumonia from cleaning up after bats in an abandoned copper mine in China. Given the keen interest in finding the origin of the 2002­2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, Li wrote: "This makes the research of the bats in the mine where the six Miners worked and later suffered from severe pneumonia caused by unknown virus a significant research topic". He and the other doctors treating the mine cleaners hypothesized that their diseases were caused by a SARS-like coronavirus from having been in close proximity to the bats in the mine.

Jonathan Latham and Allison Wilson, scientists at the Bioscience Resource Project in Ithaca, decided Li Xu's master's thesis was important enough to translate from Chinese.

The evidence it contains has led us to reconsider everything we thought we knew about the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has also led us to theorise a plausible route by which an apparently isolated disease outbreak in a mine in 2012 led to a global pandemic in 2019. (Latham & Wilson 2020)

They dubbed it the Mojiang Miner's theory, because the mineshaft is located in Mojiang, in Yunnan province, China, 1000 miles from Wuhan. One of the mine cleaners from 2012, they speculate, might even have been patient zero of the current pandemic! But except for a brief sketch in note 5, I put that aside for this post and turn to the article that first sparked my interest in the Mojiang mine from the Times of London July 4, 2020. Its subtitle is: 'The world's closest known relative to the Covid-19 virus was found in 2013 by Chinese scientists in an abandoned mine where it was linked to deaths caused by a coronavirus-type respiratory illness'. For a long time, it was one of the only articles on the mysteries that came to light with this Master's thesis: now the mine mysteries are mentioned in every critical discussion of Covid-19 origins. [...]

The pneumonia the Miners were suffering from was deemed sufficiently serious and unusual to immediately call in an acclaimed virologist, Professor Zhong Nanshan, who had led China's efforts against the first SARS, referred to now as SARS-CoV-1 to distinguish it from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) ... was called in to test the four survivors. These produced a remarkable finding: while none had tested positive for Sars, all four had antibodies against another, unknown Sars-like coronavirus. (London Times)

The detailed description of their symptoms and disease progression in the Master's thesis exactly echoes what we now see in those with Covid-19: high fevers, coughs, difficulty in breathing, and many of the treatments tried are also in sync with those used today, including one found to be one of the most successful: steroids.

Shi Zhengli was in the midst of researching bat caves around 200 miles from the Mojiang mine when her team was alerted to the Miners. Given their main research focus is SARS-related coronaviruses, especially from bats, this was clearly of great interest to them. So they immediately turned to investigate the Mojiang Mine.

Over the next year, the scientists took faecal samples from 276 bats. The samples were stored at minus 80C in a special solution and dispatched to the Wuhan institute, where molecular studies and analysis were conducted. (London Times)

One, from a horshoe bat was of special interest because it was considered a brand new strain of a SARS-related virus. In a February 2016 article that Shi co-authored, the bat sample was named RaBtCoV/4991. Oddly, the paper, titled "Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft," makes no mention of the reason the whole study took place: no mention of the Miners or the fact that three died from pneumonia contracted from bats in the mine where the sample was found (Mystery #1). But what really raised an alarm for me is the fact that Shi, when asked about the Miners (in an interview in the March-April 2020 issue of Scientific American, hereafter SA 2020) averred the Miners were killed by a fungus and not a virus (Mystery #2).


Shi Zhengli wrote, in her paper published online on February 3 2020 in Nature, that SARS-CoV-2 was 96 percent identical to a coronavirus they had identified in horseshoe bats in Yunnan:

Nature 579 (7798):270-273 Epub 2020 Feb 3.

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

by Zheng-Li Shi et. al.

Received: 20 January 2020
Accepted: 29 January 2020
Published online: 3 February 2020


Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. ...

We then found that a short region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from a bat coronavirus (BatCoV RaTG13) - which was previously detected in Rhinolophus affinis from Yunnan province - showed high sequence identity to 2019-nCoV. ... The close phylogenetic relationship to RaTG13 provides evidence that 2019-nCoV may have originated in bats. [...]


Shi's team named it batcoronavirus RaTG13. If RaTG13, the closest natural relative to Sars-Cov2, was discovered in 2013, why did Shi Zhengli not report it until Jan 20, 2020?

"Mayo" (op. cit.) now continues, and goes on to show that RaBtCoV/4991 (the virus reported in the 2016 article) = RaTG13 (the virus discovered in Mojiang). The two are one and the same:


In fact, researchers in India and Austria have compared the partial genome of the mine sample that was published in the 2016 paper and found it is a 100% match with the same sequence for RaTG13. The same partial sequence for the mine sample is a 98.7% match with the Covid-19 virus. (London Times)

Why would the 2020 paper describing the closest relative to SARS-CoV-2 fail to mention that it is one and the same as the virus unearthed from the mine where 3 people died, and had already been cited in the 2016 paper, both with Shi as co-author? It's one thing to rename it, but to fail to note this goes against typical publishing norms. [...]

So what did the WIV research group do with RaBtCoV/4991 in the ensuing years between finding it in 2013 (2016 article) and the revelation in the early pandemic (2020 article)? According to them, not much: it was said to have been stowed away in a freezer and only taken out after cases of Covid-19 appeared in Wuhan at the end of December 2019.

Other scientists find the initial indifference about a new strain of the coronavirus hard to understand. Nikolai Petrovsky, professor of medicine at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia, said it was "simply not credible" that the WIV would have failed to carry out any further analysis on RaBtCoV/4991, especially as it had been linked to the deaths of three Miners.

'If you really thought you had a novel virus that had caused an outbreak that killed humans then there is nothing you wouldn't do - given that was their whole reason for being [there] - to get to the bottom of that, even if that meant exhausting the sample and then going back to get more,' he said. (London Times) [...]

Not only is it incredible that no work had been done on RaTG13 in the ensuing years between its discovery and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, it turns out to be false! Alina Chan, who describes herself as a molecular biologist turned detective (into origins of SARS-CoV-2), "pointed to an online database showing that the WIV had been genetically sequencing the mine virus in 2017 and 2018, analyzing it in a way they had done in the past with other viruses in preparation for running experiments with them." (Boston Magazine) (Mystery #6)

But now that we know RaTG13 was sequenced and experimented upon in 2017 and 2018, we are still struck with the mysteries as why they had claimed only to sequence it after the world is hit with the Covid-19 pandemic, and why her close collaborator, Peter Daszak, who for years has funneled money from NIH grants to support the WIV bat coronavirus research, was reporting that the sample was ignored in a freezer for 6 years.[3] Only after the earlier sequencing was revealed did Daszak admit he was wrong. Likewise, it took considerable pressure on Nature before the appearance of a December 2020 addendum to the 2020 article where they admit the earlier experimentation.


The final part of the story is an article "How Amateur Sleuths Broke the Wuhan Lab Story and Embarrassed the Media", by Rowan Jacobsen in Newsweek on June 2, 2021:

He relates the discoveries made by a team of amateur investigators who "call themselves DRASTIC, for Decentralized Radical Autonomous Search Team Investigating COVID-19."


The key facts quickly came together. The genetic sequence for RaTG13 perfectly matched a small piece of genetic code posted as part of a paper written by Shi Zhengli years earlier, but never mentioned again. The code came from a virus the WIV had found in a Yunnan bat. Connecting key details in the two papers with old news stories, the DRASTIC team determined that RaTG13 had come from a mineshaft in Mojiang County, in Yunnan Province, where six men shoveling bat guano in 2012 had developed pneumonia. Three of them died. DRASTIC wondered if that event marked the first cases of human beings being infected with a precursor of SARS-CoV-2 - perhaps RaTG13 or something like it.

In a profile in Scientific American, Shi Zhengli acknowledged working in a mineshaft in Mojiang County where miners had died. But she avoided connecting it to RaTG13 (an omission she had made in her scientific papers as well), claiming that a fungus in the cave had killed the miners.

That explanation didn't sit well with the DRASTIC group. They suspected a SARS-like virus, not a fungus, had killed the miners and that, for whatever reason, the WIV was trying to hide that fact. It was a hunch, and they had no way of proving it.

At this point, The Seeker revealed his research powers to the group. In his online explorations, he'd recently discovered a massive Chinese database of academic journals and theses called CNKI. Now he wondered if somewhere in its vast circuitry might be information on the sickened miners. [...]

He was on the verge of calling it quits, he says, when he struck gold: a 60-page master's thesis written by a student at Kunming Medical University in 2013 titled "The Analysis of 6 Patients with Severe Pneumonia Caused by Unknown Viruses." In exhaustive detail, it described the conditions and step-by-step treatment of the miners. It named the suspected culprit: "Caused by SARS-like [coronavirus] from the Chinese horseshoe bat or other bats."

The Seeker dropped the link, without fanfare, on May 18, 2020, then followed up with a second thesis from a PhD student at the Chinese CDC confirming much of the information in the first. Four of the miners had tested positive for antibodies from a SARS-like infection. And the WIV had been looped in to test samples from them all. (Shortly after The Seeker posted the theses, China changed the access controls on CNKI so no one could do such a search again.) [...]

A key team member was Francisco de Asis de Ribera, a Madrid data scientist who excels at mining big data sets. Over the years, the WIV had published a huge amount of information about its virus-hunting projects in different outlets and formats. Ribera began assembling it all into "a huge Sudoku puzzle," searching for places where he could fill in some of the blanks, slowly assembling a comprehensive map of the WIV's entire virus program. He and The Seeker made a formidable team, The Seeker unearthing new pieces of the puzzle and Ribera fitting them into place. ("I have always seen myself and Francisco as playing Detective McNulty and Detective Freamon from The Wire," The Seeker joked to Newsweek in one message.)

Ribera was responsible for solving another piece of the RaTG13 puzzle. Had the WIV been actively working on RaTG13 during the seven years since they discovered it? Peter Daszak said no: they had never used the virus because it wasn't similar enough to the original SARS. "We thought it's interesting, but not high-risk," he told Wired. "So we didn't do anything about it and put it in the freezer."

Ribera disproved that account. When a new science paper on genetics is published, the authors must upload the accompanying genetic sequences to an international database. By examining some metadata tags that had been accidentally uploaded by the WIV along with its genetic sequences for RaTG13, Ribera discovered that scientists at the lab had indeed been actively studying the virus in 2017 and 2018 - they hadn't stuck it in a freezer and forgotten about it, after all.

In fact, the WIV had been intensely interested in RaTG13 and everything else that had come from the Mojiang mineshaft. From his giant Sudoku puzzle, Ribera determined that they made at least seven different trips to the mine, over many years, collecting thousands of samples. Ribera's guess is that their technology had not been good enough in 2012 and 2013 to find the virus that had killed the miners, so they kept going back as the techniques improved. [...]

... Alina Chan, a molecular biologist at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard ... recognized the value of the information DRASTIC was producing and began to interpret it for scientists and nonscientists alike in crisp explainers on Twitter that made her a star science communicator. Chan acknowledged the group's accomplishments in a long thread on Twitter. "Without the work done by the DRASTIC team, I don't really know where we would be today with the origins of covid-19," she wrote, adding, "The work of these outsiders...has had a measurable impact on the scientific discourse."

That scientific discourse jumped tracks on January 6, 2021, when the University of Washington virologist Jesse Bloom, one of the country's most respected COVID-19 researchers, became the first major scientific figure to publicly legitimize DRASTIC's contributions. "Yes, I follow the work," he tweeted, sending tremors through the scientific establishment. "I don't agree [with] all of it, but some parts seem important & correct." Bloom singled out Mona Rahalkar's paper on the Mojiang mine, then added that in the early days of the pandemic, "I thought lab escape very unlikely. Based on subsequent work, I now say quite plausible."

Other scientists pressured Bloom to reconsider, but he held his ground, and the wall of silence began to crumble. In May, 17 scientists from Harvard, Yale, MIT, Stanford, and other leading institutions, including Chan, joined Bloom in a letter in Science calling for a thorough investigation of the Wuhan lab.

On nearly the same day, The Seeker struck again. Visiting a database hosted by China's Ministry of Science and Technology, he searched for all theses supervised by Shi Zhengli. Boom. Three hits. "I got it on my first try," he says. "Not sure why no one else thought of this before, but I guess no one was looking."

If there had been any remaining doubt about the WIV's pattern of deception, these new theses put it to rest. They indicated that the WIV researchers had never believed a fungus had killed the Mojiang miners, contradicting Shi's remarks in Scientific American and elsewhere. In fact, WIV researchers had been so concerned about a new SARS-like outbreak that they'd tested the blood of neighboring villagers for other cases. And they had known the genetic sequences for the eight other SARS-like viruses from the mine - which could have helped researchers to understand more about SARS-CoV-2 in the early days - long before the pandemic started, and had kept the information to themselves, until DRASTIC called them out.

Within days of the new revelations and the Science letter, more academics, politicians and even the mainstream media began to take the lab-leak seriously, culminating on May 26 when President Biden ordered U.S. intelligence agencies "to redouble their efforts to collect and analyze information that could bring us closer to a definitive conclusion."


Another part of the story, which convinced those still sitting on the fence, comes from an article by Nicholas Wade, "The origin of COVID: Did people or nature open Pandora's box at Wuhan?" in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists of May 5, 2021.


First, they say that the spike protein of SARS2 binds very well to its target, the human ACE2 receptor, but does so in a different way from that which physical calculations suggest would be the best fit. Therefore the virus must have arisen by natural selection, not manipulation. [...]

But this ignores the way that virologists do in fact get spike proteins to bind to chosen targets, which is not by calculation but by splicing in spike protein genes from other viruses or by serial passage. With serial passage, each time the virus's progeny are transferred to new cell cultures or animals, the more successful are selected until one emerges that makes a really tight bind to human cells. [...]

Shi then teamed up with Ralph S. Baric, an eminent coronavirus researcher at the University of North Carolina. Their work focused on enhancing the ability of bat viruses to attack humans so as to "examine the emergence potential (that is, the potential to infect humans) of circulating bat CoVs [coronaviruses]." In pursuit of this aim, in November 2015 they created a novel virus by taking the backbone of the SARS1 virus and replacing its spike protein with one from a bat virus (known as SHC014-CoV). This manufactured virus was able to infect the cells of the human airway, at least when tested against a lab culture of such cells.

The SHC014-CoV/SARS1 virus is known as a chimera because its genome contains genetic material from two strains of virus. If the SARS2 virus were to have been cooked up in Shi's lab, then its direct prototype would have been the SHC014-CoV/SARS1 chimera, the potential danger of which concerned many observers and prompted intense discussion. [...]

Baric had developed, and taught Shi, a general method for engineering bat coronaviruses to attack other species. The specific targets were human cells grown in cultures and humanized mice. These laboratory mice, a cheap and ethical stand-in for human subjects, are genetically engineered to carry the human version of a protein called ACE2 that studs the surface of cells that line the airways.

Shi returned to her lab at the Wuhan Institute of Virology and resumed the work she had started on genetically engineering coronaviruses to attack human cells. How can we be so sure?

Because, by a strange twist in the story, her work was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). And grant proposals that funded her work, which are a matter of public record, specify exactly what she planned to do with the money.

The grants were assigned to the prime contractor, Daszak of the EcoHealth Alliance, who subcontracted them to Shi. Here are extracts from the grants for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. ("CoV" stands for coronavirus and "S protein" refers to the virus's spike protein.)

"Test predictions of CoV inter-species transmission. Predictive models of host range (i.e. emergence potential) will be tested experimentally using reverse genetics, pseudovirus and receptor binding assays, and virus infection experiments across a range of cell cultures from different species and humanized mice."

"We will use S protein sequence data, infectious clone technology, in vitro and in vivo infection experiments and analysis of receptor binding to test the hypothesis that % divergence thresholds in S protein sequences predict spillover potential."

What this means, in non-technical language, is that Shi set out to create novel coronaviruses with the highest possible infectivity for human cells. [...]

The methodical approach was designed to find the best combination of coronavirus backbone and spike protein for infecting human cells. The approach could have generated SARS2-like viruses, and indeed may have created the SARS2 virus itself with the right combination of virus backbone and spike protein. [...]

Even if the grant required the work plan described above, how can we be sure that the plan was in fact carried out? For that we can rely on the word of Daszak, who has been much protesting for the last 15 months that lab escape was a ludicrous conspiracy theory invented by China-bashers.

On December 9, 2019, before the outbreak of the pandemic became generally known, Daszak gave an interview in which he talked in glowing terms of how researchers at the Wuhan Institute of Virology had been reprogramming the spike protein and generating chimeric coronaviruses capable of infecting humanized mice.

"And we have now found, you know, after 6 or 7 years of doing this, over 100 new SARS-related coronaviruses, very close to SARS," Daszak says around minute 28 of the interview. "Some of them get into human cells in the lab, some of them can cause SARS disease in humanized mice models and are untreatable with therapeutic monoclonals and Baric. So, these are a clear and present danger ... .

"Interviewer: You say these are diverse coronaviruses and you can't vaccinate against them, and no anti-virals? - so what do we do?

"Daszak: Well I think ... coronaviruses - you can manipulate them in the lab pretty easily. Spike protein drives a lot of what happen with coronavirus, in zoonotic risk. So you can get the sequence, you can build the protein, and we work a lot with Ralph Baric at UNC to do this. Insert into the backbone of another virus and do some work in the lab. So you can get more predictive when you find a sequence. You've got this diversity. Now the logical progression for vaccines is, if you are going to develop a vaccine for SARS, people are going to use pandemic SARS, but let's insert some of these other things and get a better vaccine."

The insertions he referred to perhaps included an element called the furin cleavage site, discussed below, which greatly increases viral infectivity for human cells.

In disjointed style, Daszak is referring to the fact that once you have generated a novel coronavirus that can attack human cells, you can take the spike protein and make it the basis for a vaccine.

One can only imagine Daszak's reaction when he heard of the outbreak of the epidemic in Wuhan a few days later. He would have known better than anyone the Wuhan Institute's goal of making bat coronaviruses infectious to humans, as well as the weaknesses in the institute's defense against their own researchers becoming infected.

But instead of providing public health authorities with the plentiful information at his disposal, he immediately launched a public relations campaign to persuade the world that the epidemic couldn't possibly have been caused by one of the institute's souped-up viruses. "The idea that this virus escaped from a lab is just pure baloney. It's simply not true," he declared in an April 2020 interview. [...]

Much of Shi's work on gain-of-function in coronaviruses was performed at the BSL2 safety level, as is stated in her publications and other documents. She has said in an interview with Science magazine that "[t]he coronavirus research in our laboratory is conducted in BSL-2 or BSL-3 laboratories."

"It is clear that some or all of this work was being performed using a biosafety standard - biosafety level 2, the biosafety level of a standard US dentist's office - that would pose an unacceptably high risk of infection of laboratory staff upon contact with a virus having the transmission properties of SARS-CoV-2," Ebright says.

"It also is clear," he adds, "that this work never should have been funded and never should have been performed."

David Asher, a fellow of the Hudson Institute and former consultant to the State Department, provided more detail about the incident at a seminar. Knowledge of the incident came from a mix of public information and "some high end information collected by our intelligence community," he said. Three people working at a BSL3 lab at the institute fell sick within a week of each other with severe symptoms that required hospitalization. This was "the first known cluster that we're aware of, of victims of what we believe to be COVID-19." Influenza could not completely be ruled out but seemed unlikely in the circumstances, he said. [...]

The furin cleavage site is a minute part of the virus's anatomy but one that exerts great influence on its infectivity. It sits in the middle of the SARS2 spike protein. It also lies at the heart of the puzzle of where the virus came from.

The spike protein has two sub-units with different roles. The first, called S1, recognizes the virus's target, a protein called angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (or ACE2) which studs the surface of cells lining the human airways. The second, S2, helps the virus, once anchored to the cell, to fuse with the cell's membrane. After the virus's outer membrane has coalesced with that of the stricken cell, the viral genome is injected into the cell, hijacks its protein-making machinery and forces it to generate new viruses.

But this invasion cannot begin until the S1 and S2 subunits have been cut apart. And there, right at the S1/S2 junction, is the furin cleavage site that ensures the spike protein will be cleaved in exactly the right place.

The virus, a model of economic design, does not carry its own cleaver. It relies on the cell to do the cleaving for it. Human cells have a protein cutting tool on their surface known as furin. Furin will cut any protein chain that carries its signature target cutting site. This is the sequence of amino acid units proline-arginine-arginine-alanine, or PRRA in the code that refers to each amino acid by a letter of the alphabet. PRRA is the amino acid sequence at the core of SARS2's furin cleavage site.

Viruses have all kinds of clever tricks, so why does the furin cleavage site stand out? Because of all known SARS-related beta-coronaviruses, only SARS2 possesses a furin cleavage site. All the other viruses have their S2 unit cleaved at a different site and by a different mechanism.

How then did SARS2 acquire its furin cleavage site? Either the site evolved naturally, or it was inserted by researchers at the S1/S2 junction in a gain-of-function experiment. [...]

So it's hard to explain how the SARS2 virus picked up its furin cleavage site naturally, whether by mutation or recombination.

That leaves a gain-of-function experiment. For those who think SARS2 may have escaped from a lab, explaining the furin cleavage site is no problem at all. "Since 1992 the virology community has known that the one sure way to make a virus deadlier is to give it a furin cleavage site at the S1/S2 junction in the laboratory," writes Steven Quay, a biotech entrepreneur interested in the origins of SARS2. "At least 11 gain-of-function experiments, adding a furin site to make a virus more infective, are published in the open literature, including [by] Dr. Zhengli Shi, head of coronavirus research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology."


With the release of emails between Fauci and Daszak, Meryl Nass, MD, accused them both of conspiracy to cover up the Lab Origin of Covid-19:

Fauci Emails: How Top Public Health Officials Spun Tangled Web of Lies Around COVID Origin, Treatments

Could four key public health officials have been intimately involved in the creation of the pandemic, as well as the prolongation and improper treatments used during the pandemic?

By Meryl Nass, MD

06/04/21 (June 4, 2021)


[...] What does all this mean?

There was a conspiracy between the five authors of the Nature paper and the heads of the NIH, NIAID and Wellcome Trust to cover up the lab origin of COVID. There was a conspiracy involving Daszac, Fauci and others to push the natural origin theory. (See other emails in the recent drop.) There was a conspiracy involving Daszac to write the Lancet letter and hide its provenance, to push the natural origin theory and paint any other ideas as conspiracy theory. Collin's blog post is another piece of this story.


Francis Boyle asserts that Covid-19 is a Form of Biowarfare:

Is the Wuhan Coronavirus a Form of Biowarfare?: A Special Interview With Francis Boyle

By: Dr. Joseph Mercola


Dr. Francis Boyle: All that's Chinese Propaganda for sure. Well, let me back up a little. I was the one who called for US domestic-implemented legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, and drafted it, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 that was passed unanimously by both houses of the United States Congress and signed into law by George Bush, Sr. [...]

Dr. Francis Boyle: I mean, I want to make it clear that in my opinion they were already working on that, at that Wuhan BSL-4 facility they were working on a biological warfare weapon involving SARS, which is, I said is a coronavirus to begin with. [...]

Dr. Joseph Mercola: So no one is claiming that the United States had anything to do with this coronavirus in Wuhan, but-

Dr. Francis Boyle: Those allegations have been made, I have looked at the allegations so far, but I'm not convinced that the United States government did this. I think it was a leak out of the BSL-4. Certainly if anyone has credible information that the US government was behind this, I'll be happy to take a look at it. [...]

Dr. Francis Boyle: And as I pointed out in my book, Biowarfare and Terrorism, I think the same people who were behind the 9/11 terrorist attack were also behind the Amerithrax. But I'm just connecting dots there, but I think you're certainly correct, as I pointed out in my book-

Dr. Joseph Mercola: The reality is we lost a lot of freedom as a result of this. That's indisputable fact. No question.

Dr. Francis Boyle: We became a police state, Doctor.

Dr. Joseph Mercola: Yeah, and that's the primary concern. And they added censorship on that, they've censored you, they've censored-

Dr. Francis Boyle: After that I immediately went out and re-read Orwell's 1984, Doctor, and that is the type of state we are living in today. You are perfectly correct. And I gave a lecture up in Chicago at DePaul Law School to lawyers, not law students, in the Chicago area on the totalitarian nature or the USA Patriot Act. And then we have the FISAs and everything else and Snowden has correctly pointed out the federal government is spying on everything we say, all of our electronic communications, you name it. And again, the proof is I've been completely blackballed out of US media. Indeed, if you go back and look at the Amerithrax attacks, they also hit mainstream US media to make it clear to them that if they covered this issue they will be killed too.


Boyle is not one-sided; he castigates both the Chinese and US Governments, and is censored by both.

Note on RaTG13:

The genome of is at

Bat coronavirus RaTG13, complete genome GenBank: MN996532.1

SOURCE Bat coronavirus RaTG13

LOCUS MN996532 29855 bp RNA linear VRL 24-MAR-2020

JOURNAL Nature 579 (7798), 270-273 (2020)

JOURNAL Submitted (27-JAN-2020) CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 44 Xiao Hong Shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China

(15) Chinese Canadian Virologist, involved in espionage, made 5 trips to China in 2017-18, & trained scientists at Wuhan lab

Canadian government scientist under investigation trained staff at Level 4 lab in China

Still no answers in probe of government scientists expelled from National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg

Karen Pauls · CBC News

Posted: Oct 03, 2019 2:57 PM CT | Last Updated: October 4, 2019

Xiangguo Qiu, her biologist husband and her students have not returned to work at the National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg, after being escorted out in July. RCMP are still investigating what was described by Public Health Agency of Canada as a possible 'policy breach.' (CBC)

This story was published on Oct. 3, 2019.

A Canadian government scientist at the National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg made at least five trips to China in 2017-18, including one to train scientists and technicians at China's newly certified Level 4 lab, which does research with the most deadly pathogens, according to travel documents obtained by CBC News.

Xiangguo Qiu - who was escorted out of the Winnipeg lab in July amid an RCMP investigation into what's being described by Public Health Agency of Canada as a possible "policy breach" - was invited to go to the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences twice a year for two years, for up to two weeks each time.

"This will be third-party funded, and therefore no cost to [the Public Health Agency of Canada]," say the documents, obtained through access to information requests. The identity of the third-party was redacted.

During a Sept. 19-30, 2017, trip, she also met with collaborators in Beijing, the documents say, but their names have also been blacked out.

Qiu, her husband Keding Cheng and her students from China were removed on July 5 from Canada's only Level 4 lab - one equipped to work with the most serious and deadly human and animal diseases, such as Ebola. Security access for the couple and the Chinese students was revoked, sources who work at the lab previously told CBC News.

People working inside the lab told CBC News this week they have heard the couple may return to work soon.

Ouster of researchers from National Microbiology Lab still a mystery Several of them, who asked not to be identified for fears of retribution, say there have always been questions about Qiu's trips to China - and what information and technology she was sharing with researchers there.

"It's not right that she's a Canadian government employee providing details of top-secret work and know-how to set up a high-containment lab for a foreign nation," one employee said.

The staff member claims RCMP officers have not yet interviewed key people at the lab, because senior management has not made them accessible to police or allowed staff to contact them with relevant information.

A spokesperson for the Public Health Agency of Canada, which runs the lab, referred questions to the RCMP.

"We encourage anyone who has information and wishes to speak with the RCMP on this matter to attend RCMP HQ in Winnipeg at 1091 Portage Avenue," RCMP said in an emailed statement.

"In order to maintain the integrity of the investigative process, we have no further comment at this time."

A spokesperson confirms the police investigation is ongoing. Both agencies have said repeatedly there is no threat to public safety.

Researchers must balance caution, collaboration Meanwhile, there has been no change in Qiu and Cheng's status at the University of Manitoba, which had severed ties with both of them and reassigned her students in July.

Qiu is a medical doctor and virologist who helped develop ZMapp - a treatment for the deadly Ebola virus, which killed more than 11,000 people in West Africa between 2014-2016 and saw an outbreak in Congo earlier this year.

She is a medical doctor from Tianjin, China, who came to Canada for graduate studies in 1996. She is still affiliated with the university there and has brought in many students over the years to help with her work.

During her trips, Qiu also visited the Chinese Academy of Science, Tsinghua University, the Chinese Medical Academy of Science and Bejing Institute of Biotechnology.

She spoke at several conferences, including some organized by the World Health Organization, the Chinese Society of Virology and International Symposium on Emerging Viral Disease.

Collaboration and information-sharing is common and expected in academia, says Jia Wang, deputy director of the China Institute at the University of Alberta in Edmonton.

"In an increasingly globalized world, in an increasingly globalized field of research, we do see more exchanges and more visits incoming and outgoing," she said.

But researchers working with international partners also "need to understand the security parameters and the requirements to follow the procedures, and to safeguard intellectual property and also safeguard their research," she said.

There's a balance they need to strike between being cautious and open-minded to collaboration, though, Wang said.

"In the end, we are hoping that this research exchange will ultimately benefit Canada and benefit our people here."

Qiu and Cheng have not responded to multiple requests for comment.

Relations between Canada and China have been strained since the detention last year of Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou on a U.S. arrest warrant.

(16) China and Viruses: Dr. Xiangguo Qiu and illegal Shipments from Winnipeg to China

China and Viruses: The Case of Dr. Xiangguo Qiu

By Lt. Col. (res.) Dr. Dany Shoham

January 29, 2020

Dr. Xiangguo Qiu, photo via Twitter feed of Public Policy Forum

BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,429, January 29, 2020

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: In July 2019, a rare event occurred in Canada. Suspected of espionage for China, a group of Chinese virologists was forcibly evicted from the Canadian National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) in Winnipeg, where they had been running parts of the Special Pathogen Program of Canada's public health agency. One of the procedures conducted by the team was the infection of monkeys with the most lethal viruses found on Earth. Four months prior to the Chinese team's eviction, a shipment containing two exceptionally virulent viruses- Ebola and Nipah- was sent from the NML to China. When the shipment was traced, it was held to be improper and a "possible policy breach."

The scope of the 2019 incident involving the discovery of a possibly serious security breach at Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) in Winnipeg is much broader than the group of Chinese virologists who were summarily evicted from the lab. The main culprit behind the breach seems to have been Dr. Xiangguo Qiu, an outstanding Chinese scientist born in Tianjin.

Until recently the head of the Vaccine Development and Antiviral Therapies section of the Special Pathogens Program, Qiu received her MD degree from Hebei Medical University in China in 1985 and came to Canada for graduate studies in 1996. She was later affiliated with the Institute of Cell Biology and the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. She was not engaged in the study of pathogens while at that institute.

But a shift took place in Qiu's research work. Ever since 2006, she has been studying powerful viruses - Ebola most of all - at the NML. Both of the viruses that were surreptitiously shipped from the NML to China were studied by Qiu in 2014 (as well as other viruses, including Machupo, Junin, Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, and Hendra). But she paid greatest attention to Ebola for the entirely legitimate aim of developing effective prophylaxis and treatment for the infected.

Inevitably, Qiu's work included a variety of Ebola wild strains - among them the most virulent, which has an 80% lethality rate- and relied heavily on experimental infection of monkeys, including via the airways. She made remarkable strides, and was granted the Governor General's Innovation Award in 2018.

So far so good- or so it seems.

Qiu is married to Chinese scientist Keding Cheng, a bacteriologist who shifted to virology and who is also affiliated with the NML. Qiu maintains a close bond with China and visits frequently, and many Chinese students from a notable range of Chinese scientific facilities have joined her at the NML over the past decade.

Of those facilities, four are believed to be involved in Chinese biological weapons development. They are:

Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu Military Region

Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hubei

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

All four facilities collaborated with Qiu on her Ebola research. The Institute of Military Veterinary also joined a study on the Rift Valley fever virus, while the Institute of Microbiology joined a study on the Marburg virus. Notably, the drug used in the latter study- Favipiravir- has been successfully tested by the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences against Ebola and other viruses. (The drug has the designation JK-05; it is originally a Japanese patent registered in China in 2006.)

The Chinese interest in Ebola, Nipah, Marburg, and Rift Valley fever might possibly be beyond scientific and medical needs. Significantly, only the Nipah virus is naturally found in China or neighboring countries. That being the case, the interface between Qiu and China is a priori highly suspicious.

The shipment of the two viruses from NML to China is alarming unto itself, but it also raises the question of what other shipments of viruses or other items might have been made to China between 2006 and 2018.

Qiu made at least five trips over the academic year 2017-18 alone to the above-mentioned Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which was certified for BSL4 in January 2017. In August 2017, the National Health Commission of China approved research activities involving the Ebola, Nipah, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses at the Wuhan facility, and in March 2019, the Chinese published their tour de force.

When the shipment from Canada was uncovered, security access was revoked for Qiu, her husband, and the Chinese students. IT specialists entered Qiu's office after hours to gain access to her computer, and her regular trips to China were halted.

Jens Stoltenberg, the secretary-general of NATO, said at a news conference that he can't comment on the case, but appeared to suggest the possibility of espionage. "What I can say in general is that we have seen increased efforts by the nations to spy on NATO allies in different ways," he said.

Qiu's research has not only been conducted on behalf of Canada and China. In 2018, she collaborated with three scientists from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Maryland, studying post-exposure immunotherapy for two Ebola viruses and Marburg virus in monkeys. Those activities were part of a study supported by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

The multiplicity of Chinese grants, all on the national level, supporting the work done under Qiu's lead at the NML is impressive:

National Key Program for Infectious Disease of China National Key Research and Development Program of China National Natural Science Foundation of China International Cooperation and Exchange Program Special Foundation of President for Ebola virus research from the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative from the Chinese Academy of Sciences China National Key Subject of Drug Innovation Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences National Natural Science Foundation Award, Ministry of Science and Technology National Science and Technology Major Projects Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structure Biology Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China It is still possible that Qiu and her husband will return to work at the NML, but a good deal of intelligence analysis and assessment will be required. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service has a serious challenge on its hands.

This is an edited version of an article published in the July-December 2019 issue of the IDSA periodical CBW Magazine.

Lt. Col. (res.) Dr. Dany Shoham, a microbiologist and an expert on chemical and biological warfare in the Middle East, is a senior research associate at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. He is a former senior intelligence analyst in the IDF and the Israeli Defense Ministry.

(17) China bribed Harvard Chemistry Head in espionage case; 2 of his staff tried to smuggle biological materials to Wuhan

Harvard Chemistry Chair & Two Chinese Nationals Arrested For Lying About China Ties, Smuggling "Biological Material"

by Tyler Durden

Tue, 01/28/2020 - 13:19

Will this Harvard Chemistry Department Head be remembered as the Aldrich Ames of the modern-day 'Cold War'?

In a shocking revelation made Tuesday afternoon - a revelation that will almost certainly rattle the US-China relationship at an already fragile time - a federal court unsealed indictments against Harvard professor and Chemistry Department Head Charles Lieber, along with two Chinese nationals. One is a Boston University researcher who was once a lieutenant in the People's Liberation Army, according to prosecutors, and the second was a cancer researcher who tried to smuggle 21 vials of biological materials in his sock - allegedly. Lieber has been arrested, though it's not clear if he's still in custody.

Though the official charge was lying to investigators, Lieber's actions look like an unvarnished attempt at espionage, complete with an extremely seductive monetary reward.

Lieber was reportedly paid $50,000 a month by Wuhan University of Technology for participating in its "Thousand Talents" program, and was given more than $1.5 million to establish a lab and do research at Wuhan University of Technology, according to federal prosecutors in Boston, according to WSJ.

According to prosecutors, Lieber deliberately lied to defense department officials about his "foreign research collaborations."

When Defense Department investigators asked Mr. Lieber in 2018 about his foreign research collaborations, he told them he had never been asked to participate in the Thousand Talents Program, the complaint said. But Mr. Lieber had signed such a talent contract with Wuhan University in 2012, the complaint said.

NIH also asked Harvard about Mr. Lieber's affiliation with Wuhan that same year, the complaint said. After interviewing Mr. Lieber, Harvard told NIH in January 2019 that Mr. Lieber had no formal affiliation with Wuhan after 2012 and that he had never participated in the Thousand Talents Program, even though Mr. Lieber had a formal relationship with the university through 2017, the complaint said.

In conjunction with the program, Mr. Lieber became a "strategic scientist" at Wuhan University of Technology, according to the complaint. For "significant periods" from 2012 to 2017, his contract called for a $50,000 a month salary on top of $150,000 in living expenses paid by WUT, it said. He was also awarded more than $1.5 million by WUT and the Chinese government to set up a research lab, it said.

"The charges brought by the U.S. government against Professor Lieber are extremely serious," a Harvard spokesman said Tuesday. "Harvard is cooperating with federal authorities, including the National Institutes of Health, and is initiating its own review of the alleged misconduct. Professor Lieber has been placed on indefinite administrative leave."

The Trump Administration has made cracking down on Chinese academic and corporate espionage a priority, and has made several arrests of Chinese nationals working in critical roles funneling info back to China. But this is probably the most high-profile case to date, since one of the suspects is a pioneering American scientist.

Interestingly enough, not long after news of the arrests hit the press, another report surfaced claiming China had rejected President Trump's offer of assistance to contain the coronavirus - even as Wuhan is in desperate need of supplies.

Is that just a coincidence?

(18) Nanoscientist Charles Lieber lied about his involvement in China's Thousand Talents Plan

Harvard Chemistry Chairman Charged on Alleged Undisclosed Ties to China

Charles Lieber is accused of lying to Defense Department, National Institutes of Health about Chinese government funding

{photo} Charles Lieber attended an awards ceremony in Jerusalem in 2012. PHOTO: MENAHEM KAHANA/AFP/GETTYIMAGES

By Aruna Viswanatha and Kate O'Keeffe

Updated Jan. 28, 2020 9:25 pm ET

The chairman of Harvard University's chemistry department was arrested on charges of lying about receiving millions of dollars in Chinese funding, in an escalation of U.S. efforts to counter what officials said is a plot by Beijing to mine U.S. universities to catapult China to the forefront of scientific development.

A federal criminal complaint alleges that Charles Lieber, a pioneer in nanotechnology, misled the Defense Department and the National Institutes of Health about his participation in China's Thousand Talents Plan while the U.S. agencies were spending more than $15 million to fund his research group in the U.S.

Through its government-backed Thousand Talents Plan and hundreds of similar programs, China pays scientists around the world to moonlight at Chinese institutions, often without disclosing the work to their primary employers.

The case was one of three presented Tuesday by federal authorities in Massachusetts, with each underscoring U.S. concerns that the Chinese government is trying to obtain cutting-edge U.S. research by exploiting U.S. universities and their professors and researchers. Prosecutors have brought a series of cases charging Chinese Americans and Chinese nationals working in the U.S., prompting concern in the scientific community that authorities were racially profiling people. Mr. Lieber is among the first non-Chinese scientists and highest-profile targets to date.

As part of the Thousand Talents program, Wuhan University of Technology gave Mr. Lieber more than $1.5 million to set up a research lab in China, according to the complaint.

The school also agreed to pay him a $50,000 monthly salary and offered about $150,000 in annual living expenses for "significant periods" from 2012 to 2017, it said.

In exchange, Mr. Lieber was required to work for WUT at least nine months a year by "declaring international cooperation projects, cultivating young teachers and Ph.D. students, organizing international conference[s], applying for patents and publishing articles in the name of" the Chinese school, the complaint said.

While accepting foreign funding isn't illegal, U.S. authorities require such funds to be disclosed by researchers who apply for U.S. taxpayer-supported funding; U.S. officials said the Chinese programs create conflicts of interest and incentives to transfer intellectual property. Under a contract cited in the complaint, Mr. Lieber was obligated to "conduct national important (key) projects...that meet China's national strategic development requirements or stand at the forefront of international science and technology research field."

Mr. Lieber, 60 years old, appeared in court Tuesday and was remanded to federal custody pending a detention hearing set for Thursday.

In a separate indictment unsealed Tuesday, a researcher at Boston University was charged with acting as a Chinese government agent and failing to disclose that she was a lieutenant in the Chinese military when she applied for her visa.

Prosecutors also discussed the indictment last week of a Harvard-sponsored researcher accused of trying to smuggle biological research back to China.

"Chemistry, nanotechnology, polymer studies, robotics, computer science, biomedical research- this is not an accident or a coincidence," said Andrew Lelling, the top federal prosecutor in Boston, referring to the science at issue in the cases. "This is a small sample of China's ongoing campaign to siphon off American technology and know-how for Chinese gain."

Mr. Lieber, who has been at Harvard since 1991, has been placed on administrative leave, and neither he nor his lawyer could be reached to comment.

His work helped develop "bio-nanoelectronic sensors capable of detecting diseases down to the level of a single infectious virus particle," according to a citation from the Welch Foundation, which funds chemical research and recognized his work last year.

On his Lieber Research Group's website, Mr. Lieber says he is developing a mesh to be injected through a syringe into parts of the brain to better understand how the brain works and to treat disease and brain injury. The long-term goal is to enhance "human performance via brain-machine interface." [...]

U.S. officials have described what they view as a shift in Chinese intelligence priorities, moving from gathering broad swaths of expertise overseas to seeking specific pieces of technology that fill gaps in research being conducted at Chinese universities and designated as priorities by Beijing.

In the Boston University case outlined Tuesday, the researcher, Yanqing Ye, allegedly responded to direction from colleagues in the People's Liberation Army in China between 2017 and 2019 and researched U.S. military websites and two U.S. scientists with expertise in robotics and computer science.

In one April 2019 email, an unnamed co-conspirator and PLA member sent her a message that said: "See if [we can] find projects in risk analysis and policy sponsored by the US military by searching risk + US military directly," the indictment said.

In an April 2019 WeChat message, she sent another unnamed co-conspirator a pdf file from a U.S. Navy website using the "mil" domain, the complaint said. The co-conspirator replied: "Now a days, we can't connect to a link with mil top level domain from China...This is probably American taking precautions against us," the person replied, according to the complaint.

Ms. Ye, who is believed to be in China, couldn't be reached for comment. A Boston University spokesman said Ms. Ye left the university in April 2019 and that it would assist in the investigation.

In the third case prosecutors discussed Tuesday, Zaosong Zheng, a cancer researcher whose visa was sponsored by Harvard, was indicted last week on charges of smuggling stolen vials of biological research. Before he was about to board a December flight to Beijing, customs agents at Logan International Airport found 21 vials "wrapped in plastic and hidden in a sock," the indictment said.

When agents asked Mr. Zheng if he had any research materials in his luggage, he said no, prosecutors alleged. He later acknowledged the vials and admitted he was planning to take them to China and publish the research in his own name, the indictment said. He is scheduled to be arraigned later this week. A lawyer for Mr. Zheng said: "We are looking forward to a jury trial so our client can be found not guilty."

The recent cases underscore the unusual nature of China's efforts, officials said.

"While we are still confronted with traditional spies...I can tell you China is also using what we call nontraditional collectors such as professors, researchers, hackers and front companies," said Joseph Bonavolonta, who runs the FBI's Boston office.

The people charged Tuesday "are manifestations of the China threat," he said.

Douglas Belkin contributed to this article.

(19) Lieber appeared in Boston federal court wearing orange jail garb and chains around his ankles. Released on $1M Bond

Harvard Professor Charged With Hiding Ties to China Released on $1M Bond

Charles Lieber, formerly chair of the chemistry and chemical biology department, allegedly agreed to conduct research, publish articles and apply for patents on behalf of China's Wuhan University of Technology in exchange for $50,000 per month and about $150,000 in living expenses

By Alanna Durkin Richer

Published January 30, 2020

Updated on January 31, 2020 at 1:04 am NBCUniversal, Inc.

A Harvard University professor charged with lying about his role in a Chinese talent recruitment program was released from custody Thursday and ordered to post a $1 million cash bond.

Charles Lieber appeared in Boston's federal court wearing orange jail garb and chains around his ankles two days after his arrest at his Ivy League university office, where he was chair of the chemistry and chemical biology department. [...]

Lieber is required to give up his passport and disclose any foreign bank accounts and is barred from talking to any potential victims or witnesses in the case, among other restrictions. His wife will also hand over her passport after prosecutors raised concerns that she could move cash to another country. [...]

Federal prosecutors in Boston also announced charges this week against a researcher at Boston University, who is accused of concealing her ties to the Chinese military. Yanqing Ye, who prosecutors say is a lieutenant in the People's Liberation Army, lied about her military service to get into the U.S. and researched U.S. military projects and gathered information on two U.S. scientists for the Chinese military, authorities allege.

The FBI on Thursday released a wanted poster for Ye, who is believed to be in China. entific innovation. Instead, he said, he hopes this investigation encourages a "productive dialogue."

(20) Also charged: Yanqing Ye (PLA, works at Harvard); Zaosong Zheng (smuggled 21 vials of biological samples)

US charges three researchers with lying about links to China

28 January 2020

Harvard University described the charges as "extremely serious" The US has charged a Harvard professor and two Chinese researchers based in Boston with assisting the Chinese government.

Harvard department chair Charles Lieber is accused of lying about his connections, while the researchers were charged with being foreign agents.

Mr Lieber allegedly accepted more than $1m in grant money from the Chinese government.

Harvard University called the charges against him "extremely serious".

In a statement, the university added: "Professor Lieber has been placed on indefinite administrative leave."

Who else was charged?

Prosecutors said Yanqing Ye, a Boston University robotics researcher, concealed the fact that she was in the Chinese army.

Ms Ye is accused of falsely identifying herself as a student and also continuing to work for the People's Liberation Army, while completing a number of assignments in the US.

Cancer researcher Zaosong Zheng was arrested at Boston Logan International Airport with 21 vials of biological samples in his bag. Prosecutors allege he was planning to return to China to continue his research there. [...]

(21) 'Hysteria' or 'non-traditional espionage'?

By Zhaoyin Feng, US Correspondent, BBC Chinese

China says its Thousand Talents Plan is designed to keep "high-end talent" at home, in order to prevent a brain drain. The country has been losing talent to places like the US and the UK, where hundreds of thousands of Chinese attend top universities and subsequently settle down.

But the US view is that China is repeating a notorious tactic in its development playbook: intellectual property theft. For decades, Washington has accused Beijing of stealing science and technology from the US in order to gain an competitive advantage.

The FBI warns that the Thousand Talents Plan could be used by Beijing as a channel to conduct "non-traditional espionage", though many reported cases are not related to spying, but violations of ethics, such as not fully disclosing financial conflicts of interest.

Washington has increased its scrutiny on China's Thousand Talents Plan since 2018, when the two countries started to be locked in a trade battle, and Beijing has reportedly refrained from talking publicly about the program.

Chinese state tabloid Global Times labelled the American scepticism as "hysteria".

Since 2008, more than 7,000 researchers and scientists based outside of China have participated in the Thousand Talents Plan, many of whom are of Chinese descent.

Many warn that Washington's crackdown efforts must not give way to racial profiling. David Ho, a renowned Taiwanese-American HIV researcher, suggested in an earlier media interview: "If you want to implement policies, you should implement for all, not just the Chinese scientists."

(22) China's Non-Traditional Espionage - statement by FBI

Bill Priestap

Assistant Director, Counterintelligence Division

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Statement Before the Senate Judiciary Committee

Washington, D.C.

December 12, 2018

China's Non-Traditional Espionage Against the United States: The Threat and Potential Policy Responses

Statement for the Record

Chairman Grassley, Ranking Member Feinstein, members of the committee, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today, and thank you for highlighting the threat from Chinese espionage.

It is impossible to overstate the differences between the American and Chinese systems. China is an authoritarian, one-party state where the Chinese Communist Party reigns supreme. At the Chinese Communist Party's direction, the Chinese government dominates every facet of Chinese life, through actions such as central economic planning, Internet and media censorship, and leveraging intrusive technologies.

The Chinese government is attempting to acquire or steal, not only the plans and intentions of the United States government, but also the ideas and innovations of the very people that make our economy so incredibly successful. [...]

Because the Chinese government creates an uneven playing field, and because this is done partly to facilitate the transfer of technology to China, our companies face what appears to be a very grim choice: participate and compete in the Chinese market and put vital corporate assets at grave risk, or neglect China and risk the loss of the second largest market in the world. But this is a false choice for three reasons.

First, a lack of participation in the Chinese market will not spare a company from the risks the Chinese government and its companies pose. While the risks may be more acute for companies with business in China, all companies, even those solely operating in the United States, are at risk.

Second, while U.S. companies may be able to operate and profit in China for a time, it is on borrowed time. The Chinese government will permit foreign companies to operate only so long as it is advantageous to China. Is the U.S. company making a product that China needs but cannot yet produce domestically, such as sophisticated agricultural machinery? If so, the U.S. company will be allowed to operate, but only until China learns enough about the business that they can replace it with a domestic version. Is the U.S. company using sophisticated intellectual property or a unique business model? Then such companies may also be allowed to operate, as long as they divulge the required technology, data, or expertise to a Chinese entity. Alternatively, a company may be allowed to operate simply to give China a better opportunity to understand how to copy the business and outcompete it globally. From the viewpoint of the Chinese government, many of the foreign companies doing business in China represent a temporary failure of the domestic market to meet demand. The government believes that if something can be made in China, then it should be made in China.

Third, the bulk of the competition between U.S. companies and Chinese companies is not in the Chinese or American market. It is everywhere else in the world. American businesses will need a strategy to compete with China's national champions globally. ...

(23) Dr. Francis Boyle: Coronavirus leaked from Wuhan BioLab, as Lyme Disease & West Nile Disease leaked from US Lab at Plum Island

Dr. Francis Boyle: "It's clear this thing blew back on the Chinese"

{update April 10, 2020: that video was removed by Youtube. The video is now available at, or from the greatgameindia link below}

Dr. Francis Boyle: Coronavirus Is Twice As Potent As SARS

7 Feb 2020

Dr. Francis Boyle joins The Alex Jones Show to expose the potent dangers of a coronavirus outbreak in comparison to previous viral pandemics. (3:41)

1.55 It's clear this thing blew back on the Chinese, just as all these hideous biological warfare agents that we're working on in our own BSL-4 facilities.

Alex J: like Lymes Disease, that came from that New York offshore lab ... Plum Island ...

FB: Yes the Lyme Disease clearly came out of the Bioware Lab at Plum Island. Likewise West Nile Disease clearly came out of the Bioware Lab at Plum Island.

(24) Professor Francis Boyle, author of the BioWeapons Act, says Coronavirus is a Biological Warfare Weapon

Dr. Francis Boyle Creator Of BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is Biological Warfare Weapon

By GreatGameIndia

February 3, 2020

In an explosive interview Dr. Francis Boyle, who drafted the Biological Weapons Act has given a detailed statement admitting that the 2019 Wuhan Coronavirus is an offensive Biological Warfare Weapon and that the World Health Organization (WHO) already knows about it.

video at

{update April 10, 2020: that video was removed by Youtube. The video is now available at, or from the greatgameindia link above}

Francis Boyle is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. He drafted the U.S. domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, that was approved unanimously by both Houses of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

In an exclusive interview given to Geopolitics and Empire, Dr. Boyle discusses the coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China and the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory (BSL-4) from which he believes the infectious disease escaped. He believes the virus is potentially lethal and an offensive biological warfare weapon or dual-use biowarfare weapons agent genetically modified with gain of function properties, which is why the Chinese government originally tried to cover it up and is now taking drastic measures to contain it. The Wuhan BSL-4 lab is also a specially designated World Health Organization (WHO) research lab and Dr. Boyle contends that the WHO knows full well what is occurring.

Dr. Boyle also touches upon GreatGameIndia's exclusive report Coronavirus Bioweapon ­ where we reported in detail how Chinese Biowarfare agents working at the Canadian lab in Winnipeg were involved in the smuggling of Coronavirus to Wuhan's lab from where it is believed to have been leaked.

Dr. Boyle's position is in stark contrast to the mainstream media's narrative of the virus being originated from the seafood market, which is increasingly being questioned by many experts.

Recently, American Senator Tom Cotton of Arkansas also dismantled the mainstream media's claim on Thursday that pinned the coronavirus outbreak on a market selling dead and live animals.

In a video accompanying his post, Cotton explained that the Wuhan wet market (which Cotton incorrectly referred to as a seafood market) has been shown by experts to not be the source of the deadly contagion.

Cotton referenced a Lancet study which showed that many of the first cases of the novel coronavirus, including patient zero, had no connection to the wet market - devastatingly undermining mainstream media's claim.

"As one epidemiologist said: 'That virus went into the seafood market before it came out of the seafood market.' We still don't know where it originated," Cotton said.

"I would note that Wuhan also has China's only bio-safety level four super laboratory that works with the world's most deadly pathogens to include, yes, coronavirus."

China claimed - for almost two months - that coronavirus had originated in a Wuhan seafood market. That is not the case. @TheLancet published a study demonstrating that of the original 40 cases, 14 of them had no contact with the seafood market, including Patient Zero.

- Tom Cotton (@SenTomCotton) January 30, 2020 [...]

(25) TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle interview with Geopolitics & Empire on Coronavirus

TRANSCRIPT: Bioweapons Expert Dr. Francis Boyle On Coronavirus

By GreatGameIndia - February 5, 2020

A recent interview with Bioweapons expert Dr. Francis Boyle published by GreatGameIndia and conducted by Geopolitics & Empire, has been exploding across the world the past few days as the truth is emerging on the origins of the Coronavirus Bioweapon.

Francis Boyle is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. He drafted the U.S. domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention, known as the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, that was approved unanimously by both Houses of the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George H.W. Bush.

Geopolitics & Empire is joined by Dr. Francis Boyle, who is international law professor at the University of Illinois. We'll be discussing the Wuhan coronavirus and biological warfare. ...

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, that's a lot of questions. I guess we can take them one at a time, but if you just do a very simple Google search on "Does China have a BSL-4 laboratory?", Wuhan comes up right away. It's at the top of the list. That's all with the moment this type of thing happened I began to do that. So a BSL-4 is the most serious type. And basically BSL-4 labs, we have many of them here in the United States, are used to develop offensive biological warfare weapons with DNA genetic engineering.

So it does seem to me that the Wuhan BSL-4 is the source of the coronavirus. My guess is that they were researching SARS, and they weaponize it further by giving it a gain of function properties, which means it could be more lethal.

Indeed, the latest report now is it's a 15% fatality rate, which is more than SARS at 83% infection rate. A typical gain of function travels in the air so it could reach out maybe six feet or more from someone emitting a sneeze or a cough. Likewise, this is a specially designated WHO research lab. The WHO was in on it and they knew full well what was going on there.

Yes. It's also been reported that Chinese scientists stole coronavirus materials from the Canadian lab at Winnipeg. Winnipeg is Canada's formal center for research, developing, testing, biological warfare weapons. It's along the lines of Fort Detrick here in the United States of America. I have three degrees from Harvard. It would not surprise me if something was being stolen out of Harvard to turn over to China. I read that report. I don't know what was in those vials one way or the other.

But the bottom line is I drafted the US domestic implementing legislation for the Biological Weapons Convention that was approved unanimously by both Houses in the United States Congress signed into law by President Bush Sr. that it appears the coronavirus that we're dealing with here is an offensive biological warfare weapon that leaked out of Wuhan BSL-4. I'm not saying it was done deliberately. But there had been previous reports of problems with that lab and things leaking out of it. I'm afraid that is what we are dealing with today. ...

The implementing legislation that I drafted was originally designed to stop this type of work. "Death science work", I call it, "by the United States government". After 9/11, 2001, it just completely accelerated. My current figure, that last figure a 100 billion. I haven't had a chance to re-crunch the numbers because I just started classes. But you have to add in about another 5 billion per year.

Basically, this is offensive biological weapons raised by the United States government and with its assistance in Canada and Britain. And so other States, the world have responded accordingly including Russia and China. They were going to set up a whole series of BSL-4 facilities as well. And you know Wuhan was the first. It backfired on them.

Geopolitics and Empire: Would you basically consider what happened and Wuhan and just boil it down to ineptitude or incompetence on the Chinese part?

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, it's criminality. It does appear they stole something there from Winnipeg. This activity that they engaged in clearly violates the Biological Weapons Convention. Research development of biological weapons these days is an international crime, the use of it would be. That was criminal.

I'm not saying they deliberately inflicted this on their own people, but it leaked out of there and all these BSL-4 facilities leak. Everyone knows that who studies this. So this was a catastrophe waiting to happen. Unfortunately, it happened. The Chinese government under Xi and his comrades there have been covering this up from the get-go. The first reported case was December 1, so they'd been sitting on this until they couldn't anymore. And everything they're telling you is a lie. It's propaganda.

The WHO still refuses to declare a global health emergency. It said Tedros was over there shaking hands with Xi and smiling and yanking it up. The WHO was in on it. They've approved many of these BSL-4 labs., they know exactly what's going on and that is a WHO research-approved laboratory. They know what's going on too. You can't really believe anything the WHO is telling you about this, either they're up to their eyeballs in it, in my opinion.

Geopolitics and Empire: I'd probably agree with you that this outbreak in Wuhan was an accidental leak from the laboratory. But just your thoughts, it's happening at quite an opportune time because namely we're smack in the middle of a US-China new Cold War, which is currently characterized by economic warfare such as the trade war among other forms of hybrid and technological warfare. And it seems the Wuhan outbreak will likely hit the Chinese economy hard. The Chinese are flat out dismissing any idea that the US is involved in. Like I said, it's probably they made the mistakes in the Wuhan lab. What are your thoughts of any seemingly, this would benefit the US ...

Dr. Francis Boyle: When the outbreak occurred, of course I considered that alternative too. When you have an outbreak, you're never quite sure who or what is behind it. It certainly isn't bats, that's ridiculous. They made the same argument on Ebola in West Africa. I demolished that online. You can check it out. So I kept competing theories about this. [...]

Dr. Francis Boyle: They're complete unsafe. BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs are only designed for research development testing of offensive biological warfare agents. In my opinion, they serve no legitimate purpose at all. They should all be shut down, every one of them. Even assuming, they're simply too dangerous. If you want, there's an excellent documentary called Anthrax Wars by Nadler and Coen and I'm in there. Repeatedly at the end, I say with respect to these labs, three and four, this is a catastrophe waiting to happen. Well, I'm afraid the catastrophe is now happened. So there it is. [...]

Dr. Francis Boyle: Well, you just can't believe anything the Chinese government, the WHO, the CDC are telling. They're all lies because they know what's going on here and so you're going to have to figure it out as fast as you can. But in my opinion, as of this time and I'm fully prepared to consider further evidence on this, it does seem to me that this was a DNA genetically engineered biological warfare agent leaking out of Wuhan that has gain-of-function properties which can make it more lethal. I think they are probably doing something with SARS to make it a lot more lethal and more infectious. And so for that reason, you have to take extreme precautions and they're now finally admitted anyone within six feet can be infected, whereas with SARS that was about two feet. Well, that's gaining a function right there and that should be a tip off.

So, I guess you're gonna have to protect yourself. Laurie Garrett had a pretty good essay in a foreign policy yesterday and she was over there covering the SARS and she has very good advice in there except that she took the SARS figure out two to three feet and said well, you gotta stay to two to three. I think you've got to stay at least six feet away because this is gained function. It can flow through the air and infect and it can get you in the eyes. Any orifice, the mouth, maybe the ears, we're not sure at this point. [...]

(26) Chinese military website: Wuhan Coronavirus is manmade by the U.S. to attack China

By GM35, 2020-02-04 18:33

On Feb 1, 2020, the most influential Chinese military website <> published an article to acknowledge that the Wuhan coronavirus is manmade accusing the U.S. of creating such bioweapon against china.

(27) Chinese Communist Party, in video on WeChat, says Wuhan coronavirus was created by U.S. to attack China

The video cities this research paper: Xu2020_Article_EvolutionOfTheNovelCoronavirus.pdf

CCP says Wuhan coronavirus was created by the U.S. to attack China

By GM35 - 2020-02-03 00:45010212

Last updated at 8 PM ET on Monday, Feb 3.

In this propaganda video spread on WeChat, the Chinese Communist Party says that the Wuhan coronavirus was created by the U.S. to attack China.

The Chinese Communist Party is spreading a video linking Wuhan Coronavirus to the U.S.

CCP video with English subtitle added by GNews: (Please feel free to download and distribute)

The Orginal CCP video without English subtitle:

English transcript from the video:

Chinese scientists uncovered terrible secrets. Four proteins identified in the virus were changed for a precision attack - specifically against genes found in Chinese people.

Multiple research papers analyzing the novel coronavirus have already concluded that this virus could not have come from the natural world. Finally, the evidence is here. ...

(28) HIV-Like "Mutation" recalls Indian scientists claim: Coronavirus engineered to incorporate parts of HIV genome

Scientists Discover HIV-Like "Mutation" Which Makes Coronavirus Extremely Infectious

by Tyler Durden

Wed, 02/26/2020 - 19:45

While mainstream scientists continue to perform mental gymnastics to insist that the new coronavirus wasn't man-made, new research from scientists in China and Europe reveal that the disease happens to have an 'HIV-like mutation' which allows it to bind with human cells up to 1,000 times stronger than the Sars virus, according to SCMP.

Recall that at the end of January, a team of Indian scientists wrote in a now-retracted, scandalous paper claiming that the coronavirus may have been genetically engineered to incorporate parts of the HIV genome, writing "This uncanny similarity of novel inserts in the 2019- nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag is unlikely to be fortuitous in nature," meaning - it was unlikely to have occurred naturally.

Fast forward to new research by a team from Nankai University, which writes that COV-19 has an 'HIV-like mutation' that allows it to quickly enter the human body by binding with a receptor called ACE2 on a cell membrane.

Other highly contagious viruses, including HIV and Ebola, target an enzyme called furin, which works as a protein activator in the human body. Many proteins are inactive or dormant when they are produced and have to be "cut" at specific points to activate their various functions.

When looking at the genome sequence of the new coronavirus, Professor Ruan Jishou and his team at Nankai University in Tianjin found a section of mutated genes that did not exist in Sars, but were similar to those found in HIV and Ebola. -SCMP

"This finding suggests that 2019-nCoV [the new coronavirus] may be significantly different from the Sars coronavirus in the infection pathway," reads the paper published this month on - a platform used by the Chinese Academy of Sciences which releases research papers prior to peer-review.

"This virus may use the packing mechanisms of other viruses such as HIV," they added.

For those confused, what the latest scientific paper claims is that whereas the Coronavirus may indeed contain a specific HIV-like feature that makes it extremely infectious, that was the result of a rather bizarre "mutation." However, since the scientists did not make the scandalous claim that Chinese scientists had created an airborne version of HIV, but instead blamed a mutation, they will likely not be forced to retract it, even if it the odds of such a "random" mutation taking place naturally are extremely small.

As a reminder, the running narrative is that the new coronavirus lie dormant in bats somewhere between 20 and 70 years, then 'crossed over' to humans through and unknown species - possibly a Pangolin - before it emerged at a Wuhan, China meat market roughly 900 feet from a level-4 bioweapons lab.

And what were they researching at said lab? Among other things - why Ebola and HIV can lie dormant in bats without causing diseases.

According to the new study, the 'mutation' can generate a structure known as a cleavage site in the new coronavirus' spike protein, SCMP reports. "Compared to the Sars' way of entry, this binding method is "100 to 1,000 times" as efficient, according to the study."

The virus uses the outreaching spike protein to hook on to the host cell, but normally this protein is inactive. The cleavage site structure's job is to cheat the human furin protein, so it will cut and activate the spike protein and cause a "direct fusion" of the viral and cellular membranes. -SCMP

(a recent paper published by Dr. Zhou Peng of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, meanwhile, is "Immunogenicity of the spike glycoprotein of Bat SARS-like coronavirus.") ==

Chinese scientists: Coronavirus has 'mutated' gene similar to those found in HIV and Ebola

Coronavirus far more likely than Sars to bond to human cells due to HIV-like mutation, scientists say

Research by team from Nankai University shows new virus has mutated gene similar to those found in HIV and Ebola

{Ebola was one of the viruses smuggled from Winnipeg to Wuhan Institute of Virology by Dr. Xiangguo Qiu; see items 15 & 16 above - Peter M.}

Finding may help scientists understand how the infection spreads and where it came from

Stephen Chen in Beijing

Published: 12:30am, 27 Feb, 2020

Updated: 1:32am, 27 Feb, 2020

The new coronavirus has an HIV-like mutation that means its ability to bind with human cells could be up to 1,000 times as strong as the Sars virus, according to new research by scientists in China and Europe.

The discovery could help to explain not only how the infection has spread but also where it came from and how best to fight it.

Scientists showed that Sars (severe acute respiratory syndrome) entered the human body by binding with a receptor protein called ACE2 on a cell membrane. And some early studies suggested that the new coronavirus, which shares about 80 per cent of the genetic structure of Sars, might follow a similar path.

But the ACE2 protein does not exist in large quantities in healthy people, and this partly helped to limit the scale of the Sars outbreak of 2002-03, in which infected about 8,000 people around the world. Advertisement

Other highly contagious viruses, including HIV and Ebola, target an enzyme called furin, which works as a protein activator in the human body. Many proteins are inactive or dormant when they are produced and have to be "cut" at specific points to activate their various functions.

When looking at the genome sequence of the new coronavirus, Professor Ruan Jishou and his team at Nankai University in Tianjin found a section of mutated genes that did not exist in Sars, but were similar to those found in HIV and Ebola.

"This finding suggests that 2019-nCoV [the new coronavirus] may be significantly different from the Sars coronavirus in the infection pathway," the scientists said in a paper published this month on, a platform used by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to release scientific research papers before they have been peer-reviewed.

"This virus may use the packing mechanisms of other viruses such as HIV."

According to the study, the mutation can generate a structure known as a cleavage site in the new coronavirus' spike protein.

The virus uses the outreaching spike protein to hook on to the host cell, but normally this protein is inactive. The cleavage site structure's job is to trick the human furin protein, so it will cut and activate the spike protein and cause a "direct fusion" of the viral and cellular membranes.

Compared to the Sars' way of entry, this binding method is "100 to 1,000 times" as efficient, according to the study.

Just two weeks after its release, the paper is already the most viewed ever on Chinarxiv.

In a follow-up study, a research team led by Professor Li Hua from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, Hubei province, confirmed Ruan's findings.

The mutation could not be found in Sars, Mers or Bat-CoVRaTG13, a bat coronavirus that was considered the original source of the new coronavirus with 96 per cent similarity in genes, it said.

This could be "the reason why SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious than other coronaviruses", Li wrote in a paper released on Chinarxiv on Sunday.

Meanwhile, a study by French scientist Etienne Decroly at Aix-Marseille University, which was published in the scientific journal Antiviral Research on February 10, also found a "furin-like cleavage site" that is absent in similar coronaviruses. ...

(29) update March 15, 2020: Global Research writers say that Coronavirus is a US weapon against China, planted deliberately

- by Peter Myers, March 15, 2020

Trotskyists mostly follow Noam Chomsky in repudiating 'conspiracy theories', e.g. that the CIA killed JFK or that Mossad did 911.

But Stalinists, like James Petras and Michel Chossudovsky, endorse such theories - as does the Far Right.

The China issue now divides the dissident camp into those who critical of China (like me), and those who defend it (like Michael Hudson, Reg Little, Larry Romanoff, and Israel Shamir).

Chossudovsky's website Global Research takes a pro-China line, denying that China has committed genocide against Tibetans and Uighurs. It runs articles by Larry Romanoff, an American academic living in Shanghai, who says that Coronavirus is a US weapon against China.

Romanoff denies the 1989 Beijing massacre.

Other defenders of China, like Israel Shamir, also deny the 1989 Beijing massacre and the Uighur genocide; it's a consistent theme.

Shamir, a Jewish Communist who moved from Russia to Israel after the 1967 war, denies the Ukraine Famine too. He defends American scientists who illegally transferred technology to China. Of Charles Lieber, Shamir wrote (in my forum), "God bless this Harvard scientist who had helped the Chinese to advance."

Romanoff claims that the Coronavirus was developed in the US as a bioweapon:

China's Coronavirus: A Shocking Update. Did The Virus Originate in the US?

Japan, China and Taiwan Reports on the Origin of the Virus

By Larry Romanoff

He rejects any Chinese role in developing the virus. He makes no mention of Zhengli Shi and Xingyi Ge - virologists from Wuhan Institute of Virology, who developed such viruses in cooperation with University of North Carolina. Zhengli Shi (Shi Zhengli) is Director of the P4 lab (BSL-4 lab) at Wuhan Institute of Virology. The connection is made clear in items 2 to 12 above, but Romanoff mentions none of it.

On Iran, Romanoff writes,

"Neither Iran nor Italy were included in the above tests, but both countries have now deciphered the locally prevalent genome and have declared them of different varieties from those in China, which means they did not originate in China but were of necessity introduced from another source."

The strains of the virus in Italy and Iran are different from those in China. Most people say that the virus mutated:

Coronavirus has Mutated, Iran attacked by a Different Strain from Wuhan Posted by EU Times on Feb 26th, 2020

Coronavirus: Italian strain isolated at Sacco hospital 27 February 2020

But Romanoff says that those different viruses were PLANTED in each place by the CIA.

He was able to get away with such statements a few weeks ago, when the virus was killing only Chinese. But now that the virus is spreading in Europe and the USA, devastating the economy and likely to kill millions, the claim that it was deliberately PLANTED looks a bit thin.

A similar line to Romanoff's is taken by Peter Koenig, writing at NEO and also at Global Research:

China Confronts COVID19 with Endless Creation Towards a Shared Future for Mankind

Michel Chossudovsky, editor at Global Research, claims that Coronavirus was engineered by "Big Pharma" and "Big Money" - targeting China. He dismissed the pandemic as "fake":

COVID-19 Coronavirus "Fake" Pandemic: Timeline and Analysis

By Prof Michel Chossudovsky

Global Research, March 08, 2020

Chossudovsky says that the Wuhan Sport Military World Games (Oct. 18-27, 2019), in which 200 American military personnel participated (out of a total of 10,000), may have been an opportunity to PLANT the virus. It's a possibility, but no evidence have been presented.

An exercise simulating a pandemic, called Event 201, was held in Oct. 2019 by the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, in conjunction with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In the simulation, the pandemic outbreak killed 65 million people. Chossudovsky alleges that the simulation has now gone real.

Chossudovsky states, "These figures confirm that we are not facing a global health emergency, that the probability of infection is low."

That is no longer accepted.

Chossudovsky writes, "What is at stake is the alliance of "Big Pharma" and "Big Money", with the endorsement of the Trump Administration."

However, the CDC and the Trump Administration have not handled the pandemic very well. The CDC refused to use the German test adopted by the WHO and used in every other country; it insisted on developing its own test, but early ones were faulty, and then there was a shortage, during which the virus escaped from Washington state. Whereas it has been contained in China, it looks like exploding in the West, such that the USA will be a disaster zone, while China is already beginning to get back to normal. Disastrous handling of the virus would cause a loss of confidence in Capitalism, and could also cause Trump to lose the election.

After initially denying the reality of the virus, the Chinese regime ordered a lockdown of Hubei Province on January 23, 2020, two days before Chinese New Year began on January 25. That lockdown saved China. Wuhan is a transport hub; without the lockdown, Wuhan residents would have 'gone home' for Chinese New Year, spreading the virus widely.

Whereas China's authoritarian approach has suppressed transmission of the virus, the West's libertarian approach has facilitated its spread. By late 2020, the West will likely be a disaster zone, while China will have largely recovered. This would reverse the scenario put by Romanoff and Chossudovsky'. Rather than the virus destroying China's economy, it will destroy the Western economy.

Why so? Because during the Great Depression of the 1930s, western 'libertarian' societies languished in bankruptcy and mass unemployment, whereas the authoritarian regimes in Russia and Germany had full employment.

Boeing was in a precarious state before the virus hit, having sacrificed engineering excellence for Shareholder Value. It wasted $43 billion on share buybacks prior to the 737 Max crisis, cash that it sorely needs now. With tourism and business travel crashing in the wake of the virus, airlines are cancelling orders and switching to Airbus. Boeing's net sales are now negative; it is borrowing from banks, and facing backruptcy.

The leading American exporter, and exemplar of American technology, has been brought to ruin by the Profit motive. Surely this will cause a crisis of confidence in Capitalism.

The US government should have ordered a lockdown of Washington state; it was the equivalent of Hubei province. But whereas China acted decisively, Trump jawboned; he was downplaying the seriousness of the pandemic (like Chossudovsky).

Equally, the EU should have closed borders to stop the virus spreading from Italy; but it did nothing, until the virus had already escaped. The British Government still has a "do nothing" policy.

As Sanders says, the decentralised and weak authority structure, and Profit-oriented Health system, cannot handle this emergency.

The Coronavirus is already leading to a worldwide depression, and world war could follow, as it did in the 1930s. Such a war would devastate the planet; that's a strong argument against the claim that it was deliberately planted.

The alternative explanation is that it was developed in Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), and escaped. All such P4 labs (BSL-4 labs) develop both weapons and vaccines, the vaccines being a protection against the weapon.

Wuhan Institute of Virology would have many workers, not only virologists but also cleaners and people who look after animals (they do experiments on animals). Most likely, one of these workers was infected by the Coronavirus, and unknowingly took it outside. After a few contacts, it reached the nearby Seafood Market, which is a local gathering-spot. From there it disseminated in Wuhan.

There's no way Xi or other leaders in Beijing could have known exactly what was going on in that lab. And scientists at the University of North Carolina share responsibility for developing the virus.

For the record, it must be acknowledged that PNAC, the Jewish-American Neocon lobby, advocated development of Biological Weapons. Some conspiracy theorists (such as Benjamin Fulford) posit that the virus was made in Israel, to get the US and China to fight one another, the goal being a hoped-for World Government. Fulford wrote,

"The pandemic, which is mostly a media event, and the financial collapse, which is real, are the cover being used to usher in a world republic, P3 Freemason, Illuminati and CIA sources all confirm."

US Presidential Election, Tokyo Olympics cancelled? Engineered pandemic ushers in World Government

By Benjamin Fulford

Israel commits suicide by declaring war on China

By Benjamin Fulford

"The battle to liberate planet Earth is reaching a dangerous stage as the Khazarian mafia uses bioweapons to try and start a war between the United States and China."

I can't go that far; such a world would not be worth having.

Anthony Hall, in his paper Who or What started the Wuhan coronavirus (March 02, 2020), quotes PNAC's advocacy of biological weapons, but also notes that Epoch Times reported China's Defense Minister Chi Haotian giving speeches advocating such weapons:

Chi's alleged speech of December 2005 advocating Lebensraum and world domination is at'sPlanToConquer.htm

Another translation is at

China lobbyists deny the veracity of these speeches. But they happily accuse the CIA of many atrocious crimes. I accuse the CIA of the JFK assassination and many other crimes, Mossad of 9/11, and China of having plans for world domination (but it's not the only one).

There's no proof that these speeches are genuine. But they remain 'on the table' because

(a) China has copied elements of Nazi Germany's economic system

(b) Shinzo Abe accused China of a Lebensraum policy, in an address to the Hudson Institute in 2010:

Remarks by Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

October 15,2010

The Capital Hilton

How did the coronavirus reach Iran? Chinese workers building a high-speed railway through Qom, the centre of the outbreak in Iran, could have brought it:

Strategic Partnership With China Lies at Root of Iran's Coronavirus Outbreak

Date : 11/03/2020 @ 16:27

Source : Dow Jones News

By Benoit Faucon, Sune Engel Rasmussen and Jeremy Page

"Iranian officials trace the origins of the country's coronavirus epidemic to the holy city of Qom, home to dozens of seminaries and religious shrines -- but also a number of Chinese-backed infrastructure projects built by scores of workers and technicians from China. ... China Railway Engineering Corp. is building a $2.7 billion high-speed rail line through Qom. Chinese technicians have been helping refurbish a nuclear-power plant nearby. There are also Chinese religious students studying at Qom's seminaries. Iranian health officials have said the source of the outbreak is likely either Chinese workers in Qom or an Iranian businessman from Qom who travelled to China. Iranian officials haven't identified the businessman by name but say he travelled from China to Qom through an indirect flight. ...". ==

The first British victim, a healthy young man aged 25 working as a teacher in Wuhan, kept a diary in which he describes the Wuhan Flu:

What it's REALLY like to catch coronavirus: First British victim, 25, describes how 'worst disease he ever had' left him sweating, shivering, and struggling to breathe as his eyes burned and bones ached.


PUBLISHED: 09:08 AEDT, 5 March 2020 | UPDATED: 06:07 AEDT, 6 March 2020 ==

Let no-one say, then, that this pandemic is "fake", merely a media beatup.

Old people facing an agonising death from Coronavirus should be offered the option of voluntary euthenasia.

(30) update March 17, 2020: China orders Lab to stop Leakage; Russia, Venezuela & Cuba very little affected

China Vows To Put An End To "Lab Leakage Of Pathogenic Microorganisms And Various Samples"

by Tyler Durden

Thu, 02/13/2020 - 19:05

Seemingly providing more anecdotal evidence that the Covid-19 outbreak was caused by an accidental leak of a bio-engineered virus and not by some freak of nature in Wuhan's market, China's Communist Party has issued a serious "Wartime Order" demanding more care and containment be taken with virus handling.

Beijing CDC Party Committee Issues Wartime Status Order

2020-02-13 18:38:07

Wartime Status Order

Party Committee of Beijing Centers for Disease Control

In order to further discipline, compact responsibility, and ensure that all prevention and control work is carried out in an efficient and standardized manner, the Party Committee of the Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a wartime state order, requiring its party members and employees to fully recognize the "critical period", "critical moment", and "key points". The urgency and importance of the moment, consciously established a "very conscious" and entered a "wartime state."

The first is to insist on using "state of war" to lead the thinking. [...]

The second is to insist on strengthening implementation with "wartime standards." [...]

The third is to strictly control contact with "wartime thinking." [...]

The fourth is to insist on strict management with "wartime thinking."

Highlight political security, ideological security, network information security, security of confidential work, laboratory biological security, food security, etc. The epidemic data collection, statistics and reporting will be done well, and information security and confidentiality security incidents will be resolutely prevented. Front-line personnel engaged in flow regulation, pathogen inspection, and close management should strictly implement prevention and control guidelines and operating specifications, do a good job of personal protection requirements, and ensure personal safety. Strengthen laboratory management and resolutely put an end to the theft, leakage, and loss of pathogenic bacteria (poisons) and various samples.

Fifth, we must adhere to the "wartime need" service guarantee. [...]

Sixth, we must adhere to "war discipline" and take it seriously. [...] ==

Francis Boyle update Update on Coronavirus, March 8, 2020 (video): ==

OLDMICROBIOLOGIST writes, "I have zero proof other than my gut feeling that this is a bioweapon. [...] However, evidence against it being a bioweapon is Russia, Venezuela, and Cuba are minimally affected. This could mean effective countermeasures or botched attacks. It is inconsistent though with the way the CIA operates."


condensed version: ==

(31) Coronavirus Exposed, by Sir Adrian Bond

This is an excellent summary; it's worth saving the webpage:

Coronavirus Exposed, Part 1: Communist Coverup, or Pandemic Bioweapon of Mass Destruction?

by Adrian Bond

{photo} Coronavirus 2019-nCoV, able to enter and infect human cells' ACE2 receptor via its spike protein.

The official story about Coronavirus 2019 nCoV is that it "appears to have originated in the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, a Chinese city about 650 miles south of Beijing that has a population of more than 11 million people." ...

Typically not included in most mainstream news stories, however, is the fact that the claimed epicenter of the outbreak is just 8.6 miles from Wuhan Institute of Virology, which houses China's only P4-Level Biosafety Laboratory capable of storing, studying, or engineering Pathogen Level 4 microbes such as other coronaviruses, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, H5N1 influenza virus, Japanese encephalitis, and dengue. ...

In 2006, one of China's preeminent virologists, Professor Zhengli Shi, co-authored the study, Review of Bats and SARS, concluding that "a SARS epidemic may recur in the future and that SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) that originate from different reservoir host populations may lead to epidemics at different times or in different regions ... . The recent discovery of a group of diverse SL-CoVs in bats support the possibility of these events ... ." [...]

However, Prof. Zhengli and her co-authors published a study early last year on March 2, 2019 entitled Bat Coronaviruses in China which explicitly warned,

"During the past two decades, three zoonotic coronaviruses have been identified as the cause of large-scale disease outbreaks - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome (SADS). SARS and MERS emerged in 2003 and 2012, respectively, and caused a worldwide pandemic that claimed thousands of human lives, while SADS struck the swine industry in 2017. They have common characteristics, such as they are all highly pathogenic to humans or livestock, their agents originated from bats, and two of them originated in China. Thus, it is highly likely that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks will originate from bats, and there is an increased probability that this will occur in China. Therefore, the investigation of bat coronaviruses becomes an urgent issue for the detection of early warning signs, which in turn minimizes the impact of such future outbreaks in China" (emphasis added). [...]

Apparently, the virology scientific community not only failed to heed Prof. Zhengli's explicit, recent dire warnings about the "high likelihood" that future SARS- or MERS-like coronavirus outbreaks would originate from bats - they also ignored Zhengli's incredibly pertinent report published ten years ago in July, 2010, Identification of key amino acid residues required for horseshoe bat angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 to function as a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The study's abstract can't be clearer on the immunological risks associated with protein ACE2, with its obvious liability for usurpation by viral agents with a little modified genome sequencing:

"Angiotensin-I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A previous study indicated that ACE2 from a horseshoe bat, the host of a highly related SARS-like coronavirus, could not function as a receptor for SARS-CoV. Here, we demonstrate that a 3 aa change from SHE (aa 40­42) to FYQ was sufficient to convert the bat ACE2 into a fully functional receptor for SARS-CoV. We further demonstrate that an ACE2 molecule from a fruit bat, which contains the FYQ motif, was able to support SARS-CoV infection, indicating a potentially much wider host range for SARS-CoV-related viruses among different bat populations."

This old but remarkable study concludes that only a minor genome sequence change was required to convert a non-susceptible bat ACE2 protein into a functional receptor for SARS-CoV, something that could easily happen in nature. "Considering that there are more than 60 different horseshoe [bat] species around the world (Flanders et al., 2009; Rossiter et al., 2007), it is possible that one or some of them may serve as the natural reservoir of SARS-CoV and/or its progenitor virus(es)."

Why is it that current State virologists are apparently ignorant of these essential discoveries of yesteryear? [...]

And the new study on Coronavirus 2019-nCoV by the joint research team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the People's Liberation Army, and Institut Pasteur of Shanghai indeed found that, like SARS, the virus targeted the ACE2 protein. It's just as Prof. Zhengli predicated a decade ago: the fact that an ACE2 protein from a megabat, the fruit bat Rousettus leschenaultia, can function as a receptor for SARS-CoV would suggest that the host range for SARS-CoV or SL-CoVs may be much wider than originally thought."

So what happened - did the virology and surrounding scientific community drop the ball on these well-established findings and warnings, or what? After all, at least as February, 2008, they knew three key facts about ACE2:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which uses ACE2 as its receptor for cell entry. SL-CoVs and SARS-CoVs share identical genome organizations and high sequence identities, with the main exception of the N terminus of the spike protein, known to be responsible for receptor binding in CoVs.

Whereas the SL-CoV spike protein was unable to use any of the three ACE2 molecules as its receptor, and the SARS-CoV spike protein failed to center cells expressing the bat ACE2, the chimeric spike protein the study created did gain its ability to center cells via human ACE, and a minimal insert region (amino acids 310 to 518) was found to be sufficient to convert the SL-CoV S from non-ACE2 binding to human ACE2 binding, indicating that the SL-CoV S is largely compatible with SARS-CoV S protein both in structure and in function.

We know they knew these facts way back in 2008 because Prof. Zhengli published the findings of these facts in her report, Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin. Therein the scientists concluded, "Knowing the capability of different CoVs to recombine both in the laboratory and in nature, the possibility that SL-CoVs may gain the ability to infect human cells by acquiring spike protein sequences competent for binding to ACE2 or other surface proteins of human cells can be readily envisaged."

Thus, it seems strange and perhaps even disingenuous that the new joint CCP government-joint Coronavirus 2019-nCoV task force is seemingly ignorant about coronavirus targeting the ACE2 protein, apparently pretending it's only just now discovered this. After all, Zhengli's 2008 report was quite clear about the role that this ACE2 protein would play in future pandemics: the study "strengthened our belief that ACE2 from certain bat species could be able to support SARS-CoV infection because of the predicted genetic diversity of bat ACE2 variants in different bat species." [...]

At any rate, the forgoing storyline is the official word on Coronavirus 2019-nCoV, manifesting itself somehow in a seafood market in Wuhan. [...]

China's National Biosafety Laboratory, located at Wuhan Institute of Virology, is only 8.6 miles away from the claimed epicenter of the Coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak. Do you believe in coincidences? What's odd is that despite completing the decade-long construction and having the official inauguration of this P4 laboratory on January 31, 2015 - announced by the General Office of Hubei Provincial People's Government, it wasn't until 2 and 1/2 years later in January 2018, that the Chinese government announced that the lab was actually in operation. And ahead of the lab's second opening in January 2018, biosafety experts and scientists from the United States expressly warned "that a SARS-like virus could escape," much in the same way the SARS virus had escaped multiple times from a lab in Beijing. [...]

Wuhan Institute of Virology is also connected with the recent, major scandal in Canada where two Chinese virologists working at Canada's only Pathogen Level 4 virology laboratory, the National Microbiology Lab (NML) in Winnipeg were caught stealing and smuggling some of the most deadly viruses on earth, including the Ebola virus, back to China. The suspects - a Chinese couple, virologist Dr. Xiangguo Qui and biologist Dr. Keding Cheng - are now believed to be connected to China's biological warfare program. Her husband, Dr. Qiu, was head of the Vaccine Development and Antiviral Therapies Section in the Special Pathogens Program at the NML. Dr. Keding Cheng, also affiliated with the NML, specifically the "Science and Technology Core," is primarily a bacteriologist who shifted to virology. According to ZeroHedge, "the couple is responsible for infiltrating Canada's NML with many Chinese agents as students from a range of Chinese scientific facilities directly tied to China's Biological Warfare Program, including the Wuhan Institute of Virology and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Chengdu Military Region.

And guess what one of the stolen viruses was? Yup, coronavirus. On May 4, 2013, NML's Scientific Director Frank Plummer received a shipment of coronavirus from a Dutch virologist, who in turn had received it from an Egyptian virologist treating a Saudi Arabian who contracted it. The Canadian lab grew stocks of the virus, and then experimented upon animals to see what they could infect with it. It is from this stash of reserves that the coronavirus was stolen and smuggled by Dr. Qui, Dr. Cheng, and by alledged Chinese Biological Warfare Program agents recruited from the Wuhan Institute of Virology who were disguised as virology students at the University of Manitoba. Similarly, and perhaps connected, is the recent indictment of Charles Lieber, Chair of Harvard University's Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. Prosecutors claim he had a contract with Wuhan Institute of Virology. Reports CBS, "It appears China paid Lieber hundreds of thousands of dollars over the years for his involvement with the Chinese entities and for his work on research for Chinese gain," said U.S. Attorney for Massachusetts Andrew Lelling."

Lieber lied about his links to Wuhan Institute of Virology, report Tonya Alanez and Travis Andersen of the Boston Globe. "Federal authorities said Charles Lieber, a prominent nanoscientist and a prolific inventor and entrepreneur, received hundreds of thousands of dollars from his Chinese connections."

Details about the extent of Lieber's illicit and illegal conspiracy with the institute have yet to emerge. So this means, significantly, that not only are there Chinese nationals allegedly being recruited from Wuhan Institute of Virology to penetrate foreign P4 biosafety laboratories abroad and smuggle the spoils back home, but it also appears Americans and Canadians may be complicit in aiding the Chinese biowarfare program. [...]

In fact, Prof. Zhengli has been Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator of Wuhan Insititute of Virology for the last 20 years, initially starting as a Research Assistant in 1990 before upgrading to Research Scientist in 1993, serving in that role until 1995. Aside from a 5-year leave from 1995 to 2000 to get her PhD at University of Montpellier in France, she's been at the Institute for an amazing 30 years.

Notably, starting in 2014, Prof. Zhengli began to win particularly large sums of grant funding for the express purpose of researching and experimenting with coronaviruses - often receiving numerous, overlapping grants for the same time period. What's just as interesting is where a lot of this funding originated - the US government. On January 6, 2014, Prof. Zhengli received a US$665,000 grant from the National Institute of Health for a study named The Ecology of Bat Coronaviruses and the Risk of Future Coronavirus Emergence (NIAID R01 AI1 10964) and then four days later on January 10, 2014, an additional US$559,500 grant from the United States Agency of International Development for research studied entitled Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT 2_China (Project No. AID-OAA-A-14­00102).

On top of these lucrative American grants she concurrently received similarly significant grants from the National Basic Research program of China, the Chinese Academy of Science, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and from the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences totaling over US$2,500,000 for researching interspecies transmission of zoonotic viruses, the identification, genetic evolution and pathogenesis of bat viruses, the genetic variation of pathogens in Africa, the evolution mechanism of the adaptation of bat SARS-related coronaviruses to host receptor molecules, the risk of interspecies infection, genetic evolution and transmission mechanism of important bat-borne viruses, and pathogen biology studies on novel swine coronaviruses.

In just the past five years alone, Prof. Zhengli Shi has almost US$10 million in grants to study coronaviruses. [...]

Prof. Zhengli appears to be one of the world's leading bat virologists - and most definitely the leading bat virologist in China. Indeed, her C.V. explicitly states,

"Prof. Zhengli Shi 's researches focus on the molecular epidemiology and interspecies infection discovery and characterization of novel viruses in bats and other wildlife. She has gain [sic] rich expertise on pathogen biology of coronaviruses and other emerging viruses of bat origin, virus discovery, virus evolution, and development of diagnostic technologies for emerging viruses. Prof Shi has identified ultimately the animal origin of SARS, by discovering genetically diverse bat SARS related coronaviruses (SARSr CoV), isolating bat SARSr CoVs highly homologous to SARS CoV that are able to the same receptor [sic] as SARS CoV, and revealing the potential recombination origin of SARS CoV. She has discovered a large number of novel viruses from Chinese bat populations, including viruses with potential public health significance."

Unsurprisingly, Prof. Zhengli has been featured as a key presenter at over two dozen international virology conferences, the latest being SARS to SADS: predict of emerging infectious diseases, held at UC Berkeley in the summer of 2018. Her presentations at the next five most recent conferences all relate specifically to the genetic evolution and interspecies infection of bat coronaviruses. A complete list of Prof. Zhengli's conference presentations may be found in Appendix B.

Nearly all of Prof. Zhengli's recent conference presentations relate to bat coronaviruses. Do you believe in coincidences?

Prof. Zhengli has been or is currently a professional member of the Chinese Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2000­2016), the Chinese Society for Microbiology (2002-present), the American Society for Microbiology (2007-present), and the Scientific Committee of the DIVERSITAS ecoHEALTH Core Project (2014­2016). She has served on the Editorial Board of Virologica Sinica (2016­2016), on the Editorial Board of Journal of Medical Virology (2015­2017), and on the Editorial Board of Virology (2017­2019). She was Associate Editor of Virology Journal (2016­2018), and Editor-in-Chief of Virologica Sinica (2017­2019). Prof. Zhengli is also the recipient of numerous, prestigious awards and honors, including the Natural Science Award of Hubei Province, China (First Prize and Second Prize), Outstanding Scientist of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Outstanding Research Article on Natural Science (Grand Prize and Second Prize). OK, but how is Prof. Zhengli relevant to the current new outbreak of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV?

Chinese scientists, researchers, and doctors examining the emergent 2019-nCoV Coronavirus report that the new viral menace appears to be "a recombinant virus between the bat coronavirus and an origin-unknown coronavirus. The recombination occurred within the viral spike glycoprotein, which recognizes cell surface receptor."

But Prof. Zhengli appears to have worked with recombinant Coronavirus derivations involving viral spike proteins for over a decade at Wuhan Institute of Virology, all the way back to 2006 and up to as recently as December, 2019 - the very month that 2019-nCoV Coronavirus was first reported as having infected visitors at Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market just down the road from her laboratory! [...]

In a letter to the editor of SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences published in November, 2017, entitled Cross-neutralization of SARS coronavirus-specific antibodies against bat SARS-like coronaviruses, Prof. Zhengli warns that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is considered to be an emerging zoonotic pathogen crossing species barriers to infect humans, and that the spike protein of the virus' RNA genome plays a key role in human cellular entry. In that same month, the results of a study Prof. Zhengli conducted, Serological evidence of bat SARS-related coronavirus infection in humans, China indicated that some SARSr-CoVs may have high potential to infect human cells, without the necessity for an intermediate host. In 2016, one of the Directors at Wuhan Institute of Virology posted the annual Director's Message, of which the following finding was the top announcement: "The live SARS-like coronavirus SL-CoV-WIV1 has been isolated for the first time from the bat droppings; and such virus has been confirmed to invade the host cells through the ACE2 of human beings, civets and Rhinolophus sinicus. The research result has so far provided the most convincing evidence to the view that Rhinolophus sinicus is the natural host of SARS-CoV (Nature, 2013)."

Does this not sound precisely like Coronavirus 2019-nCoV, which invades the host cells through the ACE2 protein? At any rate, since Prof. Zhengli is Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator of both the Emerging Viruses Group and the National Biosafety Laboratory, this is squarely her turf; the current outbreak seems amazingly similar. [...]

Basically, she is tremendously versatile and adept in her research whenever she encounters these recombinant spikes proteins in viral interactions. Moreover, it's not just coronaviruses from bats that she and her team have discovered and explored, but also diverse novel viruses/virus antibodies in bats, including adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, circoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and filoviruses. In fact, Prof. Zhengli has coauthored over an astounding 130 publications on viral pathogen identification, diagnosis and epidemiology - nearly all of which commandeered at Wuhan Institute of Virology where the National Biosafety Laboratory is located and where she reigns as Head of the Department. In fact, on the World Society for Virology website, Prof. Zhengli's profile confirms that one of her great contributions was to "uncover genetically diverse SARS-like coronaviruses in bats with her international collaborators and provide unequivocal evidence that bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV."

Thus, her adeptness in the specialized field of bat virology - especially where transmission to humans is concerned - is inarguable.

Such an expansive personal history of expertise into coronaviruses is not only impressive, but unique, and the bulk of her 30-year career at Wuhan Institute Virology seems to have been dedicated primarily to the examination and exploration of all facets of interspecies (though primarily bat) pathogenic infection of coronaviruses into human host cells. For reference, you can check Appendix A for the sum total of all her published (or otherwise unclassified or declassified) studies at the end of this essay. Prof. Zhengli's absolute mastery of bat-to-human transmission of viruses via their spike protein binding with human cell receptors is virtually conclusive and unrivalled. [...]

Why did the US National Institute of Health (NIH) grant Prof. Zhengli $665,000 in 2014 to fund her study, The ecology of bat coronaviruses and the risk of future coronavirus emergence? What did the US receive in return?

Why did the United States Agency of International Development grant Prof. Zhengli $559,500 to fund her study, Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT 2_China? What did the US receive in return? Why did Prof. Zhengli receive funding from U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (the agency which deals specifically with Weapons of Mass Destruction), the U.S. Biological Defense Research Directorate of the Naval Medical Research Center, and the Department of Atomic of the Government of India? What other professional relationships with U.S. defense agencies does Prof. Zhengli have currently, or previously, in any capacity?

When Prof. Zhengli received a visa to the United States to present at the Cell Symposium: Emerging and Re-emerging Viruses 2017 conference in Arlington, Virginia, did she visit the Pentagon or meet with Pentagon officials, since it was less than a mile away?

When Prof. Zhengli received a visa to the United States to present at the US-China Workshop on Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases conferenceq, did she visit Federal research facility, Lawrence-Berkeley-Livermore Laboratory - in particular, the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute - or meet with government officials, since it was only a mile and a half away?

Prof. Zhengli's C.V. indicates she received a visa to the United States to present at the U.S.-China Dialogue on the Challenges of Emerging Infections, Laboratory Safety and Global Health Security conference on January 17, 2018, in Galveston, Texas. However, such a conference appears to not have existed. For what purpose did she really come to Galveston - perhaps to visit the Galveston National Laboratory, a high security National Biocontainment Laboratory housing several Biosafety Level 4 research laboratories, one of the only 15 biosecurity Level 4 facilities in the United States and the largest one in the world located on an academic campus? Was this apparently imaginary conference merely a ruse for a surreptitious rendezvous? [...]

Considering Prof. Zhengli is the recipient of millions of dollars in grants and salaries, commands one of the world's leading, most advanced biosafety laboratories, has performed innumerable research studies into coronaviruses for three decades and counting - what vaccines, to date, has she successfully produced? Has she produced any successful coronavirus vaccines at all? If so, where are they and how have they been publicly administered? [...]

At the time of the new coronavirus outbreak, or immediately preceding it, Prof. Zhengli was actively conducting coronavirus experiments and research at the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory. Notably, the very next day following the publishing of her coronavirus study on December 11, 2019, the first victims of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV were reported, as confessed by Prof. Zhengli herself in her most recent, latest report, posted online on January 23, 2020: "The epidemic, started from December 12th, 2019, has caused 198 laboratory confirmed infections with three fatal cases by January 20th, 2020."

Most alarming is the apparent, glaring disingenuousness of Prof. Zhengli's latest report, which is the only public statement since the official Chinese acknowledgement of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak in Wuhan. On January 23, 2020, she published the report with the allegedly misleading statements:

"Finally, based on our results, it should be expected and worth to test if ACE2 targeting or SARS-CoV targeting drugs can be used for nCoV-2019 patients. At this stage, we know very little about the virus, including basic biology, animal source or any specific treatment. The almost identical sequences of this virus in different patients imply a probably recent introduction in humans, thus future surveillance on viral mutation and transmission ability and further global research attention are urgently needed."

However, other Chinese scientists reported on January 22, 2020, "Results obtained from our analyses suggest that the 2019-nCoV appears to be a recombinant virus between the bat coronavirus and an origin-unknown coronavirus. The recombination occurred within the viral spike glycoprotein, which recognizes cell surface receptor."

Our findings suggest "that homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein may contribute to cross-species transmission."

Although this other scientific team incorrectly attributes the originating species as reptilian (snake) instead of bats, they at least rapidly identified the coronavirus as a recombinant virus with one of the contributors being a bat coronavirus, and also discerned in what manner the genetic recombination occurred to allow for human infection: in a viral spike protein which recognized the cell surface receptor. But as shown previously, this precise area of coronavirus study involving spike protein and cell surface receptor was the focus of Prof. Zhengli's contemporaneous December 2019 study published the day before the epidemic started. "Coronavirus spike protein mediates viral entry into cells by first binding to a receptor on host cell surface and then fusing viral and host membranes," she wrote. Why would she feign ignorance about this?

Even more concerning, on October 31, 2019, Prof. Zhengli had published a report entitled Filovirus-reactive antibodies in humans and bats in Northeast India imply zoonotic spillover, curiously funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the U.S. Biological Defense Research Directorate of the Naval Medical Research Center, and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, and edited by a microbiologist employed by the U.S. Center for Disease Control.

U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency? Can viruses from bats be used as weapons of mass destruction?

Of note is the fact that the Defense Threat Reduction Agency is an agency within the U.S. Department of Defense and is the official Combat Support Agency for countering weapons of mass destruction. Why would they be funding this project? [...]

All of the studies cited here appear related and interconnected, and considering the involvement of American defense agencies - in particular, the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency which deals exclusively with matters pertaining to weapons of mass destruction and threat networks - there seems ample reason to be gravely concerned. And that concern remains whether there's reason to suspect coronaviruses could be used by others as bioweapons of mass destruction, or that rogue, Deep State operatives within our own defense departments - colluding with Communists - are developing or have already developed a bioweapon of mass destruction. In conclusion, though admittedly much investigation remains to be performed (especially into the numerous unanswered questions posed in this essay), it seems the likeliest source of origin for Coronavirus 2019-nCoV is the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Further, it appears to me that, at best, there may be concerted efforts to conceal the precise nature of the virus, its source, and the parties responsible, or that, at worst, the dissemination of the epidemic coronavirus is intentional. Could the actual RNA genome source, sequencing and recombination of the coronavirus already be known, and could its vaccine have already been developed? Could it already be patented? Essentially, is this latest global pandemic threat a Communist cover-up, or a pandemic bioweapon of mass destruction developed by the global Deep State?



Question: the authors at Global Research, and others alleging that 2019-nCoV is a US attack on China, do not mention Shi Zhengli. Why not, given that she is the world's leading expert on bat coronaviruses, and that her lab is only a few miles from Wuhan seafood market?

(32) update March 19, 2020: Coronavirus reveals American Decline; investors seek Chinese assets as 'Safe Haven'

- by Peter Myers, March 19, 2020

For the first time, financial media (Bloomberg) reveal that the world's biggest money managers now see Chinese assets as a Safe Haven.

This despite the contraction in China's economy during Q1, when the Coronavirus was at its peak.

The perception of China as a Safe Haven contrasts with perceived chaos in the libertarian West - which failed to act decisively.

The West will be forced to jettison Globalisation.

The relative decline of the US and the rise of China, revealed by their contrasting management of the Coronavirus challenge, will usher in a new world of intense competion between the two blocs.

I believe that the Culture War of recent decades will also be ended by the Coronavirus, not immediately but over the next decade, as internal divisions dissipate when national survival is at stake.

It's unlikely that these changes would be sought by the Deep State; therefore, the claim that the Coronavirus was a US attack on China is further undermined. ==

Coronavirus reveals American Decline

Coronavirus Is China's Chance to Weaken the Liberal Order

The democratic world order survived the crash of 2008. It may not be so fortunate this time.

By Hal Brands

As markets gyrate and the world faces the possibility of a punishing recession, comparisons to the last global economic crisis are inevitable. The financial collapse of 2008 was not simply an economic shock, it was also a profound strategic shock to American power. [...]

The 2008 crisis was so damaging because it revealed that economic policymakers who confidently claimed to have tamed the business cycle did not realize that their policies had also permitted vast, systemic vulnerabilities that nearly plunged the world into depression. What international observers are seeing today is that the country that claims to lead the world has so far turned in a distinctly underwhelming performance in dealing with the greatest global crisis of this century.

The coronavirus saga is also certain to set off another round of debate on the merits of democracy and authoritarianism. The irony is abundant. It was actually the authoritarian characteristics of the Chinese system that initially allowed the virus to spread, and some democracies - notably South Korea and Taiwan - have done remarkably well in responding to the outbreak. Yet the fact that China subsequently claimed to have gotten a handle on the epidemic by energetically enforcing a draconian lockdown of the affected population, while the world's leading democracy dithered in its own response, will be used by proponents of authoritarianism to argue that their system is best equipped for crisis.

More recent events are further advancing the narrative. As America struggles to test its citizens and build adequate stockpiles of basic health-care supplies, such as masks, the Chinese government (and prominent Chinese firms) are providing supplies to countries such as Italy and even the U.S. itself. Beijing has promised additional funds to aid World Health Organization programs in poor countries, and the Communist Party propaganda arm has touted these contributions for all they are worth, while also alleging that the virus somehow originated in the U.S.

Only a few weeks ago, when the impact of the coronavirus was still heavily concentrated in China, the dominant narrative was that Beijing was once again the new "sick man of Asia." Now, the theme seems to be that the coronavirus shows just how badly America's relative power and prestige have fallen. After 2008, this perception led to a surge in China's willingness to defy the U.S. and its friends and allies in the South China Sea, in international institutions, and in negotiations on global responses to climate change. No doubt the coronavirus will stimulate new Chinese efforts to displace and discredit American leadership in global affairs. ... ==

Money Managers flee Western chaos for Chinese stability; Chinese assets now seen as a Safe Haven

All the Chinese Assets Loved by World's Biggest Money Managers

Bloomberg News

March 17, 2020, 6:01 AM EDT

As the world struggles to price the economic impact of the coronavirus, Chinese assets have offered a spot of relative calm for foreign investors looking to escape volatility elsewhere.

The country is home to the only stock market among the world's 20 largest that is yet to slip into bear territory. Investors say they are confident of a stable currency outlook, with the yuan at its strongest level since May last year versus a basket of trading-partner currencies. Chinese government bonds are seen as attractive in a world where treasury yields are nearing zero. [...]

Haven Characteristics
George Sun, head of global markets, Greater China, BNP Paribas China Ltd.

If you watch the correlation between CNH and JPY, Chinese assets now have quite obvious characteristics of safe-haven assets. We recommend increasing long duration positions of government bonds and policy bank bonds. We expect the yuan will head to 6.80 against the dollar in the coming six months, though at this moment the yuan might also face depreciation pressure due to USD liquidity tightening. [...]

Not Like the Others
Cary Yeung, head of greater China debt at Pictet Asset Management (HK) Ltd.

Chinese bonds have low correlation with other asset classes and continue to offer attractive yields while staying relatively immune from market volatility. We remain confident that now is a good entry point for foreign investors given the still-decent yield and a relatively stable currency outlook. [...]

Easing Expectations J
ason Pang, a fixed-income portfolio manager at JPMorgan Asset Management

Although the rate of reported new virus infections has declined meaningfully in China, the economy is likely to remain under some degree of pressure. Taking this into consideration, we should still expect some targeted easing within this market. That will continue to gradually support Chinese government bond yields. [...] ==

U.S. coronavirus testing failure: Flawed tests, Red Tape, resistance to WHO German test

How U.S. coronavirus testing stalled: Flawed tests, red tape and resistance to using the millions of tests produced by the WHO

By Peter Whoriskey and Neena Satija

March 16, 2020 at 6:30 PM EDT

[...] Shortly after publication of the virus's genome in early January, German researchers announced they had designed a diagnostic test. Then, within days, scientists at the CDC said they'd developed one, too, and even used it detect the first U.S. case. ...

In fact, the U.S. efforts to distribute a working test stalled until Feb. 28, when federal officials revised the CDC test and began loosening up FDA rules that had limited who could develop coronavirus diagnostic tests. [...]

Thomas Frieden, an infectious disease physician who served as CDC director under former president Barack Obama, called on Sunday for an "independent group" to investigate what went wrong with the CDC's testing process. He said in the past, the CDC moved quickly to produce tests for diseases such as H1N1, or swine flu.

"We were able to get test kits out fast," Frieden said on CNN. "Something went wrong here. We have to find out why so we can prevent that in the future." ... ==

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard: Deflationary Depression will break the capitalist system; Fed must be unshackled like BoJ

The moment when monetary 'shock and awe' finally fails has arrived: what do we do next?

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard

17 MARCH 2020 o 6:06AM

The Federal Reserve's Jay Powell is running out of tricks, but he still has a few more

The world's central banks have exhausted almost all their usable ammunition under existing rules yet still failed to calm markets or to unfreeze critical parts of the global financial system.

This moment what we all feared. The danger now is that global recession - it is no longer 'if', we are weeks into it already - will morph into something more intractable: a deflationary depression with a wave of defaults that breaks the capitalist system as we know it.

So what can be done? Let me take an instant stab. Either the rules are changed fast or we risk uncontrolled global liquidation. The US Federal Reserve must be unshackled to act as a buyer-of-last-resort for the corporate debt markets, for great swaths of the credit system, and for Wall Street equity indexes.

The European Central Bank must acquire powers to act as a genuine lender-of-last resort for eurozone sovereign states. It must do exactly what Christine Lagarde refused to do when she blurted out last week that "the ECB is not here to close bond spreads" - an expression lifted word for word from the German board member, Isabel Schnabel, which tells us who is in charge of that institution in the post Draghi era.

This must be backed by a fiscal blitz even greater than in 2008-2009, with pledges to "socialise" the drastic losses faced by industry and private firms. What was done for banks last time despite misconduct must now be done for others.

There must be tax holidays, sweeping state guarantees for firms, credit forbearance, a temporary suspension of mortgage payments (pushing out the maturity), and moral hazard be damned - all under the umbrella of financial repression. Both the US and the EU need fiscal New Deal packages near $1.5 trillion between them to launch recovery, much like the Schumer plan in the US, and in Europe's case funded collectively through eurobonds.

What has happened over recent days is not a matter of panic. It is accurate market pricing of 'sudden stops' across all major blocs. It reflects the collapse in earnings and the spread of insolvency risk. It is a rational response to the self-evident lack of coherent political leadership or a functioning G20 world community that is capable of containing either Covid-19 or the economic chain-reaction that might unfold.

As a result, forced sales are occurring on a huge scale across interlinked markets for mechanical reasons. The pandemic has shown that the supposedly-safe structure built by regulators after the Lehman meltdown is a Maginot Line. Critics warned that this would happen when the next black swan arrived.

As a recent report for the G20 put it: "the risk of an unexpected reversal of abundant global liquidity hangs over the world economy. Strong contagion across markets could make the endogenous dynamics of global liquidity very dangerous." Did anybody heed the warning? No.

Europe will discover quickly - perhaps within days - that the sticker-plaster job by EU leaders after the EMU debt crisis has resolved nothing. The failure to establish some form of fiscal union during the Draghi reprieve leaves the euro system exposed to the sovereign bank 'doom loop' of 2011-2012. In key respects it is even more toxic today.

The Fed did only half the job on Sunday night with its emergency cut of 100 basis points and its plan for $700bn of QE over the next six months. But we are getting there. The measures should (fingers crossed) prevent a repeat of the frightening moves that we saw in US treasury yields on Friday.

We know roughly what happened. The 'relative value' trade in the Treasury market so favoured by hedge funds blew up and caused a cascade of deleveraging. These funds buy cash bonds while selling offsetting futures to pocket the arbitrage gain. Margins are wafer thin so they leverage up. It is easy money until the normal correlations go haywire.

The US Treasury market is the anchor of the global financial system. It cannot break down without causing everything, everywhere, to unravel. That is what we faced going into the weekend.

The Fed has defused another dangerous landmine by renewing dollar bank swap lines to fellow central banks. These FX lines are what saved the European banking system in 2008 when wholesale capital markets froze and Europe ran out of dollars. Only the Fed can print US currency and act as the superpower backstop for the world's dollarised financial system. Nobody was sure whether they still existed in Donald Trump's Washington. Now we know they do.

What the Fed has not done yet is to shore up markets for commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and other parts of the credit system. It has not so far offered limitless cheap loans through the TAF term auction facility. "We have nothing to announce on direct lending," said Fed chief Jay Powell. The markets did not like the sound of that.

Some measures require changes in US law. Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin said over the weekend that he would seek to revive the Fed's suspended emergency powers. "Certain tools were taken away that I'm going to go back to Congress, and ask for," he said.

The Fed's hands are tied for now. A puritanical bank-bashing Congress stripped the institution of key prerogatives after the Lehman crisis. The Fed can no longer rescue a single bank in trouble (there must be at least five). Nor can it issue blanket guarantees of bank debt and money market funds, or issue instant loans to stem stress in commercial paper and asset-backed securities.

In my view, Congress will have to go even further and let the Fed buy company bonds, ETFs, and other private assets, as the ECB or the Bank of Japan are allowed to do. In extremis, the Fed may have to soak up some of the $3.4 trillion tranche of BBB-rated bonds perched precariously above junk and at risk of a roll-over funding shock. [...]

This structure is untenable. Either Germany and the northern creditor states bite the bullet and agree to debt pooling, joint bond issuance, fiscal integration, and a pan-EMU bank deposit insurance - with all this implies for the evisceration of parliamentary democracy in Europe's nation states - or world markets will again lose faith in the viability of monetary union.

They do not have long to make up their minds. ==

Get Ready, A Bigger Disruption Is Coming

The Covid-19 pandemic reflects a systemic crisis akin to the seminal crashes of the 20th century.

By Pankaj Mishra

March 16, 2020, 11:00 PM GMT+10

(This is the first in a two-part series.)

As global supply chains break, airlines slash flights, borders rise within nation-states, stock exchanges convulse with fear, and recession looms over economies, from China to Germany, Australia to the United States, we can no longer doubt that we are living through extraordinary times.

What remains in question, however, is our ability to comprehend them while using a vocabulary derived from decades when globalization seemed a fact of nature, like air and wind. For the coronavirus signals a radical transformation, of the kind that occurs once in a century, shattering previous assumptions. [...]

The First World War not only brought the period of friction-free globalization to a gruesome end. It also cruelly exposed an intelligentsia which had believed in irreversible progress and now was forced to acknowledge that, as an embittered Henry James wrote to a friend in August 1914, "the tide that bore us along was then all the while moving to this grand Niagara."

As with our own crisis, the seminal crashes of the 20th century - the First World War followed by the Great Depression - were harder to grasp because their principal causes were set in motion decades before, and largely neglected by mainstream politicians and commentators. [...]

For decades now, de-industrialization, the outsourcing of jobs, and then automation, have deprived many working people of their security and dignity, making the aggrieved in even advanced Western countries vulnerable to demagoguery. At the same time, stalled economic modernization or a botched process of urbanization in "catch-up" powers like India and Russia, has created, in almost textbook fashion, the political base for far-right figures and movements.

The financial crisis of 2008, which has caused deeper and longer damage than the Great Depression, may have discredited the globalizing elite that promised prosperity to all, creating broad scope for opportunistic demagogues like Donald Trump. Yet few lessons were learnt from the collapse of global markets as the tide moved faster to Niagara. This is why the crisis of our time is as much intellectual as it is political, economic and environmental.

One sign of analytic deficiency is that the prescriptions for multiple malaises have remained the same in much mainstream politics and journalism: more economic "reforms," largely in the direction of global free markets, reheated Cold War slogans about the superiority of "liberal democracy" over "authoritarianism," and aspirations for a return to "decency" and "global leadership."

These hopes for a return to the pre-2008 political and ideological status quo are often leavened with a heightened, if ineffectual, concern about climate change. Their inadequacy will become clearer in the months to come when afflicted nations as much as individuals are tempted to self-isolate, sacrificing many holy cows to the existential urgency of survival. The coronavirus, devastating in itself, may prove to be only the first of many shocks that lie ahead. ==

Globalists May Soon Become an Extinct Species

The disruptions caused by the spread of the coronavirus mean supply chains will be moved closer to home rather than in foreign lands.

By A. Gary Shilling

The coronavirus may force countries to move production closer to home.

The coronavirus's depressing effects on the global economy and disruptions of supply chains is no doubt driving the last nail into the coffin of the globalists.

They believe in the theory first articulated by Englishman David Ricardo (1773-1823) that free trade among nations benefits all of them. He argued for the comparative advantage of free trade and industrial specialization. Even if one country is more competitive in every area than its trading partners, that nation should only concentrate on the areas in which it has the greatest competitive advantage. He used the example of English-produced wool being traded for French wine - and not the reverse.

But Ricardo's simple trade model requires economies in static equilibrium with full employment and neither trade surpluses nor deficits, and similar living standards. These aren't true in the real world. Also, Ricardo didn't consider countries at different stages of economic development and different degrees of economic and political freedom, or exchange rate manipulations and competitive devaluations since gold was universal money in his day.

Ricardo also didn't factor in trading partners with huge wage differences such as the U.S. and China. As a result, China can produce almost any manufactured good cheaper than America. The result has been the huge and chronic U.S. trade deficit with China. [...]

Largely as a result of these developments, real wages for most Americans have been flat for several decades, making voters mad as hell. President Donald Trump played to their plights and was elected by blaming weak incomes on imports and immigrants. Lack of real income growth also convinced voters in Europe that mainstream politicians weren't effective. The result was Brexit and an attraction to far right and extreme left parties.

Globalization not only left the U.S. highly dependent on China for manufactured goods but also spawned efficient but vulnerable supply chains. Textiles produced in capital-intensive Chinese factories are sewn into garments in Vietnam where incomes are only 28% as high, according to the OECD. Semiconductors from South Korea go into subcomponents in Taiwan and are assembled into smart phones in China for export to the U.S.

The coronavirus's disruption of supply chains not only unhinges U.S. imports but also raises national security concerns. China is the world's biggest supplier of active pharmaceutical ingredients and the Indian generic drug industry, which the Food and Drug Administration says supplies 40% of U.S. generic drugs, relies on China for most of its active ingredients.

Even after the virus scare subsides, look for more pressure from Washington for more reliable sources of goods, among other protectionist measures. Domestic producers will benefit but so too will those in Mexico. The results will be lower global efficiency and slower economic growth.

And don't believe the protectionists' siren songs that American jobs and incomes will benefit. As in the 1930s, the economy-depressing effects of trade barriers will dominate.

{Comment (Peter M.): the author omits to mention that the protectionist 1950s & 1960s were a golden era. This is routinely omitted by Free Traders. But the Boomer generation remember.}

(33) Francis Boyle reiterates: COVID-19 is a BioWeapon that escaped from Wuhan lab

Francis A. Boyle Talks About the Likelihood that COVID-19 Virus is a BioWeapon

by Gary G. Kohls, MD

March 22, 2020

Excerpts from an Interview with Dr Joseph Mercola ­ March 8, 2020 (3261 words)

As you know, a novel coronavirus (initially labeled 2019-nCOV before being renamed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization) originating in Wuhan City, Hubei Province in China, is rapidly spreading across the world.

The first case was reported in Wuhan on December 21, 2019. Symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, severe cough and pneumonia which, in more severe cases, can lead to impaired kidney and liver function and kidney failure.

On January 21, 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first U.S. case - a patient in Washington state who had recently visited Wuhan. Then, the first U.S. death was reported February 29, 2020, in Washington state.

Less than a week later, CBS News reported March 5, 2020, that the number of deaths had quickly risen to 11 nationwide in the U.S. - 10 in Washington state and one in California. Not only that, but as of that day, "The World Health Organization urged governments around the world to pull out Ôall the stops'" to fight the outbreak. On the up-side, China "appeared to be over the worst" of it, CBS said.

All told, as of March 5, 2020, there were 98,067 reported cases of novel coronavirus infections affecting 88 countries, 80,430 of which were in China. provides an easy overview of confirmed cases and deaths that you can check for the latest statistics.7

COVID-19 - A Weaponized Coronavirus?

In this interview, Francis Boyle - whose background includes an undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago, a juris doctor (lawyer) degree from Harvard and a Ph.D. in political science - shares his theory of the origin of this novel coronavirus.

For decades, he's advocated against the development and use of bioweapons, which he suspects COVID-19 is. In fact, Boyle was the one who called for biowarfare legislation at the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, and the one who drafted the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, which was passed unanimously by both houses of Congress and signed into law by George H. W. Bush, Sr.

At the time of this recording, February 14, 2020, more than 50,000 people in China had been infected with the virus. Certainly, it does not originate from infected bat soup.

As a result of Boyle's antibiological warfare work, which goes back to the early days of the Reagan administration - a time in which they were using DNA genetic engineering to manufacture biological weapons - Boyle has carefully followed "mysterious outbreaks of disease in both humans and animals around the world" that have appeared since then.

"My biowarfare antiterrorism act was specifically designed to not only deal with regular biological weapons but also with DNA genetic engineering for biological weapons that was just coming into its infancy when the BWC was being drafted.

"Even though the BWC would cover DNA genetic engineering, I wanted to make it clear by name that it was covered. I also made it clear [that] it covered synthetic biology as well," Boyle says.

"So, when these unexplained mysterious illnesses break out, I monitor them a while and usually I just conclude they can be explained by normal reasons: lack of sanitation, poverty, things of that nature. But in Wuhan it seemed pretty suspicious to me.

"There is this Biosafety Level 4 facility there in Wuhan. It's the first one in China, and it was specifically set up to deal with the coronavirus and SARS. SARS is basically a weaponized version of the coronavirus.

"There have been leaks before of SARS out of this facility, and indeed the only reason for these BSL-4 facilities, based on my experience, is the research, development, testing and stockpiling of offensive biological weapons.

"For that reason, I stated my opinion: That this Wuhan coronavirus leaked out of that BSL-4 facility ... maybe mid-November ... and the Chinese government has been lying about it and covering up ever since."

Many Unknowns Remain

The first reported case of COVID-19 infection was December 1, 2019. Depending on the incubation period, which is still unknown, the initial lead, provided there was one, might have occurred anywhere in November. The official estimate is a 14-day incubation period, but a British health expert believes it's 24 days, and North Korean biological warfare experts believe it's 30 days, Boyle says.

"As for Wuhan and Hubei Province, they're basically under martial law. There's no other word for it. If you read the statements by President Xi and his assistants, they've made it very clear they're at war here, and that is correct. They're at war with their own biological warfare agent.

"President Xi just fired the party apparatchiks in charge of this and has brought in trusted military personnel to handle it, as well as large numbers of PLA [People's Liberation Army] forces saying they're health care workers. They don't look like health care workers to me. So, as of now, that's my best reading of the situation."

When asked about rumors the COVID-19 virus might have been stolen from a high-security laboratory in Winnipeg, Canada, Boyle says:

"It could have been. I want to make it clear that, in my opinion they were already working on that at the Wuhan BSL-4 facility. They were working on a biological warfare weapon involving SARS, which is a coronavirus to begin with.

"We do know that Dr. [Yoshihiro] Kawaoka at the University of Wisconsin ... resurrected the Spanish flu virus for the Pentagon, obviously for weapons purposes, and he specializes in mating the Spanish flu virus to all sorts of hideous biowarfare instrumentalities. And there was a record of him shipping his products to Winnipeg.

"Winnipeg is Canada's equivalent of our own Fort Detrick. It's a BSL-4 facility, and yes, they research, develop tests, manufacture and stockpile every type of hideous biological warfare weapon that we know of. So, some of this technology could have been stolen from Winnipeg. I don't know about that but, as I said, the Wuhan BSL-4 was already working on this to begin with.

"They had already developed SARS. SARS had leaked out two to three times before this, and it seems they were turbocharging SARS, which is what [COVID-19] looks to be. This is a brand-new generation of biowarfare weapons we haven't seen before.

"Its lethality goes from 15%, as estimated by Lancet, up to 17% to 18% by a British health official and even Chinese statistics. Its infectivity is 83%. It can infect maybe three to four people for every person infected.

"It has gain of function properties, which means it travels through air at least 6 or 7 feet, and ... there are reports that even contaminated human feces give it off, that the human feces radiate off maybe 6 or 7 feet. So, we've never seen anything like this before in the history of biological warfare, at least in the public record.

"I want to make it clear: I have never worked for the United States government. I've never had a security clearance. I've never had access to any type of secret information.

"I just read what is in the public record and the scientific record and try to draw my own conclusions, and that's what I'm giving you today. I could change my opinion if people can provide me reputable scientific evidence to the contrary.

"Right now, I'm standing by my conclusion that it leaked out of the Wuhan BSL-4, the highest level of the Chinese government has known about it, they've been covering it up from the get-go, until they informed the WHO at the end of December."

Despite Laws, Biowarfare Experimentation is Alive and Well Even Involving Big Pharma, the CDC and the WHO!

As noted by Boyle, the Wuhan lab is a designated WHO research lab, which may sound odd, considering these facilities specialize in developing and researching dangerous pathogens that can easily be turned into bioweapons.

According to Boyle, we should not be surprised however, as "WHO is up to its eyeballs in this type of work and has been for quite some time." The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the drug industry also appear to have had their hand in many of the outbreaks of what appear to be weaponized viruses.

"I won't go through the long history of Big Pharma getting involved in this. There's huge amounts of money here. I believe the West Africa Ebola pandemic originated out of the US BSL-4 facility in Sierra Leone, and [that] they were testing out a so-called vaccine that contained live Ebola and gave it to these poor people," Boyle says.

"As for the CDC, it has been involved in every ... BSL-4 biological warfare death science you could possibly imagine ... It's a matter of public record that during the Reagan administration, the CDC and the American Type Culture Collection sent 40 shipments of weapons-grade biological warfare agents to Saddam Hussein in Iraq, in the hope and expectation that he would weaponize these agents and use them against Iran ...

"Of course, the problem is that when that war was over ... an order was given to U.S. military forces to blow up Saddam Hussein's biological warfare facilities, and that's not how you deal with biological warfare weapons ...

"[It] contaminated our own troops, and that was a causative factor in the Gulf War Syndrome that ... murdered about 11,000 U.S. troops and disabled about 100,000."

According to Boyle, the U.S. government spent $100 billion on biological warfare programs since September 11, 2011, up until October 2015, which is no small sum.

To put it into perspective, the U.S. spent $40 billion (assuming a constant dollar value) on the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb.

Boyle also estimates the U.S. has some 13,000 life scientists working within the biowarfare industry.

"Clearly, the Reagan administration, under the influence of its NeoConservatives who definitely believe in biological weapons and ethnic-specific biological weapons (you can see that in the PNAC report), were engaged in the use of DNA genetic engineering for the purpose of manufacturing biological weapons.

"That is why I gave a Congressional briefing in Washington, D.C. in 1985. I was asked to do that by the Council for Responsible Genetics that I work with, which involves the leading life scientists in the world from MIT and Harvard.

"I spent seven years at Harvard. I have three degrees and I knew all these people. They asked me to serve as their lawyer and give this Congressional briefing. I blew the whistle, and then they asked me to draft the implementing legislation, which I did ...

"I want to make it clear I'm not here to speak in their name, I'm only speaking in my name, but if you look at my book, 'Biological Warfare and Terrorism,' professor Jonathan King wrote the foreword. So, I have the leading MIT professor of molecular biology supporting what I'm saying, if you don't think I know enough science about it."

US Prepares for COVID-19 Pandemic

While there have so far only been a limited number of reported cases of COVID-19 infection in the U.S., the U.S. military has designated several detention sites around the country to quarantine Americans, should the situation take a turn for the worse.

Historically speaking, however, government health officials have been vastly exaggerating the threat of pandemics in the U.S., including the bird flu, the swine flu, anthrax, and Ebola.

For example, as detailed in my 2009 New York Times bestseller "The Great Bird Flu Hoax," then-President George Bush Jr. projected 2 million Americans would die from bird flu; the best-case scenario taking only 200,000 lives. The final death count in the U.S. from that pandemic was zero.

It generated massive profits, though, as U.S. taxpayer dollars were used to purchase 20 million doses of Tamiflu. One of the people who was able to line his pockets from that hoax was defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld, who was president of Gilead Sciences when the drug was created.

"[The bird flu] was another DNA, genetically engineered biological warfare weapon," Boyle notes."It was a chimera. It had three different elements in it and we were all lucky that somehow they attenuated the lethality and the infectiveness of the bird flu."

Whether or not COVID-19 will be similarly ineffective in its spread and lethality remains to be seen. Judging by the statistics in China, "it doesn't look very good," Boyle says.

Understanding the COVID-19 Virus

According to Boyle, the COVID-19 virus is a chimera, like the avian flu virus before it. It includes SARS, an already weaponized coronavirus, along with HIV genetic material.

"That was in a published article by Indian scientists. You could see the pictures right there, [but] political pressure was brought to bear upon them so they withdrew [the paper]."

"This is why some scientists are now looking into using HIV drugs to treat it,Boyle says.

COVID-19 may also have a flu virus mixed in, along with gain of function properties that allow it to spread a greater distance than normal.

Pandemics Repeatedly Used to Further the Police State

Pandemics have also been used to chip away public freedoms. For example, the anthrax scare of 2001 was used as the impetus for signing the Patriot Act, which was the first step in taking away many of our personal freedoms and rolling out a complete surveillance state. To me, such outcomes are far more concerning than the risk of infection itself. Boyle adds:

"They used Amerithrax to ram the Patriot Act through, that is correct ... We became a police state ... And as I pointed out in 'Biowarfare and Terrorism,' I think the same people who were behind the 9/11 terrorist attack were also behind the Amerithrax, but I'm just connecting dots there ...

"What's called Amerithrax came out of a U.S. government biological warfare weapons lab and program, and I publicly blew the whistle on that the first weekend of November 2001.

"The Council for Responsible Genetics was having its convention at Harvard Business School and I was chairing a panel with King and other experts on biological warfare, on U.S. biological warfare programs.

"As I was walking into the Harvard Divinity School, Fox TV had a camera crew there and I said, 'Obviously, this came out a U.S. biological weapons program and probably Fort Detrick.'

"I conducted the session and made the same comment. Then I made a comment to a Washington, D.C., radio station to that effect [and to] the BBC, so everyone in the world heard me.

"At that point, someone gave an order that I was never to be interviewed again by any mainstream news about biological warfare programs. And that's been the case since the first week of November 2001."

As noted by Boyle, George Orwell's book, "1984", has become reality. Boyle has since lectured lawyers at DePaul Law School in Chicago about the totalitarian nature of the Patriot Act.

"Snowden has correctly pointed out the federal government is spying on everything we say, all of our electronic communications, you name it," Boyle says.

"And again, the proof is that I've been completely blackballed out of the U.S. media. Indeed, if you go back and look at the Amerithrax attacks, they also hit mainstream U.S. media to make it clear to them that if they covered this issue they will be killed too."

Bioweapons are Developed to be Used

As noted by Boyle, the U.S. government has a large stockpile of Amerithrax - a super weapons-grade nanotechnology anthrax with 1 trillion spores per gram - and that's just the tip of the iceberg of the biological weapons developed.

What's more, Boyle has no doubt these weapons will eventually be put to use, as they have in the past. He says:

"There was a tabletop exercise at John Hopkins University last fall ... on coronavirus. 10 Tabletop exercise, that's a euphemism for a war game. Their estimate was that it killed 65 million people" ...

"John Hopkins is up to their eyeballs in this Nazi biological warfare dirty work. They have a BSL-3 facility there ... that they proudly announced on their website ... They justify it by saying they're developing vaccines. OK ... How do they do that?

"They go out around the world, and this is a matter of public record, and scour for every type of hideous disease, fungus, virus and bacteria you can possibly imagine. They then bring it back to these BSL-4 labs and develop an offensive, biological agent using DNA genetic engineering and synthetic biology ... set up by the Pentagon under DARPA ...

"Once they have this offensive agent, they then proceed to develop a vaccine, because the agent is no good unless you can have a vaccine to protect your own people.

"So, they're developing vaccines to have biological weapons, because a biological weapon consists of two elements: first, the offensive biological warfare agent in the first place, and second, a vaccine to protect your own people, and that is what is being done at all these BSL-4 facilities, and many of the BSL-3s as well.

"John Hopkins has a BSL-3 and they admit they do dual use. That's what dual use means. They first develop the offensive biological warfare agent and then they develop the supposed vaccine."

Indeed, Johns Hopkins University is the biggest recipient of research grants from federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Defense (DOD). It has also received millions of dollars in research grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

In 2016, Johns Hopkins spent more than $2 billion on research projects, leading all U.S. universities in research spending for the 38th year in a row.

How Can We Best Prevent or Treat COVID-19 Infection?

While it's unclear exactly which treatment is the most effective, my guess is that Dr. Paul Marik's intravenous vitamin C protocol for sepsis would be a good starting point, seeing how sepsis appears to be what kills those who succumb to a serious COVID-19 infection.

Marik's retrospective before-after clinical study showed that giving patients IV vitamin C with hydrocortisone and vitamin B1 for two days reduced mortality from 40% to 8.5%. The precise protocol used was 200 mg of thiamine every 12 hours, 1,500 mg of ascorbic acid every six hours, and 50 mg of hydrocortisone every six hours. Importantly, the treatment has no side effects and is inexpensive, readily available and simple to administer.

According to Marik, vitamin C and corticosteroids have a synergistic effect, which is part of why his combo protocol is so effective. Still, simply using high-dose IV vitamin C exclusively has been shown to improve survival in patients with sepsis and acute respiratory failure, reducing mortality from 46% to 30%.

It also reduced the number of days they needed to remain hospitalized. On average, those who received vitamin C had by Day 28 spent three fewer days in the intensive care unit than the placebo group (seven days compared to 10). By Day 60, the treatment group had also spent seven fewer days in the hospital overall - 15 days compared to 22.

While there are no trials that look at integrating hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), my suspicion is that this would provide a powerful synergy that could get the fatality rate from sepsis even closer to zero. Sadly, HBOT is not available at many hospitals, and even if it were, it is not approved for sepsis.

(34) Molecular Biologist Says COVID-19 Could Have Leaked From Wuhan Biolab; "A denial is not a refutation"

Molecular Biologist Says COVID-19 Could Have Leaked From Wuhan Biolab

Fri, 04/03/2020 - 10:10

Authored by Steve Watson via Summit News,

A molecular biologist proclaimed Thursday that the Chinese coronavirus could have originated at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, and been leaked, leading to it's horrific spread around the globe.

Richard H. Ebright, a professor of chemical biology at Rutgers University, told The Daily Caller that he believes it is a distinct possibility that an accident in the laboratory in China could have caused the outbreak.

Professor Ebright said that "A denial is not a refutation," referring to China's top virologist Shi Zhengli, who works at the lab in Wuhan, and has repeatedly denied that it was the source of the pandemic.

Zhengli, known as 'bat-woman', because she works with bat-borne viruses, has said that the coronavirus spread is "nature punishing the human race for keeping uncivilized living habits."

"The novel 2019 coronavirus is nature punishing the human race for keeping uncivilized living habits. I, Shi Zhengli, swear on my life that it has nothing to do with our laboratory," she wrote in early February, adding "I advise those who believe and spread rumors from harmful media sources ... to shut their stinking mouths."

Professor Ebright pointed to the quote, noting that it makes Zhengli's denial more suspect.

While the professor has been cited by the likes of The Washington Post and MSNBC to dismiss theories about the virus being a bioweapon, the media has not covered his belief that the possibility of a lab accident being the source of the outbreak "cannot­and should not­be dismissed."

Tom Cotton @SenTomCotton · Feb 17, 2020 Let me debunk the debunkers. @paulina_milla and her "experts" wrongly jump straight to the claim that the coronavirus is an engineered bioweapon. That's not what I've said. There's at least four hypotheses about the origin of the virus: ...

The Washington Post @washingtonpost Sen. Tom Cotton fans the embers of a coronavirus conspiracy theory that has been repeatedly debunked by experts

Richard H. Ebright @R_H_Ebright That was scenario discussed in your Fox interview. I am pleased to hear you now distinguish between possibility virus was engineered bioweapon (which can be dismissed) and possibility virus entered human population through lab accident (which cannot--and should not--be dismissed)

To clarify, Professor Ebright categorically does not believe that the virus is an engineered bioweapon, due to the scientific evidence showing otherwise. However, the notion that the strain of coronavirus that has spread around the world, and since mutated, came from the Wuhan lab is a real possibility in Ebright's opinion.

This notion is also supported by the fact that according to a study contributed to by the 'bat-woman' herself, Shi Zhengli, the novel coronavirus is 96.2% identical to a viral strain that was detected in horseshoe bats from the Yunnan Province, which is over 600 miles away from Wuhan.

Separate Chinese research confirmed this and cited testimonies from close to 60 people who lived or stayed in Wuhan for lengthy periods, saying that the bat "was never a food source in the city, and no bat was traded in the market."

The research paper, which was uploaded to Research Gate on Feb. 6, concluded that "The killer coronavirus probably originated from a laboratory in Wuhan."

The paper was removed from Research Gate on Feb. 14 or 15, according to internet archives, and it's author cannot be reached.

A deadly virus leak from a Chinese lab is not unprecedented. The SARS virus escaped twice from the Chinese Institute of Virology in Beijing in 2004, one year after its spread was brought under control.

Many believe that China's continued subterfuge regarding the coronavirus outbreak, and it's bizarre accusations that it was spread by the US military, is an effort to divert attention from the possibility that this virus leaked from the Wuhan lab.

Senator Tom Cotton, who has been continually vocal on the matter, told The Daily Caller this week that "The reason I have raised these questions from the very beginning is because of China's statements and their actions."

"After concealing the virus for many weeks in December and then minimizing its severity for most of January, they then peddle an origin story about the food market in Wuhan." Cotton said, adding "Given their dishonesty and the proximity of these labs, which we know were working with coronaviruses, it is only reasonable and responsible for us to ask the question and demand the answers."

(35) State Dep't Cables Warned Of Potential 'SARS-Like Pandemic' in 2018 after visit to Wuhan Lab Experimenting With Bat Coronavirus

US State Department Cables Warned Of Potential 'SARS-Like Pandemic' After visiting Wuhan Lab Experimenting With Bat Coronavirus

State Department cables warned of safety issues at Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses

By Josh Rogin

April 14, 2020 at 6:00 AM EDT

Two years before the novel coronavirus pandemic upended the world, U.S. Embassy officials visited a Chinese research facility in the city of Wuhan several times and sent two official warnings back to Washington about inadequate safety at the lab, which was conducting risky studies on coronaviruses from bats. The cables have fueled discussions inside the U.S. government about whether this or another Wuhan lab was the source of the virus - even though conclusive proof has yet to emerge.

In January 2018, the U.S. Embassy in Beijing took the unusual step of repeatedly sending U.S. science diplomats to the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), which had in 2015 become China's first laboratory to achieve the highest level of international bioresearch safety (known as BSL-4). WIV issued a news release in English about the last of these visits, which occurred on March 27, 2018. The U.S. delegation was led by Jamison Fouss, the consul general in Wuhan, and Rick Switzer, the embassy's counselor of environment, science, technology and health. Last week, WIV erased that statement from its website, though it remains archived on the Internet.

What the U.S. officials learned during their visits concerned them so much that they dispatched two diplomatic cables categorized as Sensitive But Unclassified back to Washington. The cables warned about safety and management weaknesses at the WIV lab and proposed more attention and help. The first cable, which I obtained, also warns that the lab's work on bat coronaviruses and their potential human transmission represented a risk of a new SARS-like pandemic.

"During interactions with scientists at the WIV laboratory, they noted the new lab has a serious shortage of appropriately trained technicians and investigators needed to safely operate this high-containment laboratory," states the Jan. 19, 2018, cable, which was drafted by two officials from the embassy's environment, science and health sections who met with the WIV scientists. (The State Department declined to comment on this and other details of the story.)

The Chinese researchers at WIV were receiving assistance from the Galveston National Laboratory at the University of Texas Medical Branch and other U.S. organizations, but the Chinese requested additional help. The cables argued that the United States should give the Wuhan lab further support, mainly because its research on bat coronaviruses was important but also dangerous.

As the cable noted, the U.S. visitors met with Shi Zhengli, the head of the research project, who had been publishing studies related to bat coronaviruses for many years. In November 2017, just before the U.S. officials' visit, Shi's team had published research showing that horseshoe bats they had collected from a cave in Yunnan province were very likely from the same bat population that spawned the SARS coronavirus in 2003.

"Most importantly," the cable states, "the researchers also showed that various SARS-like coronaviruses can interact with ACE2, the human receptor identified for SARS-coronavirus. This finding strongly suggests that SARS-like coronaviruses from bats can be transmitted to humans to cause SARS-like diseases. From a public health perspective, this makes the continued surveillance of SARS-like coronaviruses in bats and study of the animal-human interface critical to future emerging coronavirus outbreak prediction and prevention."

The research was designed to prevent the next SARS-like pandemic by anticipating how it might emerge. But even in 2015, other scientists questioned whether Shi's team was taking unnecessary risks. In October 2014, the U.S. government had imposed a moratorium on funding of any research that makes a virus more deadly or contagious, known as "gain-of-function" experiments.

As many have pointed out, there is no evidence that the virus now plaguing the world was engineered; scientists largely agree it came from animals. But that is not the same as saying it didn't come from the lab, which spent years testing bat coronaviruses in animals, said Xiao Qiang, a research scientist at the School of Information at the University of California at Berkeley.

"The cable tells us that there have long been concerns about the possibility of the threat to public health that came from this lab's research, if it was not being adequately conducted and protected," he said.

There are similar concerns about the nearby Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention lab, which operates at biosecurity level 2, a level significantly less secure than the level-4 standard claimed by the Wuhan Insititute of Virology lab, Xiao said. That's important because the Chinese government still refuses to answer basic questions about the origin of the novel coronavirus while suppressing any attempts to examine whether either lab was involved.

Sources familiar with the cables said they were meant to sound an alarm about the grave safety concerns at the WIV lab, especially regarding its work with bat coronaviruses. The embassy officials were calling for more U.S. attention to this lab and more support for it, to help it fix its problems.

"The cable was a warning shot," one U.S. official said. "They were begging people to pay attention to what was going on."

No extra assistance to the labs was provided by the U.S. government in response to these cables. The cables began to circulate again inside the administration over the past two months as officials debated whether the lab could be the origin of the pandemic and what the implications would be for the U.S. pandemic response and relations with China.

Inside the Trump administration, many national security officials have long suspected either the WIV or the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention lab was the source of the novel coronavirus outbreak. According to the New York Times, the intelligence community has provided no evidence to confirm this. But one senior administration official told me that the cables provide one more piece of evidence to support the possibility that the pandemic is the result of a lab accident in Wuhan.

"The idea that it was just a totally natural occurrence is circumstantial. The evidence it leaked from the lab is circumstantial. Right now, the ledger on the side of it leaking from the lab is packed with bullet points and there's almost nothing on the other side," the official said.

As my colleague David Ignatius noted, the Chinese government's original story - that the virus emerged from a seafood market in Wuhan - is shaky. Research by Chinese experts published in the Lancet in January showed the first known patient, identified on Dec. 1, had no connection to the market, nor did more than one-third of the cases in the first large cluster. Also, the market didn't sell bats.

Shi and other WIV researchers have categorically denied this lab was the origin for the novel coronavirus. On Feb. 3, her team was the first to publicly report the virus known as 2019-nCoV was a bat-derived coronavirus.

The Chinese government, meanwhile, has put a total lockdown on information related to the virus origins. Beijing has yet to provide U.S. experts with samples of the novel coronavirus collected from the earliest cases. The Shanghai lab that published the novel coronavirus genome on Jan. 11 was quickly shut down by authorities for "rectification."

{added Jan 1, 2021:

Chinese laboratory that first shared coronavirus genome with world ordered to close for 'rectification', hindering its Covid-19 research
No reason was given for the closure of Shanghai facility, which released information about the virus ahead of authorities

One source at the laboratory said the closure has hampered scientists' research when they should be 'racing against the clock'

Zhuang Pinghui in Beijing
South China Morning Post, Hong Kong. Published: 11:00pm, 28 Feb, 2020}

{added Jan 3, 2021:

Time Magazine of 24 Aug 2020 published an interview with Professor Zhang Yongzhen

The Chinese Scientist Who Sequenced the First COVID-19 Genome Speaks Out About the Controversies Surrounding His Work }

Several of the doctors and journalists who reported on the spread early on have disappeared.

On Feb. 14, Chinese President Xi Jinping called for a new biosecurity law to be accelerated. On Wednesday, CNN reported the Chinese government has placed severe restrictions requiring approval before any research institution publishes anything on the origin of the novel coronavirus.

The origin story is not just about blame. It's crucial to understanding how the novel coronavirus pandemic started because that informs how to prevent the next one. The Chinese government must be transparent and answer the questions about the Wuhan labs because they are vital to our scientific understanding of the virus, said Xiao.

We don't know whether the novel coronavirus originated in the Wuhan lab, but the cable pointed to the danger there and increases the impetus to find out, he said.

"I don't think it's a conspiracy theory. I think it's a legitimate question that needs to be investigated and answered," he said. "To understand exactly how this originated is critical knowledge for preventing this from happening in the future."

(36) Chinese Coronavirus is Man Made - Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize winner who Discovered HIV (Gilmore Health)

Chinese Coronavirus Is a Man Made Virus According to Luc Montagnier the Man Who Discovered HIV

By Robert Miller | Published on April 16, 2020

Reviewed By Gilmore Health | On: April 17, 2020

Contrary to the narrative that is being pushed by the mainstream that the COVID 19 virus was the result of a natural mutation and that it was transmitted to humans from bats via pangolins, Dr Luc Montagnier the man who discovered the HIV virus back in 1983 disagrees and is saying that the virus was man made.

Professor Luc Montagnier, 2008 Nobel Prize winner for Medicine, claims that SARS-CoV-2 is a manipulated virus that was accidentally released from a laboratory in Wuhan, China. Chinese researchers are said to have used coronaviruses in their work to develop an AIDS vaccine. HIV DNA fragments are believed to have been found in the SARS-CoV-2 genome.

We knew that the Chinese version of how the coronavirus emerged was increasingly under attack, but here's a thesis that tells a completely different story about the Covid-19 pandemic, which is already responsible for more than 110,000 deaths worldwide. According to Professor Luc Montagnier, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2008 for "discovering" HIV as the cause of the AIDS epidemic together with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, the SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that was manipulated and accidentally released from a laboratory in Wuhan, China, in the last quarter of 2019. According to Professor Montagnier, this laboratory, known for its work on coronaviruses, tried to use one of these viruses as a vector for HIV in the search for an AIDS vaccine!

"With my colleague, bio-mathematician Jean-Claude Perez, we carefully analyzed the description of the genome of this RNA virus," explains Luc Montagnier, interviewed by Dr Jean-François Lemoine for the daily podcast at Pourquoi Docteur, adding that others have already explored this avenue: Indian researchers have already tried to publish the results of the analyses that showed that this coronavirus genome contained sequences of another virus, ... the HIV virus (AIDS virus), but they were forced to withdraw their findings as the pressure from the mainstream was too great.

To insert an HIV sequence into this genome requires molecular tools

In a challenging question Dr Jean-François Lemoine inferred that the coronavirus under investigation may have come from a patient who is otherwise infected with HIV. No, "says Luc Montagnier," in order to insert an HIV sequence into this genome, molecular tools are needed, and that can only be done in a laboratory.

According to the 2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine, a plausible explanation would be an accident in the Wuhan laboratory. He also added that the purpose of this work was the search for an AIDS vaccine.

The truth will eventually come out

In any case, this thesis, defended by Professor Luc Montagnier, has a positive turn. According to him, the altered elements of this virus are eliminated as it spreads: "Nature does not accept any molecular tinkering, it will eliminate these unnatural changes and even if nothing is done, things will get better, but unfortunately after many deaths." Luc Montagnier added that with the help of interfering waves, we could eliminate these sequences and as a result stop the pandemic.

This is enough to feed some heated debates! So much so that Professor Montagnier's statements could also place him in the category of "conspiracy theorists": "Conspirators are the opposite camp, hiding the truth," he replies, without wanting to accuse anyone, but hoping that the Chinese will admit to what he believes happened in their laboratory.

To entice a confession from the Chinese he used the example of Iran which after taking full responsibility for accidentally hitting a Ukrainian plane was able to earn the respect of the global community. Hopefully the Chinese will do the right thing he ads. "In any case, the truth always comes out, it is up to the Chinese government to take responsibility."

(37) Indian paper which found HIV sequences engineered into Covid-19

Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag

Preprint (PDF Available) · January 2020 with 26,078 Reads

DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.30.927871

Prashant Pradhan 14.03Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Ashutosh Kumar Pandey 6.91Indian Institute of Technology Delhi + 5
Akhilesh Mishra Parul Gupta 14.9Stanford University


We are currently witnessing a major epidemic caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019- nCoV). The evolution of 2019-nCoV remains elusive. We found 4 insertions in the spike glycoprotein (S) which are unique to the 2019-nCoV and are not present in other coronaviruses. Importantly, amino acid residues in all the 4 inserts have identity or similarity to those in the HIV-1 gp120 or HIV-1 Gag. Interestingly, despite the inserts being discontinuous on the primary amino acid sequence, 3D-modelling of the 2019-nCoV suggests that they converge to constitute the receptor binding site. The finding of 4 unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV, all of which have identity /similarity to amino acid residues in key structural proteins of HIV-1 is unlikely to be fortuitous in nature. This work provides yet unknown insights on 2019-nCoV and sheds light on the evolution and pathogenicity of this virus with important implications for diagnosis of this virus. Discover the world's research

(38) MSM censors Luc Montagnier claim to have found HIV embedded in Covid-19

by Peter Myers, April 25, 2020

Luc Montagnier, who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the HIV virus, claimed to have found sequences of HIV embedded in Covid-19.

He said that this indicated that Covid-19 was genetically engineered: "in order to insert an HIV sequence into this genome, molecular tools are needed, and that can only be done in a laboratory".

He appeared on TV in France, where the Government, and other virologists, rubbished him. He was branded a "conspiracy theorist", and "fake news".

The English-language media could hardly have been unaware of the controversy. The Times of London, and alternative sites like Zero Hedge, ran the story, but the MSM in the USA blacked it out.

I ran a number of Google searches to examine whether individual news sites had covered the story.

In a Google search, if you click on 'Tools', you can set a timeframe.

Montagnier's statements were first published about April 16, 2020.

I did searches on April 18, but today, April 25, I did more extensive searches, specifing as a timeframe "past month".

Each search specified one site, being a news agency, mainly MSM but also some 'alternative' sites.

The search string I put to Google was (e.g.)

"Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site:

You need to use double-quotes as above. NB: there is no SPACE between 'site:' and the URL of the website. If you put a space, you will get wrong results.

The above search tested whether the WaPo had covered the story. The result was
Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Google searches April 25, 2020, from 3pm AEST, with time specified as "past month".

WaPo: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

NYT: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

CNN: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

NBC: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

Reuters: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

Bloomberg: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

International Business Times, USA: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

Fox News: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Washington Examiner: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Breitbart: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Associated Press: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

United Press International: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

The Economist: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

The Guardian: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

The Spectator: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

UK Telegraph: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Epoch Times: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

France24: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents

Spiegel: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Al Jazerra: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents. Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

World Socialist Web "coronavirus" site: Your search - "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: - did not match any documents.

Times of London: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site: 2 hits

BBC: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: 1 hit, fact-checked as 'No Evidence'; video did not play. No quotes from Montagnier himself
"An interview with a Nobel-Prize winning scientist who has suggested the coronavirus was created in a laboratory has been widely shared on Facebook. Luc Montagnier is the co-discoverer of HIV and was interviewed on French TV last week where he claimed the virus was accidentally released from a lab in Wuhan. The virus, he said, is the result of research into an Aids vaccine. However, despite rampant online speculation, "there is no evidence of any kind that the Sars-CoV-2 virus (which causes Covid-19) was released accidentally from a lab" says BBC science editor Paul Rincon. Peer-reviewed scientific analysis of the evidence suggests the virus came from animals. The video has been shared 12,000 times and has clocked up more than 700,000 views after it was posted on the Italian League party's official Facebook page this week."

Russia Today: 4 hits, of which 1 in English (others in French) Kremlin says Ônot enough info' to support claim Covid-19 began in a lab 22 Apr, 2020 16:14

Asia Times: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site: 3 hits

Zero Hedge: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site: 4 hits

Times of India: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site: several hits

Rio Times, Brazil "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" "coronavirus" site:

The Star, Malaysia 1 hit, says Montagnier wrong

Global Research : "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site:
US Blame Game Twist: Suing China for COVID-19 Outbreaks
By Stephen Lendman Global Research, April 19, 2020
"No evidence suggests that COVID-19 originated in a Chinese lab or from bat-eating Chinese people. [...] Researcher Larry Romanoff explained that "Japanese and Taiwanese epidemiologists and pharmacologists have determined that the new coronavirus (COVID-19) almost certainly originated in the US." [...] Falsely blaming China for its origination is all about the Trump regime shifting blame for its own wrongdoing and failings onto others. French virologist/Nobel laureate for Medicine Luc Montagnier said COVID-19 was man-made, not transmitted to humans from bats or other wildlife. In April, a peer-reviewed study published in the Antiviral Research medical journal revealed unique COVID-19 features that facilitate human-to-human transmission - making the novel coronavirus much more contagious than seasonal flu/influenza. The study also found no evidence that COVID-19 evolved naturally. Its genetic coding isn't natural. Most likely it was engineered with elements from MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) - first reported in 2012, according to the study. Genomics researcher James Lyons-Weiler explained that "(t)here is no doubt that there is a novel sequence in 2019-nCoV" - the virus causing COVID-19 disease, adding: "IPAK researchers found a sequence similarity between a pShuttle-SN recombination vector sequence and INS1378," indicating human engineering. [...]

International Business Times, Singapore "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: more than 10 hits
"Here is why French citizens trust Nobel winning-scientist Luc Montagnier more than their government. 26 percent of French citizens believe that COVID 19 causing coronavirus is man-made. 17 percent believe that the coronavirus was a deliberate creation. The involvement of high-ranking French politicians in the Wuhan lab has fueled the citizen's distrust."
By Johnlee Varghese Updated April 21, 2020 16:00 +08 "
While France may have denounced the claims made by Luc Montagnier, virologist, and winner of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on HIV, the French citizens distrustful of the government actually do believe that SARS-CoV-2, the putative cause of COVID-19, is a laboratory-manipulated virus. "Professor Luc Montagnier in a TV interview said that the SARS-CoV-2 is a manipulated virus that was accidentally released from the Wuhan laboratory, where the Chinese researchers used coronaviruses in their work to develop an AIDS vaccine. HIV RNA fragments are believed to have been found in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, Professor Luc claimed. "His statement has disturbed not only the French government but also many in the scientific community. "The French discussion boards which long have been debating over the link between the Wuhan lab and the government of France, however, find the Nobel-winning scientist's claim valid. [...]

Nikkei Asian Review, Japan: "Luc Montagnier" "coronavirus" site: "
Science Was coronavirus made in a lab? Claim met with skepticism
"French Nobel laureate adds fuel to fire in Wuhan origin debate
KIYOSHI ANDO, Nikkei senior staff writer April 25, 2020 05:11 TOKYO --
"One of the Nobel laureates responsible for discovering HIV has turned heads with a recent claim that the novel coronavirus was created by scientists, possibly in the process of seeking an AIDS vaccine. "While support for Luc Montagnier's view is almost nonexistent in the scientific community, its existence underscores how little the world knows about the pathogen behind the global pandemic. "The French virologist's assertion added to the charged debate over the origin of the virus, with U.S. officials suggesting that it had escaped from a laboratory in Wuhan, the Chinese city where the first cases appeared. "In an interview last week, the French virologist cited a paper by mathematician Jean-Claude Perez, in which Montagnier himself is thanked in the acknowledgments.
"The paper purports to show that within a narrow section of the genome of the new coronavirus, six fragments of genetic information from HIV were found. The presence of HIV-related elements in such a small fraction -- less than 1% -- of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, suggests that these could not have been inserted naturally, Perez and Montagnier argue. The virus must have been artificially engineered, they say.
"Leading French newspapers and magazines, including Le Monde and Le Figaro, reported Montagnier's comments. But other scientists are skeptical. Unlike the strict screening put in place for prestigious academic journals, Perez's paper was published on a site that does not require prior peer review.
"Researchers from France's Institut Pasteur and the National Center for Scientific Research have rejected the view that the virus is man-made, arguing that exchanging of information among viruses occurs frequently in nature.
"The skepticism is not confined to France. [...]

Conclusion: There must be a central council, which decides which news can be published.

by Peter Myers, April 25, 2020

The French-language media reported the issue.

The MSM in the USA blacked the story out entirely.

The MSM in Britain mostly blacked it out, except for the London Times. The BBC mentioned the issue, but fact-checked Montagnier away without quoting his own words, or providing any link where his case was put.

Major media in Asia did mention the story, some taking a neutral line, some siding with Montagnier, some against.

Alternative media in some cases covered the story, in other cases blacked it out.

If Montagnier were a nobody. the above would not matter. But as the discoverer of HIV, winner of the Nobel Prize, his statements should at least be reported. That they were not reported by the MSM, in particular the Globalist media, shows that the Ministry of Truth is in full force.

There must be a central council somewhere, which decides which news can be published, and which not. It would also maintain a Nomenklatura of reliable authors, and a Blacklist of those to be censored.

(39) Larouche (EIR) writers lead many conspiracy theorists astray

by Peter Myers, April 18, 2020; update May 7, 2020

David P. Goldman writes at Asia Times as 'Spengler'. NB I heard that Asia Times was founded by an ex-Larouche writer.

Here Goldman discloses the nature of the LaRouche cult that he served for many years:

"We were all about thirty, and most of us were Jewish. ... what were a group of young Jews doing in the company of a cult leader with a paranoid view of the world and a thinly disguised anti-Semitic streak".


by David P. Goldman ==

Lyndon Larouche began his political life as a Trotskyist. He founded a movement which he called "The Fifth International", suggesting a Left orientation. Yet its social mores were conservative Christian.

The main Larouche publication, Executive Intelligence Review, completely changed its editorial line between 1989 and 1995.

In 1989, it was anti-Soviet and anti-Mao. It supported the anti-Soviet movements in Eastern Europe, and publicised the Tiananmen Square massacre:

Now it takes the opposite line, and its material is re-published in China Daily.

Lyndon Larouche wrote a book called "There are No Limits to Growth": .

It's published on Larouche's Chinese site: ; also see .

Larouche literature claims that there is a single conspiracy for world hegemony, namely the British Empire, operating from the City of London. The role of Jewish financiers in it, like Lord Rothschild and George Soros, had many wondering if by 'British Empire' they meant 'Jewish Cabal.'

One could never be sure whether this movement was Stalinist or Nazi. Others branded it Yockeyist, after Francis Parker Yockey.

Larouche writers call their opponents 'Nazi' - lest they be called 'Nazi' themselves.

Ex-Larouche writers like Webster C. Tarpley and F. William Engdahl still perpetuate the Larouche line. For example, Tarpley insists that 911 was done by the "British', and is adamant in rejecting any Mossad involvement, whereas Christopher Bollyn assembles evidence for the latter.

Engdahl insists that World War I was entirely the fault of 'the British'. Admittedly, I would say, the British laid a trap for Germany, i.e. a trip-line at the Belgian border; but Germany still must be held accountable for crossing that line; and for allowing its junior partner, Austria-Hungary, to draw it into war. But the Larouchites say that Britain pretended that it would not intervene, thus luring Germany in. However there is evidence that Germany was warned before crossing the border, that Britain would intervene. My conclusion is that both sides were to blame. Of course, the Peace Conference of Versailles was one-sided; we can all agree on that.

Renegade economist Michael Hudson hates Lyndon Larouche (deceased as of 2019), and was instrumental in having him jailed for fraud. They were both Trotskyists; Hudson's father Carlos was a Trotskyist leader whom Larouche greatly admired.

In the quality of their economic analysis, there is no comparison between Larouche and Hudson; Hudson is miles ahead.

Where the Larouchites posit a single conspiracy, I posit several. In my view, the original British conspiracy was taken over by the Globalists. The defeat in Vietnam, and the associated 60s movement, marked the end of the dominance of the British faction in the Anglo-American Establishment.

After that, the Globalist faction, led by Rothschild and Soros, took over.

Boris Johnson and Donald Trump represent a resurgence of the British faction. But they are forced into alliance with the Zionist faction (Netanyahu's), because the Global and Zionist factions are so wealthy - and money buys politicians.

Apart from the above three, I maintain that China is also operating in a conspiratorial way.

I have read so much Larouche literature, that I can recognize it instantly. Recently, I have found that Matthew Ehret and Pepe Escobar are spreading the Larouche line in conspiracy circles.

Executive Intelligence Review published a number of articles by Matthew Ehret: Volume 45, Issue 33 Friday, August 17, 2018

Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), Jesuit Painter in the Forbidden City: Unifying Spirit Between East and West

by Matthew Ehret-Kump == Volume 41, Number 22, May 30, 2014

Prince Charles Speaks for the Evil Empire

by Matthew Ehret-Kump and Nancy Spannaus

His Royal Greenie, far from being a harmless doofus, is instead, a chip off the old Nazi block. ==

September 18, 2009 Vol. 36 No. 36 ==

I have not found articles by Pepe Escobar in Larouche literature, but he takes their line, and Larouche publications have quoted him favourably. e.g. :

August 10, 2012 Vol. 39 No. 31

Will Erdogan's Dream for a New Ottoman Empire Become a Nightmare?

by Ramtanu Maitra

{quote} In a July 6 article, "Turkish Prime Minister Recep Yayyip Erdogan Never Saw It Coming," in Asia Times, Pepe Escobar pointed out that Erdogan simply cannot afford to antagonize Russia. {endquote} ==

Pepe Escobar Reports on Trump's Intention to De-escalate Iran Conflict

Jan. 8, 2020 (EIRNS)

Brazilian journalist Pepe Escobar, Asia Times' geopolitical analyst, reports today in Consortium News on a response sent from a "top U.S. intel source" to whom Escobar had posed "a detailed question." ==

With Syria Crisis Postponed SCO Can Focus on New Silk Road

Posted on September 14, 2013

Pepe Escobar noted today in an article in the Asia Times titled "China Stitches Up (SCO) Silk Rd," that Ürümqi in China's far western Xinjiang province has become the "communications base for the Eurasian corridor," with hundreds of computer companies tied into the Central Asian nations. Escobar also notes that "while the (Washington) dogs of war bark, the (Chinese) caravan does deals."

(40) Kevin Barrett hosts Matthew Ehret, and says Covid-19 is a US bioweapon aimed at China

by Peter Myers, April 18, 2020

Kevin Barrett is a dissident academic whom I greatly admire; it pains me to draw attention to our differences.

Barrett was an academic at the University of Wisconsin, before being sacked for suggesting that 911 was an Inside Job.

Deprived of his income, he launched radio programs which cover a remarkable range of topics, and which draw in an income.

I myself have appeared on his program several times. Mostly we are in agreement, but the China issue touched a raw nerve.

Interviewed on his program, I suggested that China's Belt and Road program has affinities to Hitler's Autobahn project.

Both are dual-use projects. Hitler's autobahns served as conduits for his armies in World War II. I suggested that should war break out between China and the West, China's Belt and road would play the same role.

This upset a number of Barrett's subscribers, who cancelled their subscriptions - thus pressuring Barrret to exclude such views.

Nevertheless he had me on again more than once. We had common ground on China's persecution of the Uighurs - Barrett being a convert to Islam. I expressed disgust that China destroyed the old Silk-Road city of Kashgar.

My comments do not mean that I am siding with the American Empire, any more than Barret does. Rather, I maintain that China is an imperial power too; and that the Larouche movement is spreading Chinese propaganda in the West. EIR and other Larouche publications today may be partly funded by China; they should be audited.

Here is Barrett's webpage on this topic:

(41) Ministry of Truth: Facebook Fact Checkers, urged on by Soros' Avaaz

False claim: Steam therapy kills coronavirus - Reuters Fact Check, cites CDC & WHO

Reuters Fact Check [...]

One post claims: "Steam heat treatment for respiratory viruses. A natural remedy that kills Coronavirus, Influenza, Rhinovirus." ( here )

Neither the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) nor the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest steam therapy with any ingredient as a cure for the coronavirus. A representative from the CDC told Reuters that he was not aware of any scientific studies that show steam therapy helps with the coronavirus. [...] ==

Facebook censors "false information checked by independent fact-checkers"

See the censorship screen that Facebook uses to cover posts it deems false:

Facebook : our fact-checkers are certified through the non-partisan International Fact-Checking Network ==

How is Facebook addressing false news through third-party fact-checkers?

We're committed to fighting the spread of false news on Facebook. We use both technology and human review to remove fake accounts, promote news literacy and disrupt the financial incentives of spammers. In certain countries, we also work with third-party fact-checkers who are certified through the non-partisan International Fact-Checking Network to help identify and review false news. [...] Let us know if you think a story is false. This is one of the signs we use when trying to identify false news. ==

Soros' Avaaz pushes Facebook to censor 'false and misleading' info, as assessed by 'reputable, independent fact-checkers'

How Facebook can Flatten the Curve of the Coronavirus Infodemic

Study indicates Facebook is rife with bogus cures and conspiracy theories that remain on the platform long enough to put millions of people at risk

April 15, 2020 ==

Facebook's 'Fact Checkers' Are the Real Fake News

Facebook's 'fact checkers' are the real fake news after censoring Post story

By Post Editorial Board April 17, 2020 | 5:56pm | Updated

Way back on Feb. 23, The Post ran an opinion piece by Steven Mosher saying that we couldn't trust China's story about the origins of COVID-19. He argued that the virus might - might - have jumped to the human population thanks to errors at a Chinese laboratory in Wuhan, rather than via that city's now-notorious "wet market."

The piece was widely read online - until Facebook stepped in.

The social media giant's "fact checkers" decided this was not a valid opinion. If you tried to share Mosher's column on Facebook, the social network stuck a "False Information" alert on top, saying that finding was "checked by independent fact-checkers" and preventing your friends from clicking to connect to the original article to see for themselves.

Again, this was an opinion column, not a news report.

Mosher cited a host of suggestive facts, including urgent government directives, the sudden trip of China's top biowar expert to Wuhan and that nation's shoddy record of lab safety - as well as gaping holes in the wet-market explanation, such as the fact that the market in question doesn't sell bats, the animal from which the bug supposedly jumped.

How, exactly, did Facebook determine that Mosher's reasoned arguments constituted "False information"? Well, in fact, it didn't so determine: Rather, it was an "independent fact-checker."

And who did this fact checker rely on for their opinion? As reporter Sharyl Attkisson notes, one expert consulted had a clear conflict of interest: She has regularly worked with Wuhan's researchers, and even done her own experiments there. Danielle E. Anderson, assistant professor, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore, personally attested to the lab's "strict control and containment measures."

Anderson did admit, however, that Mosher was correct when he mentioned that SARS did twice escape a Beijing research lab in 2004.

The other expert who weighed in noted in her objection: "Any responsible government would strengthen safety and security procedures in high-containment labs that will and should be working with the novel coronavirus to develop countermeasures and diagnostics."

Well, yes, any responsible government would.

Because these medical researchers took offense that someone would question the Wuhan lab's protocols, Facebook decided you weren't allowed to speculate online.

Nearly two months later, of course, Mosher isn't alone in his opinion.

This week brought hard news in the form of State Department cables from January 2018 showing that the US government had longstanding, grave concerns about safety protocols at the Wuhan lab - China's only Level 4 biohazard laboratory.

And multiple outlets, including Fox News and The Washington Post, report that top US national-security officials are increasingly of the belief that the bug came from that lab.

The New York Post has asked for weeks to get Facebook to un-block the Mosher article. On Friday, the social network finally did so, though without acknowledging that it had been wrong all along.

As a significant source of news for much of the world's population, Facebook has a clear responsibility to do better: If it's going to block "false" information, it needs better fact-checkers - and more people watching over those watchmen.

When your defense against "fake news" all but kills free discussion, your system is worse than no defense at all. ==

(42) 2016 paper in PNAS thanks Zhengli Shi of Wuhan Institute of Virology for bat CoV sequences and plasmid of WIV1-CoV spike protein

2016 paper in PNAS "SARS-like WIV1-CoV poised for human emergence" thanks Zhengli-Li Shi of Wuhan Institute of Virology for bat CoV sequences and plasmid of WIV1-CoV spike protein

Zhengli-Li Shi is mentioned in the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS at the end.

From: E (epidemiologist in USA)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA

SARS-like WIV1-CoV poised for human emergence

Vineet D. Menachery, Boyd L. Yount Jr., Amy C. Sims, Kari Debbink, Sudhakar S. Agnihothram, Lisa E. Gralinski, Rachel L. Graham, Trevor Scobey, Jessica A. Plante, Scott R. Royal, Jesica Swanstrom, Timothy P. Sheahan, Raymond J. Pickles, Davide Corti, Scott H. Randell, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Wayne A. Marasco, and Ralph S. Baric

PNAS March 15, 2016 113 (11) 3048-3053; first published March 14, 2016

Edited by Peter Palese, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, and approved January 6, 2016 (received for review September 4, 2015)

Outbreaks from zoonotic sources represent a threat to both human disease as well as the global economy. Despite a wealth of metagenomics studies, methods to leverage these datasets to identify future threats are underdeveloped. In this study, we describe an approach that combines existing metagenomics data with reverse genetics to engineer reagents to evaluate emergence and pathogenic potential of circulating zoonotic viruses. Focusing on the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like viruses, the results indicate that the WIV1-coronavirus (CoV) cluster has the ability to directly infect and may undergo limited transmission in human populations. However, in vivo attenuation suggests additional adaptation is required for epidemic disease. Importantly, available SARS monoclonal antibodies offered success in limiting viral infection absent from available vaccine approaches. Together, the data highlight the utility of a platform to identify and prioritize prepandemic strains harbored in animal reservoirs and document the threat posed by WIV1-CoV for emergence in human populations. [...]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Dr. Zhengli-Li Shi of the Wuhan Institute of Virology for access to bat CoV sequences and plasmid of WIV1-CoV spike protein. Research was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and the National Institute of Aging of the NIH under Awards U19AI109761 and U19AI107810 (to R.S.B.), AI1085524 (to W.A.M.), and F32AI102561 and K99AG049092 (to V.D.M.). Human airway epithelial cell cultures were supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Di-gestive and Kidney Disease under Award NIH DK065988 (to S.H.R.). Support for the generation of the mice expressing human ACE2 was provided by NIH Grants AI076159 and AI079521 (to A.C.S.). ==


(43) Added June 20, 2021, updated June 28, 2021: 'Redstate' names alleged High-level Chinese defector as Dong JingWei, claims he revealed that Covid was PLA bioweapon; but China state media shows photo of him at SCO meeting

(a) High level Chinese defector reported in Daily Beast on June 17, co-published with SpyTalk

Defector Claiming Chinese Military Responsible for COVID-19 Identified as Top Counterintelligence Official

Rumors of U.S. Secretly Harboring Top China Official Swirl

Reports that a top Chinese official defected to the U.S. have swept Chinese-language media this week. The alleged reason? Sharing sensitive information about COVID-19 origins.

SpyTalk Jeff Stein Matthew Brazil

Updated Jun. 17, 2021 7:17PM ET / Published Jun. 17, 2021 3:25PM ET

Chinese-language anti-communist media and Twitter are abuzz this week with rumors that a vice minister of State Security, Dong Jingwei defected in mid-February, flying from Hong Kong to the United States with his daughter, Dong Yang.

Dong Jingwei supposedly gave the U.S. information about the Wuhan Institute of Virology that changed the stance of the Biden administration concerning the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Dong is, or was, a longtime official in China's Ministry of State Security (MSS), also known as the Guoanbu. His publicly available background indicates that he was responsible for the Ministry's counterintelligence efforts in China, i.e., spy-catching, since being promoted to vice minister in April 2018. If the stories are true, Dong would be the highest-level defector in the history of the People's Republic of China.

Dong's defection was raised by Chinese officials last March at the Sino-American summit in Alaska, according to Dr. Han Lianchao, a former Chinese foreign ministry official before defecting after the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre. In a Wednesday tweet, Han, citing an unnamed source, alleged that China's foreign minister Wang Yi and Communist Party foreign affairs boss Yang Jiechi demanded that the Americans return Dong, and U.S. Secretary of State Anthony Blinken refused. [...]

(b) Rumor: Vice minister of State Security, Dong Jingwei, defected to USA - Spytalk

High-level Chinese Defection Rumored

Chinese State Security Vice Minister Dong Jingwei would be highest-level defector in the history of the People's Republic.

Matthew Brazil and Jeff Stein

June 17, 2021 [...]

(c) Redstate: China defector was top Counterintelligence Official, revealed Wuhan Lab biowar research

BREAKING: Chinese Defector's Identity Confirmed, Was Top Counterintelligence Official

By Jennifer Van Laar | Jun 17, 2021 8:00 PM ET We now know the name of the Chinese defector who has been working with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) for a few months and what his position within the Chinese military and government was, among other details.

Matthew Brazil and Jeff Stein at Spy Talk reported on the "rumor," and gave the name and background of the rumored defector:

Chinese-language anti-communist media and Twitter are abuzz this week with rumors that a vice minister of State Security, Dong Jingwei (???) defected in mid-February, flying from Hong Kong to the United States with his daughter, Dong Yang. [...]

It's only in the last three to four weeks that anyone outside DIA knew about the defector, according to RedState's sources. Prior to that time, DIA was vetting the information provided and confronting Langley officials with what they'd learned without divulging the source.

Experts quoted in the Spy Talk piece essentially say that the defection is just a rumor and that rumors happen all the time, but that if it's true it's a big deal but "not game-changing." Based on conversations with sources familiar with the information Dong has already provided and its quantity and reliability, that's simply not the case. Not only does Dong have detailed information about China's special weapons systems, the Chinese military's operation of the Wuhan Institute of Virology and the origins of SARS-CoV-2, and the Chinese government's assets and sources within the United States; Dong has extremely embarrassing and damaging information about our intelligence community and government officials in the "terabytes of data" he's provided to the DIA. [...]

In addition, Dong has provided DIA with the following information:

Early pathogenic studies of the virus we now know as SARS-CoV-2

Models of predicted COVID-19 spread and damage to the US and the world

Financial records detailing which exact organizations and governments funded the research on SARS-CoV-2 and other biological warfare research

Names of US citizens who provide intel to China

Names of Chinese spies working in the US or attending US universities

Financial records showing US businessmen and public officials who've received money from the Chinese government

Details of meetings US government officials had (perhaps unwittingly) with Chinese spies and members of Russia's SVR

How the Chinese government gained access to a CIA communications system, leading to the death of dozens of Chinese people who were working with the CIA

Dong also has provided DIA with copies of the contents of the hard drive on Hunter Biden's laptop, showing the information the Chinese government has about Hunter's pornography problem and about his (and Joe's) business dealings with Chinese entities. Some of the files on Dong has provided shine a light on just how it was that the sale of Henniges Automotive (and their stealth technology) to Chinese military manufacturer AVIC Auto was approved.

Again, according to sources, Dong told DIA debriefers that at least a third of Chinese students attending US universities are PLA assets or part of the Thousand Talents Plan and that many of the students are here under pseudonyms. One reason for using pseudonyms is that many of these students are the children of high-ranking military and party leaders.

As we initially reported, DIA has high confidence in the veracity of Dong's claims. The fact that since our original report, which was pooh-poohed by Langley apologists, the New York Times published a rare interview with Dr. Shi Zhengli (the WIV "Bat Woman"), ABC News has started an "investigation" into COVID-19 origins, and now the actual name of the defector has been published in an anti-Trump, CIA-friendly blog, demonstrates what sources told RedState today: "This defector has the rest of the intelligence community and the LEO community scared sh**less."

(d) Chinese language blogs claim that Dong defected in mid-February

Defection rumors

In June 2021, rumors began to surface on Chinese language blogs[2] online suggesting Dong had defected in mid-February, flying from Hong Kong to the United States with his adult daughter, Dong Yang. The rumors claimed Dong had provided key information about the Wuhan Institute of Virology that changed the stance of the Biden Administration concerning the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. [...]

This page was last edited on 18 June 2021, at 16:03 (UTC).

(e) Dong Jingwei reportedly informed US officials about Wuhan biowar research, & Covid Lab Leak - Daily Mail

[...] Dong 'was last seen in public in September 2020,' Han claimed.

His photos have been deleted by the Chinese search engine Baidu, according to some Chinese language news reports abroad. [...]

Red State reported that Dong's defection pushed U.S. officials to question Fauci's approach.

'Sources say the level of confidence in the defector's information is what has led to a sudden crisis of confidence in Dr. Anthony Fauci, adding that U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) personnel detailed to DIA have corroborated very technical details of information provided by the defector,' it said. [...]

The critics also argue that Fauci did not want to admit at the time that U.S. taxpayers' money was spent on the Wuhan lab.

He has since confirmed that $820,000 was given to the lab, over six years, to fund their research into coronaviruses. [...]

(f) Top Chinese official may have DEFECTED to US with info on Wuhan lab - The Sun (Murdoch)

COVID 'CONVERT' Top Chinese official may have DEFECTED to US with info on Wuhan lab

M.L. Nestel

1:36 ET, Jun 18 2021Updated: 2:03 ET, Jun 18 2021

(g) NYT, WaPo, Reuters, BBC, Int. Business Times fail to report the story

by Peter Myers, June 19, 2021

Today at 11.40am Australian Eastern Standard Time, I searched the MSM for "Dong Jingwei", in Google, without specifying any time, to see if they covered the story of his defection.

The Daily Mail reported it 23 hours earlier, Times of India 22 hours earlier, Murdoch's Sun 20 hours earlier.

But NYT, WaPo, Reuters, BBC, and Int. Business Times failed to report the story.

Here are the searches & results:

"Dong Jingwei" site:

No results containing all your search terms were found.

Your search - "Dong Jingwei" site: - did not match any documents.

"Dong Jingwei" site:

No results containing all your search terms were found.

Your search - "Dong Jingwei" site: - did not match any documents.

"Dong Jingwei" site:

No results found for "Dong Jingwei" site:

No results containing all your search terms were found.

Your search - "Dong Jingwei" site: - did not match any documents.

No results containing all your search terms were found.

Your search - "Dong Jingwei" site: - did not match any documents.

(h) DIA allegedly kept Defector clandestine because there are Chinese spies inside FBI, CIA, & State Dept

EXCLUSIVE: High-Ranking Chinese Defector Has 'Direct Knowledge' of Several Chinese Special Weapons Programs By Jennifer Van Laar | Jun 04, 2021 2:23 PM ET A person believed to be among the highest-ranking defectors ever to the United States from the People's Republic of China has been working with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) for months, sources inside the intelligence community have told RedState on condition of anonymity. The defector has direct knowledge of special weapons programs in China, including bioweapons programs, those sources say.

The information provided to RedState corroborates and clarifies Thursday evening's reporting by journalist Adam Housley.

RedState's sources say that's partially true. FBI Director Christopher Wray was "ambushed" with the information, they say, and Langley was also unaware. Sources say DIA leadership kept the defector within their Clandestine Services network to prevent Langley and the State Department from accessing the person, whose existence was kept from other agencies because DIA leadership believes there are Chinese spies or sources inside the FBI, CIA, and several other federal agencies.

More information will be published as it becomes available to RedState.

UPDATE 12:30 PM PDT, June 4, 2021

Sources tell RedState the defector has been with the DIA for three months and that he has provided an extensive, technically detailed debrief to US officials. In DIA's assessment, the information provided by the defector is legitimate. Sources say the level of confidence in the defector''s information is what has led to a sudden crisis of confidence in Dr. Anthony Fauci, adding that U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) personnel detailed to DIA have corroborated very technical details of information provided by the defector.

(NOTE: Several former CIA officers have questioned the veracity of this story or termed it an outright fabrication. We are aware of those comments and stand by our sources.)

(i) State Dept, CIA tried to stop Wuhan Lab Probe - Pompeo

Pompeo Confirms Intense Opposition to Wuhan Lab Probe From State Department, Intelligence Bureaucracies

BY MARK TAPSCOTT June 3, 2021 Updated: June 4, 2021

Former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo confirmed to The Epoch Times on June 3 that his efforts to get to the bottom of how the CCP virus- also known as the novel coronavirus - spread from China to the United States met with sustained opposition within the U.S. government.

Asked about revelations in a June 3 Vanity Fair report that key officials deep within the State Department sought to keep the public from knowing that U.S. funds had supported gain-of-function research at China's Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), Pompeo described a "contentious battle."

That research, which focused on techniques for reconfiguring naturally occurring viruses to make them more virulent and transmissible to humans, was partially funded as far back as 2012 with U.S. tax dollars through the National Institutes of Health and a nonprofit foundation known as the EcoHealth Alliance.

The Vanity Fair analysis "found that conflicts of interest, stemming in part from large government grants supporting controversial virology research, hampered the U.S. investigation into COVID-19's origin at every step."

"In one State Department meeting, officials seeking to demand transparency from the Chinese government say they were explicitly told by colleagues not to explore the Wuhan Institute of Virology's gain-of-function research, because it would bring unwelcome attention to U.S. government funding of it," the article reads. [...]

A major roadblock was the fact that significant portions of the evidence were held by intelligence agencies that opposed their public release. [...]

Congressional correspondent Mark Tapscott may be reached at

(j) PLA defector says Chinese has penetrated US gov't, wary of cooperating with CIA (Sept 2020)

Second China defector gives biological weapons information (Sept 2020)

By Bill Gertz - The Washington Times - Wednesday, September 16, 2020

U.S. intelligence agencies recently increased their knowledge of China's covert biological weapons program with the help of a defector from the People's Liberation Army, according to people familiar with the incident.

The defector escaped from China and traveled to Europe, where he is under the protection of a European government security service, according to the sources. The PLA defector believes that Chinese intelligence has penetrated the U.S. government and is therefore wary of cooperating with the CIA and other Western spy agencies.

Still, the defector has provided some information about China's biological arms program that has reached the U.S. government. No other details of the defection could be learned.

However, the defector is the second person from China to provide information about Chinese biological research with potential weapons applications.

Chinese virologist Yan Li-meng fled to the United States from Hong Kong this spring and charged in news interviews that the virus behind the COVID-19 pandemic was manufactured in the Wuhan Institute of Virology and appears to be designed from two viruses stored in a PLA laboratory.

(k) added June 28, 2021 - Chinese state media denies Dong JingWei defection, shows photo of him at SCO meeting

China Spymaster Dong Jingwei Makes First Public Appearance Since Defection Rumors

BY JOHN FENG ON 6/24/21 AT 4:19 AM EDT

Chinese state security official Dong Jingwei has made his first public appearance amid rumors that he had defected to the United States four months ago.

China's 57-year-old vice minister of state security has been the subject of much discussion in America's conservative circles, with the speculation even reaching Chinese social media threads as Beijing's top spy catcher was not seen or photographed for several weeks.

While the Chinese government has yet to publicly address the stories about his alleged defection, its embassy in Washington informed Newsweek on Wednesday that the country's senior counterintelligence official had attended a cross-regional security dialogue earlier in the day.

According to minutes released by the Communist Party's Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission, Dong was among five Chinese officials who attended the 16th meeting of the Security Council Secretaries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Member States on June 23.

A picture of the meeting, which they attended via video link, showed Dong sitting on the far right, while Chinese Minister of Public Security Zhao Kezhi, in the center, led the talks.

{caption} Chinese Spymaster Appears At Regional Security Meeting Chinese Vice Minister of State Security Dong Jingwei (right) attends the 16th meeting of the Security Council Secretaries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States on June 23, 2021. Dong, who was the subject of defection rumors, was among five Chinese officials including Minister of Public Security Zhao Kezhi (center). CENTRAL POLITICAL AND LEGAL AFFAIRS COMMISSION

The spymaster's first public appearance this month would appear to finally put to rest rumors about his alleged defection to the U.S. - first reported by conservative political blog RedState on June 4.

Subsequent reports, coupled with analyses by China specialists and a U.S.-based Chinese defector, further fueled the speculation, which continued as Dong's precise whereabouts remained unknown.

On Tuesday, separate U.S. government sources denied rumors that Dong had handed himself over to American intelligence officials. Speaking on condition of anonymity, the first told Newsweek the stories "are not accurate," while the second said the reports were "absolutely untrue."

The exact origins of the Dong Jingwei rumors remain unknown, but they come as the Chinese leadership prepares to celebrate the 100-year anniversary of the Communist Part of China on July 1.

According to the reports by RedState, which cited unnamed sources within the intelligence community, Dong was said to have defected in February and supposedly offered damaging evidence pertaining to the alleged human-made origins of COVID-19 in the Wuhan Institute of Virology, among other subject matters.

Dong did not speak during the SCO dialogue on Wednesday, according to the publicly available meeting notes. Zhao, the public security minister, addressed the other secretaries of Eurasian security alliance - otherwise known as the Shanghai Pact.

(l) Solomon Yue claims photo of Dong Jingwei was photoshopped

Mystery as Chinese spymaster Dong Jingwei ÔREAPPEARSÕ amid rumours heÕd fled to US with Wuhan lab leak secrets

Jon Rogers

14:35 ET, Jun 24 2021

MYSTERY surrounds the Chinese spymaster Dong Jingwei after he is said to have ÔreappearedÕ amid rumours he had fled to the US with Wuhan lab secrets.

China has released a photo appearing to show Dong Jingwei claiming he attended the 16th meeting of the Secretaries of the Security Councils of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation on June 23 but doubts have been raised about the pictures authenticity.

Solomon Yue, co-founder of RNC Republican National Conservative Caucus & Conservative Steering Committee, claimed the picture had been photoshopped.

He said in a Twitter message: "DIA still has #DongJingwei in its protective custody & he is still singing to celebrate #CCP 100th birthday. This picture is photoshopped. now I was told that I was there too."

The exact whereabouts of Dong have not been officially confirmed.

Similarly, the claim the picture has been doctored has not been independently verified. ...

(m) SinoInsider reckons that a defection did occur, but Dong Jingwei unlikely to be the defector

Analyzing the case of Dong Jingwei and Chinese defector rumors

June 26, 2021 Geopolitics, POLITICS, RECOMMENDED, RISK vs OPP

The following analysis was first published in the June 24, 2021 edition of our subscriber-only SinoWeekly Plus newsletter.

Since the second half of 2020, there have been numerous rumors about Chinese defectors circulating in both English and Chinese language media and social media. Of the rumors, two stand out. Around the August-September 2020 period, a Chinese defector with knowledge of the PRCÕs covert biological weapons program reportedly escaped to Europe. According to The Washington Times, the defector "believes that Chinese intelligence has penetrated the U.S. government and is therefore wary of cooperating with the CIA and other Western spy agencies." And in the second week of June 2021, prominent U.S.-based Chinese pro-democracy activist Wei Jingsheng tweeted that PRC vice president Wang Qishan is the rumored defector; Wei later deleted his tweet.

Recently, the case of PRC Ministry of State Security (MSS) Dong JingweiÕs alleged defection made waves in the international community.

June 16 Prominent U.S.-based Chinese pro-democracy activist Han Lianchao tweeted that he heard "gossip" (???) from a friend that Dong Jingwei, a vice minister at the PRC Ministry of State Security (MSS), had defected to America. The following day, HanÕs tweet was picked up by the SpyTalk newsletter, and SpyTalkÕs analysis was in turn widely re-reported and commented on by mainstream and conservative media outlets.

June 17 Conservative media RedState cited SpyTalk and unnamed sources as saying that Dong Jingwei is in fact the mystery Chinese defector with information about COVID-19Õs origins and other intelligence that RedState had reported on June 4. RedState claims that Dong arrived in the U.S. in mid-February and has been working with the Defense Intelligence Agency for a few months.

June 18 1. "Chang An Jian" (???), the official WeChat account of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission, reported that MSS vice minister Dong Jingwei had presided over a symposium to study and implement regulations on counter-espionage and work safety (???) that were rolled out on April 26.

The symposium urged officials to do counter-espionage work well, and called on them to catch "spies," "traitors," and "behind-the-scenes funders" (???). The symposium also accused "behind-the-scenes funders" of bankrolling "hostile foreign forces" through illicit means to carry out "anti-China activities." Xinhua, CCTV, and other mainland news outlets republished "Chang An JianÕs" piece about the symposium chaired by Dong Jingwei, and it was reported on without commentary by the Alibaba-owned South China Morning Post.

Many Chinese and English language observers view the June 18 "Chang An Jian" piece as an effort by the CCP to dispel rumors of Dong JingweiÕs supposed defection. They noted that it was very suspicious that reports of the symposium did not include photographs or videos of DongÕs appearance, and that he conveniently emerged in public barely a day after"bombshell" reports of his "defection" in Western media.

2. On June 18, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping and other Party and state leaders in Beijing (Politburo, CMC, CPPCC leaders, leaders of democratic parties, etc.) visited the newly inaugurated CCP Museum to view an exhibit on Party history. Xi later led the leaders who were Party members in an oath-taking ceremony.

According to state media reports, Xi stressed that "the PartyÕs history is the most vivid and most convincing textbook." He called on all Party members and cadres to observe and study Party history to "maintain a high degree of unanimity from the beginning to the end with Party Central in the realm of ideology, politics, and actions."

June 19 The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection published a lead article on its website titled, "Never Betraying the Party Is Not Just an Oath" (???) under its "Review the Classics and Move Forward Amid Adversity" (??? ???) section.

The article revisited the case of Gu Shunzhang, a notorious early CCP leader from Shanghai who oversaw Party Central Committee security, intelligence operations, and the extermination of Party traitors. Gu was apprehended by Kuomintang intelligence in April 1931 and became a Party traitor himself by divulging the CCPÕs Shanghai intelligence networks and leaders. However, important Party leaders like Zhou Enlai were able to escape the KMT because they received early notification from communist intelligence assets in the upper echelons of the KMT who caught wind of GuÕs defection and betrayal.

In May 1931, Zhou helmed an effort to wipe out Gu ShunzhangÕs family members and relatives, which led to the murder of 39 people. The CCP Central Committee later issued "No. 223 Notice" in December 1931, a document noting GuÕs expulsion from the Party and calling on the entire CCP to "destroy Gu Shunzhang, enemy of Chinese workers and peasants, and traitor to all of communism," as well as "struggle against all traitors."

Gu Shunzhang vanished in 1934 and the KMT later announced that they had executed him by firing squad in December that year on the orders of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek for supposedly founding a "New Communist Party." The CCP claimed that the KMT secretly executed Gu because he was no longer of value to them. According to various accounts, the elimination of Gu could have been a CCP "inside job," i.e. Gu was set-up for a fall by CCP infiltrators in the upper ranks of the KMT intelligence service.

June 22 SpyTalk wrote in a newsletter a U.S. government official told them that reports of Dong JingweiÕs defection are "not accurate," while hinting that the MSS vice minister is in China.

June 23 Dong Jingwei made a public appearance alongside PRC public security minister Zhao Kezhi and three other Beijing officials at the 16th meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Security Council Secretaries (see photo and video). The PRC delegation participated in the meeting virtually.

OUR TAKE 1. Persistent rumors of a Chinese defector in recent months, BeijingÕs warning about "never betraying the Party," and Dong JingweiÕs subsequent public appearances in the days after the international community began to speculate on his defection suggest that a defection did occur.

Dong, however, was unlikely to be the defector from the get go. The CCP closely controls and monitors its senior officials (vice provincial/vice ministerial level and above) and their family members precisely to guard against defection and ensure their loyalty. Senior officials in the MSS are almost certainly subject to even tighter scrutiny given their critical function (intelligence) and the paranoid CCP learning from its past mistakes. State Security officials with questionable loyalties or are not "compromised" (i.e. involved in wetwork, human rights atrocities, or other damning activities that give Beijing leverage over them) in some way will unlikely rise to DongÕs rank in the first place. In contrast, more junior ranking officials (bureau level and below) would find it relatively easier to flee.

In the case of an actual defection, the CCP would either stay silent about it (including stepping up censorship of the defectorÕs name and denying knowledge of the defector), or go on the offensive by smearing the defector ("fraudster," "wanted criminal suspect," etc.) and accusing the person of "fabricating" intelligence (see here and here for the Wang Liqiang case in 2019). The CCP would not risk staging a fake public appearance by the defector only for the propaganda to backfire spectacularly later should the defector make an actual public appearance in the country of defection.

Meanwhile, the lack of accompanying photos or videos in CCP articles about Dong JingweiÕs June 18 symposium was not as suspicious as it may seem. It is not unusual for the CCP to conceal the identity of its intelligence operatives where possible. Mainland media reports typically provide only the names of MSS officials in reports where they are mentioned and they very rarely appear in photos or videos. Available résumés of MSS officials are also usually very brief and do not contain photos. Further, State Security officials are not typically identified when they do appear in photos, as in the case of Dong Jianwei accompanying Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission secretary general Chen Yixin in meeting German security officials in September 2018 (first photo after this paragraph; Dong is first from the left, but is not identified in the photo caption), and Dong attending the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Security Council Secretaries meeting on June 23 (second photo after this paragraph; Dong is first from the right, but is not identified in the photo caption). On a side note, Han LianchaoÕs original tweet about Dong JingweiÕs supposed defection featured a photo of a retired official who happens to have the same name as the MSS vice minister.

In assessing the rumors of a Chinese defector that emerged last year and the CCPÕs actions after news of Dong JingweiÕs "defection" started making waves abroad, we believe that an actual defection did occur. It is very possible that the bulk of defector rumors are classic CCP disinformation operations designed to muddy the waters on the topic and ruin the credibility of the international media, Chinese dissidents, and world governments. So should the real defector go public, the CCP can simply trot out "debunked" defector cases to argue convincingly, "why should we or the world believe this so-called ÔdefectorÕ and what biased, discredited, conspiracy-minded foreigners have to say?" We believe that the rumors, as well as the "Chang An Jian" piece about DongÕs symposium and his June 24 public appearance, are part of a pre-emptive, broader move to discredit the CCPÕs opponents. However, the fact that the CCP needs to put out defector disinformation in the first place hints at a cover-up; there is no smoke without fire.

If there was indeed a recent PRC defection, the person is more likely to be at the bureau rank or below, where CCP control over officials is less strict. Having a lower rank, however, does not mean that the defector will provide less valuable information. On the contrary, lower ranking officials are closer to actual operations and may be more familiar with matters that senior officials (including Xi Jinping) may not know, such as sensitive research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology or other intelligence of geopolitical significance.

If the defector was a senior official, the real reasons for defection would highly unlikely be over "moral and conscience," and would more probably be connected with factional struggle and clashing personal interests.


(44) added June 21, 2021 - Defection of Dong Jingwei would be comparable to the defections of Victor Kravchenko, Walter Krivitsky, and Whittaker Chambers

I had a somewhat rude reply from Denis McCormack <>, to my email comprising item 43 above:

Thanks for your below P, but it is unclear to me as to why you make it soooo repetitive and long winded by reporting soooo many such similar reports. B.t.w., I recall msm reported rumours here of PRC spies among Chinese 'students' ...




You are enduring Lockdown in Melbourne, but you fail to see the connection between Covid-19 and Dong Jingwei's revelations.

Specifically, he says that Wuhan Institute of Virology is actually run by the PLA, and that Sars-Cov2 was one of their biowarfare projects that leaked by mistake.

The bit about 1/3 of Chinese students being spies seems to be the only part you found interesting. Then again, immigration seems to be your only concern.

Although Dong's defection is dismissed as a mere 'rumour' by the Globalist media, Biden's ordering a probe on the Lab Leak scenario does tie in with it.

If it's genuine, this is comparable to the defections of Victor Kravchenko, Walter Krivitsky, and Whittaker Chambers.

They all wrote books; Dong will have to do so too, to prove his bona fides.

Krivitsky's book is "In Stalin's Secret Service - Memoirs of the First Soviet Master Spy to Defect".

Dong, too, is a spymaster.

Kravchenko wrote, "the news of my getaway was on the front pages of the Washington and New York papers".

But the same papers are suppressing the story of Dong's defection. Why? Because it reflects badly on Globalization. To think that our universities are full of Chinese spies, many being members of the PLA - this is shocking.

Whittaker Chambers informed on Communist espionage in the USA. Dong's revelations about China's penetration of the CIA, FBI & State Dept are equally shattering.



(45) added June 26, 2021 - In 2016 Video, Peter Daszak admits "my colleagues in China" develop "Killer" Coronaviruses

Pater Daszak was a panelist in a 2016 forum on Emerging Iinfectious Diseases and the Next Pandemic. The video of the forum is online at

FEBRUARY 23, 2016


Sonia Shah moderated a forum on emerging infectious diseases and the next pandemic. The event began with Ms. Shah discussing her book, Pandemic: Tracking Contagions, From Cholera to Ebola and Beyond. ==

In this 2016 video, Daszak describes "insert[ing] spike proteins" into viruses to see if they can "bind to human cells".

The entire video lasts over an hour. Daszak spoke in four intervals, beginning at 00:30:01

The c-span webpage provides a transcript, but the transcript of Daszak's talk omits important parts of it, which is seen when comparing it with the video of him talking.

The critical part is at 1:17:06 - 37. Watch that part.

Or watch a clip of that part - it is at

Download the video clip at

In this 2016 video, Daszak describes "insert[ing] spike proteins" into viruses to see if they can "bind to human cells".

Daszak admits that Gain of Function experiments are being conducted by "my colleagues in China" - with his collaboration:

The National Pulse.

EXCLUSIVE WATCH: Explosive, Unearthed Video Shows Peter Daszak Describing 'Chinese Colleagues' Developing 'Killer' Coronaviruses.

JUNE 8, 2021


EcoHealth Alliance President Peter Daszak ­ who collaborated with the Wuhan Institute of Virology on research funded by Dr. Anthony Fauci's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease ­ appears to boast about the manipulation of "killer" SARS-like coronaviruses carried out by his "colleagues in China" in a clip unearthed by The National Pulse.

Daszak made the admission at a 2016 forum discussing "emerging infectious diseases and the next pandemic," which appears to be at odds with Fauci's repeated denial of funding gain-of-function research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

While describing how his organization sequences deadly viruses, Daszak describes the process of "insert[ing] spike proteins" into viruses to see if they can "bind to human cells" as being carried out by his "colleagues in China":

{ at 1:17:06 - 37}

"Then when you get a sequence of a virus, and it looks like a relative of a known nasty pathogen, just like we did with SARS. We found other coronaviruses in bats, a whole host of them, some of them looked very similar to SARS. So we sequenced the spike protein: the protein that attaches to cells. Then we ... Well I didn't do this work, but my colleagues in China did the work. You create pseudo particles, you insert the spike proteins from those viruses, see if they bind to human cells. At each step of this you move closer and closer to this virus could really become pathogenic in people.

"You end up with a small number of viruses that really do look like killers," he adds.

The comments follow growing evidence that Fauci's NIAID has deep financial and personnel ties to the Wuhan Institute of Virology ­ and that Daszak's EcoHealth alliance was one of the primary proxies funneling the money to the Chinese Communist Party lab.

Over a dozen research papers carried out under a $3.7 million National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) grant list the Wuhan Lab's Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases Director Shi Zhengli as a co-author alongside Daszak. Shi has included these Fauci-backed grants on her resume.

The Wuhan lab has also listed the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as one of its "partners," secretly erasing the mention in March 2021.


(46) added July 1, 2021 - US Bio-warfare Laboratories In West Africa Are The Origins Of The Ebola Epidemic: Professor Francis A. Boyle

US Bio-warfare Laboratories In West Africa Are The Origins Of The Ebola Epidemic

Sri Lanka Guardian

October 20, 2014

by Aggeliki Dimopoulou

( October 20, 2014, Boston, Sri Lanka Guardian)

Could Ebola Have Escaped From US Bio-warfare Labs? American law professor Francis A. Boyle, answers questions for and reveals that USA have been using West Africa as an offshore to circumvent the Convention on Biological Weapons and do bio-warfare work.

Is Ebola just a result of health crisis in Africa - because of the large gaps in personnel, equipment and medicines - as some experts suggest?

That isn't true at all. This is just propaganda being put out by everyone. It seems to me, that what we are dealing with here is a biological warfare work that was conducted at the bio-warfare laboratories set up by the USA on the west coast of Africa. And if you look at a map produced by the Center of Disease Control you can see where these laboratories are located. And they are across the heart of Ebola epidemic, at the west coast of Africa. So, I think these laboratories, one or more of them, are the origins of the Ebola epidemic.

US government agencies are supposed to do defensive biological warfare research in these labs. Is there any information about what are they working on?

Well, that's what they tell you. But if you study what the CDC and the Pentagon do ... They say it is defensive, but this is just for public relation purposes than anything. It's a trick. What it means is what they decide at these bio-warfare labs. They say, "well we have to develop a vaccine", so that's their defensive argument. Then what they do is to develop the bio-warfare agent itself. Usually by means of DNA genetic engineering. And then they say, "well to get the vaccine we have to develop the bio-warfare agent" - usually by DNA genetic engineering - and then they try to work on the vaccine. So it's two uses type of work. I haven't read all these bio-warfare contracts but that's typical of the way the Pentagon CDC has been doing this since at least the 1980's. I have absolute proof from a Pentagon document that the Center of Disease Control was doing bio-warfare work for the Pentagon in Sierra Leone, the heart of the outbreak, as early as 1988. And indeed it was probably before then because they would have had to construct the lab and that would have taken some time. So we know that Fort Detrick and the Center for Disease Control are over there, Tulane University, which is a well-known bio-warfare center here in USA - I would say notorious for it - is there. They all have been over there.

In addition, USA government made sure that Liberia, a former colony of the USA, never became a party to the Biological Weapons Convention, so they were able to do bio ­ warfare work over there - going back to 1980's - the USA government, in order to circumvent the Biological Weapons Convention. Likewise, Guinea the third state affected here - and there is an increase now ­ didn't even sign the Biological Weapons Convention. So, it seems to me, that the different agencies of the US government have been always there try to circumvent the Biological Weapons Convention and engage bio-warfare work. Indeed, we had one of these two lab bio-warriors admit in the NY Times that they were not over there for the purpose of either screening or treating people. That's not what these labs are about. These labs are there in my opinion to do bio-warfare work for different agencies of the US government. Indeed, many of them were set up by USAID. And everyone knows that USAID is penetrated all up and down by the CIA and CIA has been involved in bio-warfare work as well.

Are we being told the truth about Ebola? Is that big outbreak began all of a sudden? How does it spread so quickly?

The whole outbreak that we see in the west coast of Africa, this is Zaire/Ebola. The most dangerous of five subtypes of Ebola. Zaire/Ebola originated 3500 km from the west coast of Africa. There is absolutely no way that it could have been transmitted 3500 km. And if you read the recently published Harvard study on the DNA analysis of the west Africas' Zaire/Ebola there is no explanation about how the virus moved there. And indeed, it's been reported in the NY Times that the Zaire/Ebola was found there in 1976, and then WHO ordered to be set to Porton Down in Britain, which is the British equivalent to Fort Detrick, where they manufacture all the biological weapons for Britain. And then Britain sent it to the US Center for Disease Control. And we know for a fact that the Center for Disease Control has been involved in biological warfare work. And then it appears, at least from whatever I've been able to put together in a public record, that the CDC and several others US bio-warriors exported Zaire/Ebola to west Africa, to their labs there, where they were doing bio-warfare work on it. So, I believe this is the origins of the Zaire/Ebola pandemic we are seeing now in west Africa.

Why would they do that?

Why would they do that? As I suggested to try to circumvent the Biological Weapons Convention to which the US government is a party. So, always bio-warriors do use offensive and defensive bio-warfare work, violating the Biological Weapons Convention. So effectively they try to offshore it into west Africa where Liberia is not a party and Guinea is not a party. Sierra Leone is a party. But in Sierra Leone and Liberia there were disturbances which kept the world from really paying attention of what was going on in these labs. ...

(47) (added July 3, 2021): PLA scientist was first to file a patent for a Covid-19 vaccine on February 24 2020

Top Chinese Military Scientist Filed Coronavirus Vaccine Patent In February 2020, Died Mysteriously: Report

By Ryan Saavedra

Jun 7, 2021

The Five Eyes intelligence alliance is reportedly investigating the death of a top Chinese military scientist who died in spring 2020 only several weeks after filing the first coronavirus vaccine patent.

The People's Liberation Army scientist, Zhou Yusen, reportedly had connections to the Wuhan Institute of Virology's "Bat Woman," Shi Zhengli. The Australian reported that national security experts told the publication that this was proof that the Wuhan Institute of Virology was engaged in "secret military activity".

The Australian reported:

Zhou, who conducted the research in conjunction with the Wuhan institute, the University of Minnesota and the New York Blood Centre, was the first to file a patent for a Covid-19 vaccine on February 24 last year, according to documents obtained by The Weekend Australian. This was only five weeks after China admitted there was human-to-human transmission of the virus.

Zhou is listed as the lead inventor on the patent application lodged by the "Institute of Military Medicine, Academy of Military Sciences of the PLA".

Nikolai Petrovsky, a medical researcher at Flinders University who has been creating a vaccine for the coronavirus, told the publication that while it was technically possible a vaccine could have been developed in that short of amount of time, it would be a "remarkable achievement." He said, "This is something we have never seen achieved before, raising the question of whether this work may have started much earlier."

However, just several weeks after Zhou filed the patent for the vaccine, he died. The Australian reported that the Five Eyes intelligence alliance - which is comprised of intelligence agencies from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand - is now investigating Zhou's "unexplained death" in May.

"While he was an award--winning military scientist, there were no reports paying tribute to his life. His death was only mentioned in passing in a Chinese-media report in July and at the end of a December scientific paper, both had the word -'deceased' in brackets after his name," the report said. "The Weekend Australian has established that his death has been treated as unusual and is an early line of inquiry under the new Five Eyes probe into the origins of Covid-19 launched by Joe Biden."

The report said that Zhou had conducted research experimenting with the spike proteins in coronaviruses and vaccine development.

David Asher, who led the Trump administration's investigation into the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic, told Fox News during the last week in May that he had U.S. government biostatisticians calculate the probability that the coronavirus developed evolved in nature and that they concluded that it was "about one in 13 billion." ==

COMMENT (Peter M.): How come a PLA scientist filed the first Patent for a vaccine? Given the long development time, as Nikolai Petrovsky indicates, this suggests that the PLA was experimenting with SARS-COV-2 before the outbreak of Covid-19. That's why Zhou's death was hardly mentioned - they did not want to draw attention to this anomaly. ==

Before working for the PLA, Zhou had strong ties to the US

US-linked Chinese military scientist filed patent for COVID vaccine just after contagion emerged: report

By Lee Brown

June 4, 2021 | 11:57am | Updated June 4, 2021 | 12:06pm

A Chinese Communist Party military scientist who got funding from the National Institutes of Health filed a patent for a COVID-19 vaccine in February last year - raising fears the shot was being studied even before the pandemic became public, according to a new report.

Zhou Yusen, a decorated military scientist for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) who worked alongside the Wuhan Institute of Virology as well as US scientists, filed a patent on Feb. 24 2020, according to documents obtained by The Australian.

The patent - lodged by the "Institute of Military Medicine, Academy of Military Sciences of the PLA" - was filed just five weeks after China admitted there was human-to-human transmission of the virus, and months before Zhou died under mysterious circumstances, the report noted.

"This is something we have never seen achieved before, raising the question of whether this work may have started much -earlier," Prof. Nikolai Petrovsky from Flinders University told the paper.

Adding to the intrigue, Zhou later died under mysterious circumstances in May last year - something being looked into as part of the international investigation ordered by President Biden, the paper insisted.

Despite being an award--winning military scientist, there were no reports or tributes, with him just listed as "deceased" in a Chinese media report in July and a December scientific paper.

Before working for the PLA, Zhou had strong ties to the US, doing postdoctoral research at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and collaborating with the New York Blood Center, the report said.

Zhou worked closely with the Wuhan lab at the heart of increasing international focus over its possible links to the pandemic, as well as its now-notorious "bat woman" lead scientist, Shi Zhengli, the report said.

The close working relationship between the pair supports declassified US intelligence released in January that said the Wuhan lab was conducting "secret military activity," The Australian said.

"Despite the WIV presenting itself as a civilian institution, the United States has determined that the WIV has collaborated on publications and secret projects with China's military," the intelligence stated.

"The United States and other donors who funded or collaborated on civilian research at the WIV have a right and obligation to -determine whether any of our -research funding was diverted to secret Chinese military projects at the WIV."

They researched genetically manipulating coronaviruses soon before the pandemic hit, funded in part by the NIH, where Fauci runs the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the report said, citing a research paper submitted to the Journal of Virology in November 2019.

It was funded with three grants from the National -Institutes of Health, via US universities. Zhou also worked alongside the University of Minnesota as well as the New York Blood Center, the report said.

The revelation appeared in a report by the paper's award-winning investigations writer Sharri Markson as part of her research for an upcoming book, "What Really Happened In Wuhan."

Fauci declined to be interviewed for the report, the paper said.


(48) (added July 15, 2021) Professor Sucharit Bhakdi and Dr. David E Martin - controversal statements on Covid

by Peter Myers, July 15, 2021

(a) Professor Sucharit Bhakdi was head of the Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene at the University of Mainz. He speaks as a medical expert.

He says that the Coronavirus is not as "novel" as was announced, in that we have had exposure to coronaviruses for over 20 years, and, as a result of that exposure, our immune systems recognise coronaviruses, and thus (in 99% of us) can fight them. Vaccines are not needed, and can cause the immune system to mistakenly attack our bodies. He recommends Ivermectin.

Dr David E Martin is an expert in Finance. His particular interest is Patents - and he has examined ALL the patents for Coronaviruses filed in the US since the first, in 1999. Ralph Baric holds most of these patents; but the CDC holds some.

Dr Martin mentions Shi Zhengli only once, but she and others at Wuhan Institute of Virology also hold patents on Coronaviruses (see serveral items above).

Patents connect science and business; Big Pharma needs patents to keep prices high.

Dr Martin quotes Peter Daszak on the connection between media hype and the profits Big Pharma can reap:

"Daszak reiterated that, until an infectious disease crisis is very real, present, and at an emergency threshold, it is often largely ignored. To sustain the funding base beyond the crisis, he said, we need to increase public understanding of the need for MCMs such as a pan-influenza or pan-coronavirus vaccine. A key driver is the media, and the economics follow the hype. We need to use that hype to our advantage to get to the real issues. Investors will respond if they see profit at the end of process, Daszak stated."

David E. Martin implies that the US created Sars-Cov2.

However, Daszak acknowledged that the manipulation of the viris was done not by himself, but by "my colleagues in China".

In a 2016 c-span video, Daszak describes "insert[ing] spike proteins" into viruses to see if they can "bind to human cells". ...

"You end up with a small number of viruses that really do look like killers," he adds.

See item 47 above.

Could US specialists such as Baric and Daszak have deliberately helped China develop a bioweapon? Whether that was their intention we do not know, but Event 201 rehearsed the responses that have transformed our lives, as if the whole thing were planned.

(b) Professor Sucharit Bhakdi says our immune systems recognise Covid, and can kill it; vaccines are dangerous

"Proof that puts an end to the Sars-CoV-2 Narrative" - Professor Sucharit Bhakdi

Health Ranger Report Published Yesterday |

Some good news and some troubling news, from Professor Sucharit Bhakdi, M.D.


Dr. Sucharit Bhakdi shows how the SARS CoV2 virus is not a stranger to our immune system. It recognizes the virus and removes it in 99% of us. This means we already have herd immunity. Sucharit also shows how coronaviruses can't mutate as much as a flu virus. This means we are already immune to all current and future variants. This also means that NO VACCINES ARE NEEDED and that THE PANDEMIC IS OVER! (Wohoo!) Now, what needs to be done is to inform the public about the DANGERS of these experimental COVID-19 gene therapy "vaccines" and end the mass vaccinations immediately. These new studies as of June/July of 2021 effectively ends the COVID-19 pandemic for good. The question is: Will we follow the science and recreate an amazing world of freedom and opportunity? Or will we bow to dictators and tyrants scaring us using psychological torture tactics, lying about variants and vaccines and requiring passports to leave our own home... Your choice humanity. Your choice.

Video - watch at above link

Prof Sucharit Bhakti ­ Proof That Puts an End to the SARS-CoV-2 Narrative


All of the vaccinated are in grave danger of their own immune system destroying itself, which scientists have been warning for months, and have been censored off the main social media channels like YouTube, Twitter, Facebook. You cannot trust your Governments or mainstream media any more. They are lying to you. Now they want to vaccinate children. These are psychopaths with no empathy for humankind. All they have is money to buy people, influence, celebrities who are showing proof that the love of money is the root of all evil. Money in itself is not evil, but the love of it leads to evil acts.

For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows ­ 1 Timothy 6:10

They are promoting evil through the promise of a lie ­ that the vaccine is the way to normal again. Please open your eyes and at least if you have been vaccinated, try to eliminate these spike proteins as best you can with the solutions found in this post entitled: Possible Ways to Neutralise Spike Protein Damage from COVID Vaccines


Prof Sucharit Bhakdi

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 00:00

The good news today is that scientific publications have just appeared that put an end to the whole narrative. What one has been made to believe up to now is that the SARS- CoV-2 virus is so new, that our immune system will not recognise it. And therefore, when the need arises, the immune system will not respond in time with the production of antibodies, that they could save our lives. And that's why we need to be vaccinated. That's why the whole world needs to be vaccinated. Now, scientific publications that have appeared in the last weeks, as I said, put an end to this narrative because it turns out that the Corona, SARS-CoV-2 virus and its descendants are not so different from the old normal coronaviruses that it would not be recognised by the immune system.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 00:58

Now, I'll try to explain this with this chart here. This is the immune system, and the immune system can make many components, one of them are the antibodies that the immune system will make, when it meets a new opponent ­ a virus. Now, depending on whether the immune system recalls that it has seen this virus before or not, the response will be slow. The first response is always slow, takes about four weeks for the antibodies to be made, and these antibodies are called IgM Immunoglobulin M. If, however, the immune system has seen this virus before, and remembers it because the immune system has a memory, then it quickly makes other antibodies, which are called IgG and IgA, these are recall antibodies. Now these antibodies serve principally two functions. One function is that if it's a virus that the antibodies are supposed to combat, the antibodies can try to prevent the entry of the virus into your cell. This is what the antibodies to Corona are supposed to do. They are called protective antibodies because they protect the cell from getting infected by the virus. If, however, the cell does get infected, then lymphocytes are there behind the scenes that will come out and recognise that the cell is infected. And these killer lymphocytes have the duty to kill the cell. So once the cell is killed, the virus factory is destroyed, the virus can't be produced anymore, and you get up and go back to work.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 02:58

The other function of antibodies, a major function, is that if the antibodies are directed against a bacterium, or a fungal, then these antibodies will bind to the bacteria, and that will cause another arm of the immune system to be activated. This is so called complement because it complements that the action of the antibodies and leukocytes. Leukocytes are the cells that eat. These are cells that are in your blood and they're circulating all the time, and they're waiting for these bacteria to come into your blood, be coated with the antibodies, and then they will come and eat them. And thus, are you protected by your antibodies against bacteria? So, we have aptly two major arms of the immune system, one, the lymphocytes that are directed against viruses and virus infected cells, and the others are leukocytes that are directed against bacteria. It's like the Navy and the Air Force, Air Force, Navy, and both are really deadly. They take care of all the viruses that you are confronted with and all the bacteria normally. So, the question is now is our immune system really blind to the new so called new SARS-CoV-2 virus question. Now this can be answered very simply. And for that, what one has to do is one has to inject this virus or the virus gene into the body and see how long the immune system takes to make the antibodies against this gene. And this was done by three independent American research groups in the last weeks and published, so everyone can go and have a look at these papers, and everyone should look at the papers because two questions arise. First, was the antibody response fast or slow? This would be fast, and this would be slow. 30 days, 10 days or five days? And if it were fast did the antibodies carry the correct label IgG IgA are there only.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 05:30

So, what do you think, I'm going to ask you? the Americans measured in the blood the appearance of the antibodies every day. The people [who] are telling you that you should get vaccinated are going to say, of course, they were IgM antibodies because this was blind to them. But the fact is the opposite. All groups found out that everyone who had been vaccinated responded with IgG and IgA antibodies within days after the vaccination, which is absolute proof that it is a recall response to something that the immune system has recognised. You may ask me how can this be? The answer is very simple. Look, this is the hand, the grasping hand of the virus, this is the spike. And the spike is that to grasp the handle of the door to yourself to get in. The antibody comes and forces itself into the jaw like the crocodile, the mouth is open, it stops the crocodile from closing its mouth. Of course, this is not completely correct. But it will do as a picture for you, all right. Now, this key that enters into the mouth, of course it's not a perfect fit, so you could change a finger or two and it will still go in. And this is the difference between coronaviruses and influenza virus, influenza flu viruses, the real flu, alright, which has really caused pandemics because flu viruses can completely change the whole hand so that the hand looks like this suddenly. Okay. And then your antibodies don't fit into that. But this is something that the Coronaviruses can never do. They can't. And so, they can only change the shape of the fingers. And that's not enough to fool the immune system. It's that simple. And this applies to all the variants. So, forget it if someone tells you that you are not immune against the variants. The fact is, of course, that the immune system doesn't splurge. It keeps its antibodies in a locker, just like you have money in the bank, you don't go around throwing your money out of your pockets, you get the money out of the bank when you need it. And that's what happens to the immune system. And wonderfully enough, another publication coming from Denmark, another one, showed that true infections with the SARS-CoV-2 do exactly the same, meaning that everyone who has had an infection, even if he's asymptomatic, you know no symptoms, the virus just gets into your throat, multiplies a bit and gets thrown out again. But even then, the immune system responds by making IgG and IgA antibodies, meaning that you have the money in the bank. This means dear fellow citizens, that the herd immunity is already present, but kept under lock and key like a treasure. But it can be mobilised at any time you want. This is like a dog and his master. The dog is the immune system. The master, in this case, would be the virus. All right. So the moment the virus comes near to the house, it gets back [and] the dog senses that the virus is coming, begins wagging his tail, begins barking, throwing out the antibodies to say hello to the master.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 09:35

So you see, this virus always first enters through the front door, goes into your throat and it takes days to multiply, it takes days to multiply, and if it multiplies in your throat, it doesn't matter. It only kills you if it gets to your lungs. But now we know that this is enough time for you and me or anyone because the Danes showed that over 99 percent of all people running around have this treasure in that role, they have the treasure, and they could mobilise the IgG and IgA antibodies even when the virus was only in the throat. Now, isn't this a piece of wonderful news, I think it causes us to realise, it causes us to realise that we can cast the dread of this pandemic away and return to a wonderful world, return to our friends, our beloved ones, join hands with them, and rejoice. The pandemic is not existent as a modally dangerous new disease.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 10:59

Now, the second piece of news I have for you is that this will not only cause vaccination to be unnecessary, but also says if the vaccination carries any danger whatsoever, it must be stopped because there is no benefit, and if it only contains danger then it is the duty of the doctors and the authorities not to undertake vaccination. Now, let me tell you something very, very alarming. So alarming that this piece of news is just as important as the good piece of news. And this comes also from the publications that have just appeared. So we'll go back to this chart here. And I told you, the vaccinated, they found that the IgG and IgA antibodies came immediately. Then they waited for another two weeks or three weeks, and then they gave the people a second shot. What did they see, they saw that the IgG and IgA levels immediately continued to rise, which is what a booster is supposed to do.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 12:25

However, now, listen very carefully, look at this. This is a vessel wall; this is your blood. It is now known that the genes that are injected into your body will enter the bloodstream and it is absolutely certain now that these genes are going to enter the cells that line the vessel wall. Because these are the cells that they contact. Now what happens when the cells that line the vessel walls begin to produce these spikes, the spikes will then be produced by the cell and protrude from the cell surface into the bloodstream. Alright, now, these cells are going to be recognised by your lymphocytes that are born or given to you by the Dear Lord, to kill those cells that are making the virus or the virus protein, any virus protein. So, these lymphocytes are going to mount the attack on your vessel walls. This is the first way towards clot formation that as we know is happening all over the place all over the world. Now at the beginning after the first vaccination, this danger is bad and is already terrible in itself if your killer lymphocytes start trying to kill you. But at that time, during the first seven to ten days, there are still no antibodies. They are not yet any antibodies. However, after three or four weeks, there are masses of antibodies all over the place in your blood. And if you dare to repeat this performance and start to put those spikes out into your blood, God help you because now not only the killer lymphocytes are going to attack antibodies and complement, and leukocytes are also going to attack thinking that your cells that are producing these spikes are bacteria, and they are going to try to eat your vessel wall cells.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 14:55

Now, this attack of the Air Force and the Navy on a single cell target has never been seen before. There is no situation because either you're combating a virus, or you're combating a bacteria, mixed infections that go through the body are actually virtually unknown. So, we have the unique situation that has been created by the vaccination. That is, in a way, extremely interesting because no one knows what the outcome will be.

Prof Sucharit Bhakdi 15:35

However, the vision is so horrible, and so awful and terrifying, that I, myself, don't really want to know the answer. And I don't want this answer to become known. I want you to decide to not take the second shot, not only the second shot, but any shot thereafter is going to place your life in danger. That is what I am convinced of now, especially because of the publications that have just appeared. So I think that was the most important thing I have to say today. And I hope people will sit down, look at these papers, talk about them. And I hope that my colleagues, physicians and scientists will do the same and get together to see whether this may have a grain of truth. Because if it does, the consequences are absolutely endless or the consequences are very simple, we just have to stop everything now.

Please share with your friends and loved ones. If they call you names or persecute you, at least you told the truth and your conscience is clear if they refuse to even watch the video or read the transcript. As Dr Mike Yeadon says in one of his recent interviews with Lifesite News, he said:

I am telling you about this, because all that governments, their scientific advisers, Big Pharma (here's Merck, who originally developed & marketed it) and regulatory agencies will tell you is that Ivermectin doesn't work in COVID-19. They are lying. I am inviting any of them to sue me, but they won't, for I would win easily.

The only reason why the Governments do not sue these scientists who tell the truth about already available treatments for COVID-19, or speak anything against the mainstream narrative, is because they ARE lying. They have a bought media who deceive and lie to the public. The proof is here in this excellent UK Column post by Iain Davis entitled: Buying a Single Version of the Truth.

They have only their conflicts of interest SAGE pseudoscientists who spin their version of the truth. They do evil because they love money more than human life. ==

These are the scientific papers that Prof Sucharit Bhakti refers to in this presentation:

Scientific Journals recently published

SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity. EBioMedicine Volume 68. June 2021, 103410

Human IgG and IgA responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines Adam V. Wisnewski ,Julian Campillo Luna ,Carrie A. Redlich Published: June 16, 2021

Circulating SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Antigen Detected in the Plasma of mRNA-1273 Vaccine Recipients Alana F Ogata, Chi-An Cheng, Michaël Desjardins, Yasmeen Senussi, Amy C Sherman, Megan Powell, Lewis Novack, Salena Von, Xiaofang Li, Lindsey R Baden É Show moreAuthor Notes Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciab465, Published: 20 May 2021

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces functionally diverse antibodies to NTD, RBD, and S2. Cell. Elsevier. Fatima Amanat, Mahima Thapa, Tinting Lei, Viviana Simon, Ali H. Ellebedy, Florian Krammer Published: June 08, 2021DOI:

(c) Dr David E Martin examined patents on Coronaviruses - they began in 1999 with Ralph Baric at UNC

Forbidden Knowledge TV

Contributed by Alexandra Bruce

June 5, 2021

{video: watch Dr David E Martin at the above link}

I can't say enough about how much I admire Dr David E Martin and his impressive erudition and his ability to articulate what is happening. He does not mince words when he calls Anthony Fauci a "mass-murdering psychopathÉwho is actively killing human beings."

The world is only just now beginning to catch up with him and everything he told us a year ago in Plandemic II.

From 2003 to 2018, Anthony Fauci, Ralph Baric, the CDC, Bill Gates and others controlled 100% of the cash flow that built the empire around the industrial complex of coronavirus.

The manipulation of the coronavirus began in 1999 with University of North Carolina Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Ralph Baric. In 2002, there was a recognition that the coronavirus was seen as an exploitable mechanism for both good and ill. On April 25th, 2003, the CDC filed Patent #US7776521B1 on the coronavirus transmitted to humans.

Under 35 USC §101, nature is prohibited from being patented. Either SARS coronavirus was manufactured, therefore making a patent on it legal ­ or it was natural, therefore making a patent on it illegal. If it was manufactured, it was a violation of biological and chemical weapons, treaties and laws. If it was natural, filing a patent on it was illegal. In either outcome, both are illegal.

In the spring of 2007, the CDC filed a petition with the Patent Office to keep their application confidential and private. They actually filed patents not only on the virus, they also filed patents on its detection and a kit to measure it. Because of that CDC patent, they had the ability to control who was authorized and who was not authorized to make independent inquiries into coronavirus.

You cannot look at the virus, you cannot measure it, you cannot develop a test kit for it. By owning these patents, they had the means, they had the motive and most of all, they had the monetary gain from turning coronavirus from a pathogen to profit.

In 2013, Federal funding for research at places like Harvard, Emory, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill suddenly became impaired when the NIH decided that gain-of-function research on coronavirus should be suspended.

In 2014 and 2015, this research was off-shored via a US non-profit organization called the EcoHealth Alliance, headed by Peter Daszak, which reportedly received $123 million from US Federal Government agencies and $39 million from the Pentagon, alone and then subcontracted with the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

As we learned earlier this week, Daszak thanked Fauci in an email in 2020 for insisting the coronavirus was naturally-occurring when both men knew it was a product of their research funding.

In 2020, Daszak was cited as a COVID-19 Factchecker by Facebook ­ and incredibly, Daszak has now been put in charge by The Lancet of their task force to investigate the origins of COVID-19!

(d) Dr. David Martin Releases 'The Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier" (Video + Dossier)

Posted on February 17, 2021 by State of the Nation

Dr. David Martin Releases 'The Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier" | 205 Pages, 22 Years of Research

by Dr. David Martin January 19, 2021

Download PDF The Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier Prepared for humanity by Dr. David E. Martin

In the video below, Dr. David Martin reads this excerpt from the report:

By March 2015, both the virulence of the S1 spike protein and the ACE II receptor was known to present a considerable risk to human health. NIAID, EcoHealth Alliance and numerous researchers lamented the fact that the public was not sufficiently concerned about coronavirus to adequately fund their desired research.

Dr. Peter Daszak of EcoHealth Alliance offered the following assessment:

"Daszak reiterated that, until an infectious disease crisis is very real, present, and at an emergency threshold, it is often largely ignored. To sustain the funding base beyond the crisis, he said, we need to increase public understanding of the need for MCMs such as a pan-influenza or pan-coronavirus vaccine. A key driver is the media, and the economics follow the hype. We need to use that hype to our advantage to get to the real issues. Investors will respond if they see profit at the end of process, Daszak stated."

Original video available at David Martin World YouTube channel.

[As a service to protect truth from censorship and to share widely, mirrored copies of this video are available at Truth Comes to Light BitChute, Brighteon, Lbry/Odysee channels. All credit, along with our sincere thanks, goes to the original source of this video. Please follow links provided to support their work.]

(e) The Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier, by David E. Martin

JULY 13, 2021

The Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier- investigation into possible illegal patent claims resulting in millions of $ in commercial benefits

By David E. Martin, PhD

February 22, 2021

Dr. David Martin is the founding CEO of M·CAM Inc. M·CAM is the international leader in intellectual property-based financial risk management. From auditing patent quality for governments and patent offices, to providing state-of-the-art actuarial risk management systems and solutions to the largest banks and insurance companies, M·CAM has established a global standard in patent quality and commercial validity assessment and management.

A spokesperson for global intellectual property accountability and quality reform, Dr. Martin has worked closely with the United States Congress, numerous trade and finance regulatory agencies in the United States, Europe and Asia, in advocating and deploying infrastructure to support growing reliance on proprietary rights in business transactions. M·CAM has supported the modernization of intellectual property, tax, and accounting laws through its work with oversight agencies and policy makers.

Dr. Martin has founded several for-profit and non-profit companies and organizations and serves of several boards. He was the founding CEO of Mosaic Technologies Inc., a company that developed and commercialized advanced computational linguistics technologies, dynamic data compression and encryption technologies, electrical field transmission technology, medical diagnostics, and stealth/anechoic technology. He was a founding member of Japan's Institute for Interface Science & Technology. He founded and served as Executive Director of the Charlottesville Venture Group. He has served as a board member for the Research Institute for Small and Emerging Business (WaShington D.C.), the Academy for Augmenting Grassroots Technological Innovations (India), the IST (Japan) the Charlottesville Regional Chamber of Commerce (Virginia), and the Charlottesville Industrial Development Agency (Virginia).

As former Assistant Professor at the University of Virginia?s School of Medicine, Dr. Martin founded the University?s first wholly-owned, for-profit, research and development and technology transfer corporation. Engaged in domestic and international technology transfer, clinical research, and financing, this company pioneered new techniques innovation management that have become industry standards. In 1999, Dr. Martin was appointed by the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia to serve on the Joint Commission on Technology and Science and has served the General Assembly and Virginia?s Center for Innovative Technology on numerous occasions.

Dr. Martin's work with the Batten Institute at the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration at the University of Virginia and his related work at the Indian Institute for Management in Ahmedabad India has brought unprecedented curricular focus to areas of intangible asset risk management, finance, and accounting standards. In addition to his academic work, Dr. Martin has closely advised intellectual property based finance and investment programs in India, China, Denmark, the European Union, the United Kingdom, South Africa, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the United States, and the United Arab Emirates.

Dr. Martin has publications in law, medicine, engineering, finance and education. He maintains active research in the fields of linguistic genomics, fractal financial risk modeling, as well as continuing his over 15 years of research in cellular membrane ionic signaling.


This document is prepared for humanity by Dr. David E. Martin.

This work was supported, in part, by a fund-raising effort in which approximately 330 persons contributed funds in support of the New Earth technology team and Urban Global Health Alliance. It is released under a Creative Commons license CC- BY-NC-SA. Any derivative use of this dossier must be made public for the benefit of others. All documents, references and disclosures contained herein are subject to an AS-IS representation. The author does not bear responsibility for errors in the public record or references therein. Throughout this document, uses of terms commonly accepted in medical and scientific literature do not imply acceptance or rejection of the dogma that they represent.


Over the past two decades, my company ­ M·CAM ­ has been monitoring possible violations of the 1925 Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (the Geneva Protocol) 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and Their Destruction (the BTWC). In our 2003-2004 Global Technology Assessment: Vector Weaponization M·CAM highlighted China's growing involvement in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology with respect to joining the world stage in chimeric construction of viral vectors. Since that time, on a weekly basis, we have monitored the development of research and commercial efforts in this field, including, but not limited to, the research synergies forming between the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), Harvard University, Emory University, Vanderbilt University, Tsinghua University, University of Pennsylvania, many other research institutions, and their commercial affiliations.

The National Institute of Health's grant AI23946-08 issued to Dr. Ralph Baric at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (officially classified as affiliated with Dr. Anthony Fauci's NIAID by at least 2003) began the work on synthetically altering the Coronaviridae (the coronavirus family) for the express purpose of general research, pathogenic enhancement, detection, manipulation, and potential therapeutic interventions targeting the same. As early as May 21, 2000, Dr. Baric and UNC sought to patent critical sections of the coronavirus family for their commercial benefit.1 In one of the several papers derived from work sponsored by this grant, Dr. Baric published what he reported to be the full length cDNA of SARS CoV in which it was clearly stated that SAR CoV was based on a composite of DNA segments.

"Using a panel of contiguous cDNAs that span the entire genome, we have assembled a full-length cDNA of the SARS-CoV Urbani strain, and have rescued molecularly cloned SARS viruses (infectious clone SARS-CoV) that contained the expected marker mutations inserted into the component clones."

On April 19, 2002 ­ the Spring before the first SARS outbreak in Asia ­ Christopher M. Curtis, Boyd Yount, and Ralph Baric filed an application for U.S. Patent 7,279,372 for a method of producing recombinant coronavirus. In the first public record of the claims, they sought to patent a means of producing, "an infectious, replication defective, coronavirus." This work was supported by the NIH grant referenced above and GM63228. In short, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services was involved in the funding of amplifying the infectious nature of coronavirus between 1999 and 2002 before SARS was ever detected in humans.

1 2 Fauci/COVID-19 Dossier CC-BY-NC-SA Dr. David E. Martin

p. 2

Against this backdrop, we noted the unusual patent prosecution efforts of the CDC, when on April 25, 2003 they sought to patent the SARS coronavirus isolated from humans that had reportedly transferred to humans during the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak in Asia. 35 U.S.C. §101 prohibits patenting nature. This legality did not deter CDC in their efforts. Their application, updated in 2007, ultimately issued as U.S. Patent 7,220,852 and constrained anyone not licensed by their patent from manipulating SARS CoV, developing tests or kits to measure SARS coronavirus in humans or working with their patented virus for therapeutic use. Work associated with this virus by their select collaborators included considerable amounts of chimeric engineering, gain-of-function studies, viral characterization, detection, treatment (both vaccine and therapeutic intervention), and weaponization inquiries.

In short, with Baric's U.S. Patent 6,593,111 (Claims 1 and 5) and CDC's '852 patent (Claim 1), no research in the United States could be conducted without permission or infringement.

We noted that gain-of-function specialist, Dr. Ralph Baric, was both the recipient of millions of dollars of U.S. research grants from several federal agencies but also sat on the World Health Organization's International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and the Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG). In this capacity, he was both responsible for determining "novelty" of clades of virus species but directly benefitted from determining declarations of novelty in the form of new research funding authorizations and associated patenting and commercial collaboration. Together with CDC, NIAID, WHO, academic and commercial parties (including Johnson & Johnson; Sanofi and their several coronavirus patent holding biotech companies; Moderna; Ridgeback; Gilead; Sherlock Biosciences; and, others), a powerful group of interests constituted what we would suggest are "interlocking directorates" under U.S. anti-trust laws.

These entities also were affiliated with the WHO's Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) whose members were instrumental in the Open Philanthropy-funded global coronavirus pandemic "desk-top" exercise EVENT 201 in October 2019. This event, funded by the principal investor in Sherlock Biosciences and linking interlocking funding partner, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation into the GPMB mandate for a respiratory disease global preparedness exercise to be completed by September 2020 alerted us to anticipate an "epidemic" scenario. We expected to see such a scenario emerge from Wuhan or Guangdong China, northern Italy, Seattle, New York or a combination thereof, as Dr. Zhengli Shi and Dr. Baric's work on zoonotic transmission of coronavirus identified overlapping mutations in coronavirus in bat populations located in these areas.

This dossier is by no means exhaustive. It is, however, indicative the numerous criminal violations that may be associated with the COVID-19 terrorism. All source materials are referenced herein. An additional detailed breakdown of all the of individuals, research institutions, foundations, funding sources, and commercial enterprises can be accessed upon request.

From Justice Clarence

Thomas' opinion for the majority Section 101 of the Patent Act provides: "Whoever invents or discovers any new and useful É composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent therefor, subject to the conditions and requirements of this title." 35 U.S.C. § 101.

We have "long held that this provision contains an important implicit exception[:] Laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas are not patentable." Mayo, 566 U.S., at _, 132 S.Ct., at 1293 (internal quotation marks and brackets omitted). Rather, "they are the basic tools of scientific and technological work'" that lie beyond the domain of patent protection. Id., at ___, 132 S.Ct., at 1293. As the Court has explained, without this exception, there would be considerable danger that the grant of patents would "tie up" the use of such tools and thereby "inhibit future innovation premised upon them." Id., at ___, 132 S.Ct., at 1301. This would be at odds with the very point of patents, which exist to promote creation. Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303, 309, 100 S.Ct. 2204, 65 L.Ed.2d 144 (1980) (Products of nature are not created, and "manifestationsÉ of nature [are] free to all men and reserved exclusively to none'").3

In their majority opinion in 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court made it abundantly clear that the Court had "long held" that nature was not patentable. Merely isolating DNA does not constitute patentable subject matter. In their patent, the CDC made false and misleading claims to the United States Patent & Trademark Office by stating that, "A newly isolated human coronavirus has been identified as the causative agent of SARS, and is termed SARS-CoV."4 No "causal" data was provided for this statement. When they filed their patent application on April 25, 2003 their first claim (and the only one that survived to ultimate issuance over the objection of the patent examiner in 2006 and 2007) was the genome for SARS CoV.

While this patent is clearly illegal under 35 U.S.C. §101, not only did the CDC insist on its granting over non-final and final rejections, but they also continued to pay maintenance fees on the patent after the 2013 Supreme Court decision confirmed that it was illegal.

In addition, the CDC patented the detection of SARS CoV using a number of methods including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With this patent, they precluded anyone outside of their licensed or conspiring interest from legally engaging in independent verification of their claim that they had isolated a virus, that it was a causative agent for SARS, or that any therapy could be effective against the reported pathogen.

It is important to note that the CDC's patent applications were also rejected in non-final and final rejections for ineligibility under 35 U.S.C. § 102 for being publicly disclosed prior to their own filing. In the first non-final rejection, the USPTO stated that the CDC's genome was published in four Genbank accession entries on April 14, 18, and 21, 2003 with identity ranging from 96.8% to 99.9% identical sequences.5 Dr. Fauci knew, and failed to disclose evidence that the CDC patent was illegal, based on work he had funded in the years leading up to the SARS outbreak.

After seeking an illegal patent, petitioning to override the decision of an examiner to reject it, and ultimately prevailing with the patent's grant, the CDC lied to the public by stating they were controlling the patent so that it would be "publicly available".6 Tragically, this public statement is falsified by the simple fact that their own publication in Genbank had, in fact, made it public domain and thereby unpatentable. This fact, confirmed by patent examiners, was overridden by CDC in a paid solicitation to override the law.

While not covered under 35 U.S.C. §101, Dr. Fauci's abuse of the patent law is detailed below. Of note, however, is his willful and deceptive use of the term "vaccine" in patents and public pronouncements to pervert the meaning of the term for the manipulation of the public.

In the 1905 Jacobson v. Mass case, the court was clear that a PUBLIC BENEFIT was required for a vaccine to be mandated. Neither Pfizer nor Moderna have proved a disruption of transmission. In Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905), the court held that the context for their opinion rested on the following principle:

"This court has more than once recognized it as a fundamental principle that 'persons and property are subjected to all kinds of restraints and burdens in order to secure the general comfort, health, and prosperity of the stateÉ"

The Moderna and Pfizer "alleged vaccine" trials have explicitly acknowledged that their gene therapy technology has no impact on viral infection or transmission whatsoever and merely conveys to the recipient the capacity to produce an S1 spike protein endogenously by the introduction of a synthetic mRNA sequence. Therefore, the basis for the Massachusetts statute and the Supreme Court's determination is moot in this case.

Further, the USPTO, in its REJECTION of Anthony Fauci's HIV vaccine made the following statement supporting their rejection of his bogus "invention"

(49) (added Sept. 9, 2021) Daszak's EcoHealth Alliance papers released, reveal that viruses were constructed in level 3 lab at Wuhan University Center for Animal Experiment - not at Wuhan Institute of Virology

New Details Emerge About Coronavirus Research At Chinese Lab

More than 900 pages of materials related to US.-funded coronavirus research in China were released following a FOIA lawsuit by The Intercept.

Sharon Lerner, Mara Hvistendahl

September 7 2021, 11:06 a.m.

NEWLY RELEASED DOCUMENTS provide details of U.S.-funded research on several types of coronaviruses at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China.

The Intercept has obtained more than 900 pages of documents detailing the work of EcoHealth Alliance, a U.S.-based health organization that used federal money to fund bat coronavirus research at the Chinese laboratory. The trove of documents includes two previously unpublished grant proposals that were funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, as well as project updates relating to EcoHealth Alliance's research, which has been scrutinized amid increased interest in the origins of the pandemic.

The documents were released in connection with ongoing Freedom of Information Act litigation by The Intercept against the National Institutes of Health. The Intercept is making the full documents available to the public.

"This is a road map to the high-risk research that could have led to the current pandemic," said Gary Ruskin, executive director of U.S. Right To Know, a group that has been investigating the origins of Covid-19.

One of the grants, titled "Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence," outlines an ambitious effort led by EcoHealth Alliance President Peter Daszak to screen thousands of bat samples for novel coronaviruses. The research also involved screening people who work with live animals. The documents contain several critical details about the research in Wuhan, including the fact that key experimental work with humanized mice was conducted at a biosafety level 3 lab at Wuhan University Center for Animal Experiment - and not at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, as was previously assumed. The documents raise additional questions about the theory that the pandemic may have begun in a lab accident, an idea that Daszak has aggressively dismissed.

The bat coronavirus grant provided EcoHealth Alliance with a total of $3.1 million, including $599,000 that the Wuhan Institute of Virology used in part to identify and alter bat coronaviruses likely to infect humans. Even before the pandemic, many scientists were concerned about the potential dangers associated with such experiments. The grant proposal acknowledges some of those dangers: "Fieldwork involves the highest risk of exposure to SARS or other CoVs, while working in caves with high bat density overhead and the potential for fecal dust to be inhaled."

Alina Chan, a molecular biologist at the Broad Institute, said the documents show that EcoHealth Alliance has reason to take the lab-leak theory seriously. "In this proposal, they actually point out that they know how risky this work is. They keep talking about people potentially getting bitten - and they kept records of everyone who got bitten," Chan said. "Does EcoHealth have those records? And if not, how can they possibly rule out a research-related accident?"

According to Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist at Rutgers University, the documents contain critical information about the research done in Wuhan, including about the creation of novel viruses. "The viruses they constructed were tested for their ability to infect mice that were engineered to display human type receptors on their cell," Ebright wrote to The Intercept after reviewing the documents. Ebright also said the documents make it clear that two different types of novel coronaviruses were able to infect humanized mice. "While they were working on SARS-related coronavirus, they were carrying out a parallel project at the same time on MERS-related coronavirus," Ebright said, referring to the virus that causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

Asked about the grant materials, Robert Kessler, communications manager at EcoHealth Alliance, said, "We applied for grants to conduct research. The relevant agencies deemed that to be important research, and thus funded it. So I don't know that there's a whole lot to say."

The grant was initially awarded for a five-year period - from 2014 to 2019. Funding was renewed in 2019 but suspended by the Trump administration in April 2020.

The closest relative of SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19, is a virus found in bats, making the animals a focal point for efforts to understand the origins of the pandemic. Exactly how the virus jumped to humans is the subject of heated debate. Many scientists believe that it was a natural spillover, meaning that the virus passed to humans in a setting such as a wet market or rural area where humans and animals are in close contact. Biosafety experts and internet sleuths who suspect a lab origin, meanwhile, have spent more than a year poring over publicly available information and obscure scientific publications looking for answers. In the past few months, leading scientists have also called for a deeper investigation of the pandemic's origins, as has President Joe Biden, who in May ordered the intelligence community to study the issue. On August 27, Biden announced that the intelligence inquiry was inconclusive.

Biden blamed China for failing to release critical data, but the U.S. government has also been slow to release information. The Intercept initially requested the proposals in September 2020.

"I wish that this document had been released in early 2020," said Chan, who has called for an investigation of the lab-leak origin theory. "It would have changed things massively, just to have all of the information in one place, immediately transparent, in a credible document that was submitted by EcoHealth Alliance."

The second grant, "Understanding Risk of Zoonotic Virus Emergence in Emerging Infectious Disease Hotspots of Southeast Asia," was awarded in August 2020 and extends through 2025. The proposal, written in 2019, often seems prescient, focusing on scaling up and deploying resources in Asia in case of an outbreak of an "emergent infectious disease" and referring to Asia as "this hottest of the EID hotspots."

(50) Chinese whistleblower Dr. Li-Meng Yan says the virus is a bioweapon created in PLA labs using bat coronaviruses ZC45 and/or ZXC21 as the template

Dr. Li-Meng Yan, addressing the 78th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, on October 1, 2021, in Pittsburgh, PA.

{watch the video of her address - this is a courageous woman}

My five messages (via LUDE media) January 19th, 2020

1) The virus was created in Chinese military laboratories using bat coronaviruses ZC45 and/or ZXC21 as the template.

2) The Chinese government was actively covering up the truth about the disease.

3) There was human-to-human transmission.

4) There are no wild animal intermediate hosts and the Huanan seafood market is not the origin of the virus.

5) If not controlled immediately, the virus may lead to a pandemic and, as a result, various mutans will emerge inevitably and quiockly.

About Dr. Li-Meng Yan

Dr. Li-Meng Yan is a PhD virologist, medical doctor, immunologist and independent coronavirus expert. She was educated at two top medical schools in China, Southern Medical University and Central South University. She was also Post-doctoral Fellow in the School of Public Health at the University of Hong Kong (HKU).

Because of her extensive professional network and scientific evidence, Dr. Yan has the distinction of being the only Chinese insider in the west with firsthand knowledge about the true nature of the virus as well as the Communist Chinese Party's deceptive methods used to disguise their international bioweapons research. Her revelations since January 19, 2020 have forced the CCP to change its strategy on the origin of SARS2 and saved many lives as a result.

Since escaping from Hong Kong on April 28, 2020, she has been interviewed four times by the FBI, including an FBI virologist, and each time she has been deemed credible. Dr. Yan had spent five years researching influenza vaccines when, in January, 2020, she was asked to investigate the 'Wuhan Pneumonia' that was sweeping that city. With that she became one of the first scientists outside the Wuhan Institute of Virology to analyze SARS-CoV-2. From her WHO H5 Reference Lab at HKU, she determined conclusively that the virus was engineered in the lab to be an unrestricted bioweapon. She also determined through her investigation that the spread of the virus in Wuhan was not the result of a "lab leak."

Recognizing the great danger posed by the virus and the CCP plot to cover up its nefarious activities, Dr. Yan fled to the United States to reveal the truth to the world. Since coming to America, Dr. Yan has been the primary author of three research reports detailing the lab origins of SARS-CoV-2. Her other accomplishments include a patent-pending universal influenza vaccine as well as highly recommended articles on SARS-CoV-2 in Nature and The Lancet Infectious Diseases (insert links here).

Dr. Yan has attracted worldwide media attention, being interviewed by major news outlets in India, Spain, Japan, Italy and across Asia. Examples include: The Washington Post, FOX NEWS, NEWSMAX, The John Bachelor Show, The Daily Mail, Tucker Carlson Today, Tucker Carlson Tonight, Newsweek, New York Post and ITV in the UK.

Li-Meng Yan

Between September 2020 and March 2021, Yan authored a series of four preprint research papers, wherein she argued that SARS-CoV-2 did not emerge naturally in a "spillover from animals," but rather was produced in a laboratory.[8] Her preprints (which did not undergo a scientific peer review process) were posted to the Zenodo platform, an open-access repository where anyone can post their research.[17]

Yan stated that evidence of genetic engineering was censored in scientific journals, allegedly as part of a conspiracy to suppress information on the topic.


During the coronavirus pandemic, the practice of publishing scientific preprints ­ early drafts of research findings that are not peer-reviewed ­ has increased in order to share findings that might have a public benefit, more rapidly.[7] Yan claimed in her papers that they could not be published in reputable, peer-reviewed journals due to "censorship."[8]

This page was last edited on 25 September 2021, at 18:01 (UTC).


My other pages on the Coronavirus are

Lab-made? Leaked or Unleashed?: Barrett-webinar-Covid.html .

Coronavirus Remedies - Chloroquine and Herbal Medicines: coronavirus-remedies.html . Bureaucrats Fiddle while Rome burns

Helicopter money: Central Banks should directly fund government deficits: coronavirus-finance.html .


Copyright: Peter Myers asserts the right to be identified as the author of the material written by him on this website, being material that is not otherwise attributed to another author.

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